Nuestros investigadores

Leire Labaka Zubieta

Departamento
Organización Industrial
Escuela de Ingeniería (TECNUN). Universidad de Navarra
Líneas de investigación
Resilience, Climate Change, Critical Infrastructures Protection, City Resilience, Public-Private-People Partnerships, Awareness
Índice H
12, (Google Scholar, 21/06/2019)
7, (WoS, 21/06/2019)
8, (Scopus, 21/06/2019)

Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: Iturriza, Marta (Autor de correspondencia); Labaka Zubieta, Leire; Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune; et al.
Revista: CITIES
ISSN 0264-2751  Vol. 101  Nº 102688  2020 
Climate change (CC) is one of the most urgent threats to modern societies, having direct and indirect consequences on the rapid growth of urban areas. Cities are attempting to both reduce their impact on the environment and build resilience to be able to face the irreversible effects of CC through plans and strategies. However, barriers, such as the fact that cities are complex systems and the uncertainty posed by CC have led to less engaged and committed city stakeholders, which have hampered the operationalisation of city resilience. In this context, developing city stakeholders awareness has been demonstrated to be an effective way to put an end to passive behaviour and help transform cities so they are more climate-resilient. Thus, we posit that developing city stakeholder awareness leads to more effective implementation of CC resilience-building plans. To that end, this paper presents a framework that defines the awareness-development process and combines it with an educational simulation tool that facilitates understanding of the theory presented in the framework. Finally, the paper presents a pilot test in the city of Kristiansand, Norway, to show the contribution of the simulation tool in improving city stakeholder awareness.
Autores: Iturriza, Marta (Autor de correspondencia); Labaka Zubieta, Leire; Ormazábal Goenaga, Marta; et al.
Revista: URBAN CLIMATE
ISSN 2212-0955  Vol. 32  2020 
Existing resilience-building plans and strategies for addressing climate change in urban areas are not as effective as they were intended to be due to city stakeholders' fragmented efforts and adopted passive behaviour. Developing awareness about climate change have proven to be key in the climate change resilience-building process, as it encourages partnership and a transformation in behaviour. This paper presents a framework for developing city stakeholders' awareness in urban areas. The conducted triangulation approach composed by a systematic literature review, semi-structured interviews and a case study results with the framework that defines the ideal process for developing awareness in urban areas. The resulting framework encapsulates three main elements: awareness-development mechanisms (experience, attention and knowledge), awareness-development over time graphs and a learning ladder. The three mechanisms explain the behaviour of the awareness-development process, the awareness-development over time graphs illustrate the evolution of the mechanisms and their effect over time, and the learning ladder specifies the gradual process of developing awareness. After presenting the ideal path for developing awareness, we further discuss the contribution of the conducted triangulation approach to the framework.
Autores: Iturriza, Marta; Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune; Abdelgawad, Ahmed; et al.
Revista: SUSTAINABILITY
ISSN 2071-1050  Vol. 12  Nº 6  2020  págs. 2168
Cities are growing and becoming more complex, and as they continue to do so, their capacity to deal with foreseen and unforeseen challenges derived from climate change has to adapt accordingly. In the last decade, an effort has been made to build city resilience and improve cities¿ capacity to respond to, recover from and adapt to climate change. However, certain city stakeholders¿ lack of proactive behavior has resulted in less effective city resilience-building strategies. In this sense, the importance of developing stakeholders¿ awareness of climate change in order to ensure proactivity is documented in the literature. However, there is a lack of studies that define how, when and what should be done to develop stakeholders¿ climate change awareness at a city scale. This paper presents a framework to develop stakeholders climate change awareness as a result of a systematic literature review and a co-creation process with the participation of 47 experts through a focus group and a Delphi study. The framework defines a four-step process and includes nine policies that seek to develop stakeholders¿ climate change awareness. The framework concludes determining the responsibilities of each stakeholder by defining the policies they should implement, and the effect one policy might cause on other stakeholders and among policies.
Autores: Maraña, L.; Labaka Zubieta, Leire; Sarriegi Domínguez, José María
Revista: TECHNOLOGICAL FORECASTING AND SOCIAL CHANGE
ISSN 0040-1625  Vol. 154  Nº 119954  2020 
Nowadays, cities and citizens are under pressure to cope with a wide range of challenges like climate change, shifting social dynamics and dependence on critical infrastructure. Increasing cities' resilience level is considered a priority; however, efforts so far have been made in a fragmented way, which prevents available resources being used in the most effective manner. The contribution of all city stakeholders, including public entities, private companies and citizens, to the resilience building process increases the effectiveness of the process. Therefore, developing effective mechanisms for fostering collaboration among city stakeholders such as public private people partnership (4Ps) is a promising way for addressing this need. This paper presents a Delphi study that validated the final version of a 4P development framework. This framework is composed of 16 successful characteristics classified within three dimensions that need to be implemented to develop 4Ps, the three development stages that 4Ps should go through and an implementation methodology that defines the order for implementing the characteristics based on the three development stages. One of the main conclusions obtained is that first, the characteristics classified in the stakeholder relationship and information flow dimensions should be implemented and afterwards, the characteristics of the conflict resolution dimension.
Autores: Santos García, Javier (Autor de correspondencia); Muñoz Villamizar, Andrés Felipe; Sarriegi Domínguez, José María; et al.
Revista: DIRECCION Y ORGANIZACION
ISSN 1132-175X  Vol. 68  2019  págs. 66 - 72
Autores: Lomba Fernández, María de la Cinta (Autor de correspondencia); Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune; Labaka Zubieta, Leire
Revista: SUSTAINABILITY
ISSN 2071-1050  Vol. 11  Nº 17  2019  págs. 4727
Climate change (CC) is one of the most challenging issues ever faced, as it affects every system worldwide at any scale. Urban areas are not an exception. Extreme weather-related events have seriously affected urban areas in recent years, and they have a significant impact on the welfare of people. According to UN projections, by 2050 more than 68% of the world's population could be concentrated in urban areas. Additionally, daily life in urban areas is highly dependent on certain critical services and products provided by critical infrastructures (CIs). Therefore, it is especially relevant to understand how CC affects urban CIs in order to develop mechanisms to improve their capacity to handle crises derived from CC. In this context, resilience-based strategies provide a holistic approach, considering both predictable and unpredictable threats. This paper proposes a guide for assessing and enhancing the resilience level of cities against CC, considering urban CIs as key agents in improving the city's capacity to face and recover from CC-related crises. The guide was developed through a co-creation process in which two cities in the Basque Country (Spain) worked together with CI providers and other relevant stakeholders in the resilience-building process. The resulting guide is to be used by city stakeholders at a strategic level, providing them with: (1) a qualitative assessment of the city's current resilience level in the CC context; (2) better knowledge about urban CI sectors, their interdependency relationships and the chain of impacts due to cascading effects in the short, medium and in the long term and; (3) a set of policies that enhance city resilience.
Autores: Carias, J. F., (Autor de correspondencia); Labaka Zubieta, Leire; Sarriegi Domínguez, José María; et al.
Revista: SENSORS
ISSN 1424-8220  Vol. 19  Nº 1  2019 
The fourth industrial revolution has brought several risks to factories along with its plethora of benefits. The convergence of new technologies, legacy technologies, information technologies and operational technologies in the same network generates a wide attack surface. At the same time, factories need continuous production to meet their customers' demand, so any stopped production can have harsh effects on a factory's economy. This makes cyber resilience a key requirement in factories nowadays. However, it is difficult for managers to define effective cyber resilience strategies, especially considering the difficulty of estimating adequate investment in cyber resilience policies before the company has suffered cyber incidents. In this sense, the purpose of this article is to define and model an effective cyber resilience strategy. To achieve this, the system dynamics methodology was followed in order to get five experts' opinions on the best strategy to invest in cyber resilience. Interviews were conducted with these experts; their reasoning was put into behavior over time graphs and a system dynamics model was built from these findings. The main conclusion is that a cyber resilience investment strategy should be dynamic, investing in both technical security and personnel training, but at first with an emphasis on technical security and later shifting to have an emphasis on training.
Autores: Iturriza Mendia, Marta (Autor de correspondencia); Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune; Labaka Zubieta, Leire
Revista: SUSTAINABILITY
ISSN 2071-1050  Vol. 11  Nº 11  2019  págs. 3054
There is an urgent need to build city resilience in order to face upcoming foreseen and unforeseen disasters more holistically, economically and collaboratively. Population trends mean that people are moving to urban areas and the traditional approach to crisis management is becoming obsolete as it is no longer able to deal with the new challenges that are emerging such as social dynamics or climate change. In this context, there are numerous studies and strategies that define how to build city resilience and consequently sustainable cities. However, decision-makers have trouble putting the knowledge in the studies and strategies into practice, as they find this information to be too abstract or far from their daily activities. More practical tools are needed to facilitate the operationalization of city resilience and familiarize decision makers with the concept. To that end, this paper presents both a qualitative and quantitative toolkit that enables decision makers to study, understand and train themselves to operationalize city resilience properly. This toolkit is composed of two complementary tools, namely the Resilience Maturity Model (RMM) and a serious game called City Resilience Dynamics (CRD). The paper also discusses the key points that led to a useful, trustworthy and flexible toolkit that decision-makers can use in building city resilience.
Autores: Labaka Zubieta, Leire (Autor de correspondencia); Maraña, Patricia; Giménez Duque, Raquel; et al.
Revista: TECHNOLOGICAL FORECASTING AND SOCIAL CHANGE
ISSN 0040-1625  Vol. 146  2019  págs. 281-296
A growing majority of the world's population lives in cities, and the concentration of people and critical services in cities increases their exposure to acute shocks and long-term stresses. Therefore, building resilient cities that are able to resist and absorb threats and are capable of adapting to and recovering from shocks and stresses is vital for the wellbeing of society. Although the literature offers several studies on how city resilience can be improved, operationalizing resilience is still a challenge. This article describes the different phases of the co-creation process followed in the development of a maturity model that can guide cities in assessing and future improving their resilience level. This co-creation process was conducted using different methodologies involving an interdisciplinary group of international experts who contributed their knowledge and experience to the development process of the maturity model. The outcome of this process is the final version of a maturity model that operationalizes the steps that should be taken to build city resilience.
Autores: Marana, P. ; Eden, C. ; Eriksson, H.; et al.
Revista: SUSTAINABLE CITIES AND SOCIETY
ISSN 2210-6707  Vol. 48  Nº 101531  2019 
Unexpected crises and risks affect the urban population. Critical infrastructure dependency, climate change and social dynamics have captured the attention of city decision makers across different disciplines, sectors, and scales. Addressing these challenges mandates an increase in resilience. This article presents the development of the novel European Resilience Management Guideline (ERMG) developed by the European H2020 Smart Mature Resilience (SMR) project. It encompasses five supporting tools for city resilience. The purpose of this article is threefold. First, it describes the extensive co-creation methods used to establish, validate and test the five ERMG tools as collaborations among seven city stakeholders and researchers in Europe. Second, it explains concisely the features of each tool and its use and applicability in the city resilience building process. Third, it shows how EMRG supports strategic management in encouraging the visibility of risk dependencies, identifying vicious loops and potential cascading effects, and promoting collaboration between stakeholders to share resources. The article concludes with a discussion of SMR standardization activities to support the transfer of these research results to wider audiences. It covers guidance on local resilience planning and supporting efforts in building and operationalizing resilience at the city level.
Autores: Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune (Autor de correspondencia); Marana, P. ; Giménez Duque, Raquel; et al.
Revista: CITIES
ISSN 0264-2751  Vol. 84  2019  págs. 96 - 103
A growing majority of the world's population lives in cities. This rapid urbanization increases the concentration of people and critical services in cities, which also upscale their exposure to acute shocks and long-term stresses such as floods, earthquakes, climate change or social dynamics. While all of these challenges are complex in themselves, in most cases, cities must face a combination of them. Resilience thinking demands cities plan holistically so that they are prepared for whatever shocks and stresses may arise. Although there is a set of frameworks aimed at building city resilience, frameworks specifically aimed at operationalizing the resilience-building process within cities remain undeveloped. This research begins to fill this gap by developing a Resilience Maturity Model (RMM) that provides cities with a roadmap for operationalizing the resilience-building process. For that purpose, the RMM defines a sequence of maturity stages and a set of policies that help cities to assess their current maturity stage and identify the policies that need to be implemented to improve their resilience level.
Autores: Maraña Casado, Patricia (Autor de correspondencia); Labaka Zubieta, Leire; Sarriegi Domínguez, José María
Revista: SAFETY SCIENCE
ISSN 0925-7535  Vol. 110  Nº Part C  2018  págs. 39 - 50
Citizens living in cities where public entities are committed to the development of city resilience are increasingly aware that the entire responsibility for preventing, responding to and recovering from crises cannot fully fall on public entities and private companies. In fact, citizens are more and more required to prepare for, respond to and recover from crises. To that end, there is an emerging need to involve not only public entities and private companies but also citizens in the process of building a city's resilience in order to understand the different perspectives on the same reality. This research paper is based on a systematic literature review to develop a framework that defines and describes the successful characteristics of public-private-people partnerships (4Ps) in the city resilience-building process. The framework-revolves around two criteria for classification: the dimension of the characteristics (stakeholder relationship, information flow and conflict resolution), and the attributes of the partnership. A preliminary list of relationships among the characteristics found in the literature is also presented. The aim throughout is to define which characteristics need to be developed in order to better ensure successful cooperation among the three main stakeholders: public entities, private companies and citizens.
Autores: Iturriza, M., (Autor de correspondencia); Labaka Zubieta, Leire; Sarriegi Domínguez, José María; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF SIMULATION
ISSN 1747-7778  Vol. 12  Nº 2  2018  págs. 128 - 143
Critical Infrastructures (Cls) play a relevant role in both society and industry since they provide ba sic goods a nd services. Cls are interependent on each other and a failure in one Cl may spread rapidly to other dependent Cls. The resulting cascading effect leads to the amplification of the perturbation, giving rise to high-impact crises. Modelling and simulation methodologies have been suggested as suitable tools to properly analyse and assess the effect and consequences of crisis in Cls. This paper undertakes a systematic literature review to study which modelling methodologies are the most appropriate for analysing Cls, depending both on the Cl sector and the scope of the modelling.
Autores: Giménez Duque, Raquel (Autor de correspondencia); Labaka Zubieta, Leire; Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune
Revista: JOURNAL OF CONTINGENCIES AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT
ISSN 0966-0879  Vol. 26  Nº 3  2018  págs. 385 - 393
A resilience-focused approach requires the collaboration of a variety of stakeholders including the local government, emergency services, citizens, and companies in adapting to disasters. Currently however, governments fail to encourage stakeholders to take part in the resilience-building process. To address this challenge, this study presents a maturity model (MM) that provides local governments with a sequence of stages and policies to improve the collaboration with stakeholders. The MM was developed in close collaboration with six European cities and was put into practice through a case study in a UK city. The MM made it possible to assess the current stage of the city under study and to implement policies for engaging stakeholders in the resilience-building process. Finally, challenges associated with the involvement of stakeholders encountered in the city under study are discussed.
Autores: Giménez Duque, Raquel; Labaka Zubieta, Leire; Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune
Revista: TECHNOLOGICAL FORECASTING AND SOCIAL CHANGE
ISSN 0040-1625  Vol. 121  2017  págs. 7 - 16
Recent efforts undertaken by international organizations and national governments to build cities' resilience illustrate the need to involve the different stakeholders of a city in the city resilience building process. Although there are studies that propose frameworks for building resilient cities, these studies do not provide detailed guidelines that include the sequential steps that local governments need to take to involve the different stakeholders in the city resilience building process. Given this gap, this paper presents a maturity model that provides an ideal sequence of maturity stages that can guide local government in how to involve the different city stakeholders in the city resilience building process. In addition, the maturity model provides a number of policies that local governments need to implement at each maturity stage in order to foster four principles (collaboration and networking, awareness and commitment, learning, and training and preparedness) that represent the foundation for involving stakeholders in the resilience building process. The maturity model was developed and validated as result of an iterative process that included semi-structured interviews with representatives from six different European cities
Autores: Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune (Autor de correspondencia); Labaka Zubieta, Leire; Turoff, M. ; et al.
Revista: TECHNOLOGICAL FORECASTING AND SOCIAL CHANGE
ISSN 0040-1625  Vol. 121  2017  págs. 1 - 6
Autores: Giménez Duque, Raquel; Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune; Labaka Zubieta, Leire; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF CONTINGENCIES AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT
ISSN 0966-0879  Vol. 25  Nº 3  2017  págs. 160 - 170
A resilience-focused approach leads organizations to improve the management of disasters through being aware, flexible, trained, and prepared, having committed top managers and staff, and being part of a wider network of stakeholders. Based on the organizational resilience principles identified in the literature, this article analyses the potential for improvement of the organizational resilience of disaster management organizations through their involvement in virtual communities of practice (VCoPs). VCoPs are groups of stakeholders from different organizations with a common interest that collaborate and exchange knowledge on a regular basis. This article presents a Delphi study that was conducted with a multidisciplinary group of international experts that work in disaster management organizations to evaluate the contribution of VCoPs. The results of the Delphi show that VCoPs help organizations to improve the organizational resilience principles. Nevertheless, there is still a series of barriers that organizations need to face in terms of collaboration and information sharing. This article classifies the existing barriers that hinder participation in VCoPs and suggests solutions to overcome them.
Autores: Giménez Duque, Raquel; Labaka Zubieta, Leire; Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune; et al.
Revista: DYNA (ESPAÑA)
ISSN 0012-7361  Vol. 91  Nº 2  2016  págs. 146 - 150
Para mejorar la gestión de desastres naturales es necesario que los agentes involucrados analicen las experiencias pasadas, identifiquen buenas prácticas y documenten lecciones aprendidas. Sin embargo, actualmente los agentes todavía tienen que hacer frente a una serie de dificultades para intercambiar la información y el conocimiento adquirido con el resto de agentes involucrados. En primer lugar, el conocimiento se encuentra fragmentado entre la variedad de agentes procedentes de distintos niveles jerárquicos, culturas y organizaciones involucrados en la gestión de desastres. En segundo lugar, no hay un repositorio común que facilite el intercambio de información y conocimiento entre diferentes organizaciones. Además, hay que añadir la dificultad para compartir información de carácter sensible como informes sobre lecciones aprendidas y buenas prácticas que pueden presentar errores cometidos por las organizaciones en eventos pasados. Por último, existe un exceso de información sobre la gestión de desastres naturales que los agentes no son capaces de analizar. Este artículo presenta un caso de estudio sobre el proyecto europeo ELITE que tiene como objetivo mejorar el intercambio de información y conocimiento entre la comunidad de expertos europeos en la gestión de desastres naturales. Para ello, el proyecto ELITE ha formado una Comunidad de Práctica Virtual (CPV) que agrupa a 70 expertos multidisciplinares en la gestión de desastres naturales a nivel europeo.
Autores: Labaka Zubieta, Leire; Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune; Sarriegi Domínguez, José María
Revista: TECHNOLOGICAL FORECASTING AND SOCIAL CHANGE
ISSN 0040-1625  Vol. 103  2016  págs. 21 - 33
The welfare of society is more and more dependent on the proper functioning of Critical Infrastructures (CIs), and crises that affect CIs usually aggravate their impact on society. Therefore, improving the resilience of CIs is the most important objective of today's crisis managers. Although several resilience frameworks can be found in the literature, their implementation is still incipient and detailed prescriptions for their implementation are lacking. Moreover, some frameworks are only limited to describing the activities performed within the boundaries of the CI, neglecting the role of external agents. This research describes a practical and holistic resilience framework for improving the resilience of CIs taking into account the external agents. The framework is composed of three elements: a set of resilience policies; an influence table that assesses the influence of policies on prevention, absorption and recovery stages; and an implementation methodology that defines the temporal order in which the policies should be implemented. Two empirical studies were undertaken in two CIs to implement this framework. The studies show that the resilience framework helps CIs to diagnose their resilience level, detect areas of potential improvement and complement their risk management approach with a transversal approach to be better prepare to deal with crises. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Autores: Labaka Zubieta, Leire; Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune; Sarriegi Domínguez, José María
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DISASTER RESILIENCE IN THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT
ISSN 1759-5908  Vol. 6  Nº 4  2015  págs. 409 - 423
Purpose This study aims to present a resilience framework for critical infrastructures (CIs) taking into account internal and external stakeholders involved in a crisis situation and covering the four resilience dimensions defined in the literature, as well as providing practical policies to facilitate their implementation in practice. Design/methodology/approach The research methodology consists of an iterative process in which different research methods such as group model building, multiple case study and Delphi method are applied to gather knowledge from experts in the field. Findings This study presents a holistic and easily applicable framework for CIs where: first, a list of resilience policies is defined and second, the influence of each resilience policy in the three resilience life-cycle stages is assessed. Originality/value This study overcomes three of the main limitations that current resilience building frameworks have: some of them only focus on one resilience dimension without covering the four resilience dimensions of resilience, most of them only focus on internal stakeholders without taking into account external stakeholders, and finally, most frameworks limit to describe the framework theoretically without explaining how it can be implemented in practice.
Autores: Labaka Zubieta, Leire; Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune; Sarriegi Domínguez, José María
Revista: RELIABILITY ENGINEERING AND SYSTEM SAFETY
ISSN 0951-8320  Vol. 141  2015  págs. 92 - 105
The safety and proper functioning of Critical Infrastructures (CIs) are essential for ensuring the welfare of society, which puts the issue of improving their resilience level at the forefront of the field of crisis management. Most of the resilience-building principles defined in the literature do not cover all the dimensions that make up resilience and most of them only focus within the boundaries of the CI, neglecting the role of the external agents that also have an influence on enhancing resilience. Furthermore, most of the principles that are present in the literature are theoretical and difficult to implement in practice. In light of this situation, the aim of this research is to present a holistic resilience framework for critical infrastructures in order to improve their resilience level by taking into account internal and external agents and covering all the resilience dimensions. Furthermore, this framework has been defined in close collaboration with the general management of CIs to facilitate its implementation in practice. Finally, in order to illustrate the value added of this framework it was implemented in a nuclear plant.
Autores: Rich, Eliot H; Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune; Laugé Eizaguirre, Ana; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR CRISIS RESPONSE AND MANAGEMENT
ISSN 1937-9390  Vol. 6  Nº 3  2014  págs. 38 - 52
While crises may appear to be event-driven, post-mortem accounts often identify factors that accumulate over time and increase the likelihood of failure. These factors are particularly difficult to anticipate when multiple organizations are involved in crisis preparation and event detection. Through the development of a systems-based model of crisis management, we learned that knowledge sharing can be accelerated or inhibited by the development of trust among organizations through the management of events. Is it possible to operationalize this finding? This hypothesis is being integrated into our current research in progress, a multi-national Community of Practice in disaster management.
Autores: Labaka Zubieta, Leire; Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune; Laugé Eizaguirre, Ana; et al.
Revista: LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE
ISSN 0302-9743  Vol. 6983  2013  págs. 187 - 199
A major industrial accident is an unpredictable event which triggers a disruption in a Critical Infrastructure (CI). This disruption can spread through other sectors, affecting not only the CI where the triggering event takes place but the whole society as well. In the case of major industrial accidents, system resilience consists of both the resilience of the CI (internal resilience) and resilience of society (external resilience). Resilience is the system¿s ability to reduce the probability of failure, the consequences from failure and the response and recovery time. However, little is known about how to achieve a high resilience level. In this paper, using the information gathered from experts and examining several major industrial accidents, we derive twelve policies that enhance the system¿s resilience level. The definitions of these policies are clarified through real case examples where the consequences of their use or lack of use are explained.
Autores: Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune; Rich, E.; Laugé Eizaguirre, Ana; et al.
Revista: TECHNOLOGICAL FORECASTING AND SOCIAL CHANGE
ISSN 0040-1625  Vol. 80  Nº 9  2013  págs. 1742 - 1755
The severe consequences of a Critical Infrastructure (Cl) crisis demand continued research directed toward proactive and reactive management strategies. Despite the best efforts of governments and communities, the diversity of stakeholders, conflicting demands for resources, and a lack of trust among organizations create complexities that limit the effectiveness of the response. This paper identifies four specific problems that appear to reoccur when Us are challenged: heterogeneity, multiple and inconsistent boundaries, resilience building and knowledge transfer and sharing. A combination of collaborative modeling and software simulation methodologies is proposed in order to identify the interrelationships among diverse stakeholders when managing the preparation for and reaction to a Cl crisis. This approach allows experts to work together and share experiences through the modeling process which can lead them to a better understanding of how other organizations work and integrate different perspectives. In addition, simulation models enable domain experts to understand the consequences of certain policies in the short and long terms, thus improving the crisis managers' knowledge for future crisis situations. This paper presents a practical case of a hypothetical crisis in the Cl sector and the approach used in order to deal with the four problems identified above. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Autores: Labaka Zubieta, Leire; Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune; Rich, Eliot H; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF HOMELAND SECURITY AND EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT
ISSN 2194-6361  Vol. 10  Nº 1  2013  págs. 289-317
Resilience building has become one of the most promising strategies for crisis managers to improve the security and proper functioning of critical infrastructures (CIs). Therefore, crisis managers will benefit from both general and detailed guidance for building and maintaining CI resilience levels. This paper aims to contribute to this purpose by presenting a framework that helps crisis managers improve the resilience level of CIs based on internal and external aspects of the CI that are often overlooked. This framework proposes sixteen resilience policies that have been suggested as influential in developing resilience. The influence and relative effectiveness of each policy in promoting the resilience of the system is postulated. The framework was reviewed and validated through an expert panel and a Delphi process providing grounded support for the evaluation and prioritization of the resilience policies. The results show that internal policies are the most influential ones when avoiding a crisis occurrence and external policies are most helpful when bouncing back to the usual state.
Autores: Labaka Zubieta, Leire; Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune; Laugé Eizaguirre, Ana; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURES
ISSN 1475-3219  Vol. 9  Nº 1-2  2013  págs. 130 - 147
The proper functioning of critical infrastructures (CIs) is vital for society¿s welfare. A disruption in one of them may lead to a crisis that affects not only the CI where the triggering event occurs but also the whole society. Therefore, it is fundamental to increase the whole system¿s resilience level. This paper defines resilience as the capacity of a system to prevent a crisis occurrence, to reduce the consequences from failure, and to recover rapidly and efficiently. Although there is much information about the definition of resilience, literature still lacks to provide a detailed holistic prescription about what activities should be carried out to improve the resilience level of the CIs and the society as a whole. This paper defines twelve policies that help to enhance the resilience level of all the stakeholders involved in crisis management, using information gathered from experts and examining several case studies.
Autores: Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune; Labaka Zubieta, Leire; Laugé Eizaguirre, Ana; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
ISSN 1440-5377  Vol. 2  Nº 1  2012  págs. 41 - 60
Large crises management, affecting CIs needs multidisciplinary knowledge including technical, economical, social, political, legal and managerial knowledge. Being these crises international a huge variety of agents is involved in their response. This situation concludes in a set of stakeholders who only have fragmented knowledge. In the presence of dispersed and incomplete knowledge, and of fragmented and disrupted crisis management, the collaborative approach group model building (GMB), where modelling experts unify fragmented, tacit knowledge from domain experts, is a valuable option. However, GMB has been little used in CIP. We have done so in the context a European project on crisis management of large-scale power cut crises. Particulars in CIP ¿ variety of time horizons, different national perspectives, and challenges to create an international approach, among others ¿ require adaptations in the GMB approach. This paper describes such adaptations and provides insights for better future collaborative modelling
Autores: Labaka Zubieta, Leire; Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune; Laugé Eizaguirre, Ana; et al.
Revista: DYNA
ISSN 0012-7361  Vol. 87  Nº 5  2012  págs. 518 - 525
Introducción: Los grandes accidentes industriales son eventos impredecibles que se desencadenan con una interrupción en una Infraestructura Crítica (IC). Esta perturbación se extiende posteriormente a varios sectores, afectando a la IC en la que la crisis comienza pero también a toda la sociedad. Resiliencia es la capacidad de una infraestructura o un sistema para reducir la probabilidad de fallo, las consecuencias del fallo y el tiempo de respuesta y recuperación. Sin embargo, se sabe poco acerca de cómo conseguir un nivel adecuado de resiliencia. Método: Mediante la revisión bibliográfica de grandes accidentes industriales y entrevistas con expertos en gestión de crisis se han definido dos tipos de resiliencia. Cada uno de ellos se divide en varias dimensiones. Además se han identificado políticas de mitigación para aumentar el nivel de resiliencia del sistema. Resultados: En el caso de grandes accidentes industriales, la resiliencia del sistema se divide en dos: la resiliencia de la IC (resiliencia interna) y la resiliencia de la sociedad (resiliencia externa). A su vez, se definen doce políticas de mitigación que ayudan a mejorar el nivel de resiliencia del sistema, tal y como se muestra en diferentes casos reales analizados.
Autores: Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune; Labaka Zubieta, Leire; Laugé Eizaguirre, Ana; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT
ISSN 1471-4825  Vol. 8  Nº 3  2012  págs. 245 - 263
Crisis is a wide concept which may include a diverse set of events and behaviour patterns. Thus, crisis management requires complementary approaches that provide a more complete perspective. This paper describes a useful methodology to analyse crises from a multiple perspective approach that contributes to acquire a more deep understanding about crises and their management. The first approach focuses on the peak of the crisis paying attention to how to respond to the crisis¿triggering event and to the cascading effects that amplify the crisis impact. The second approach adopts a long¿term perspective, identifying the relationship between the policies implemented on the pre¿crisis phase and the subsequent impacts on the crisis peak and post¿crisis phases. The third approach researches on the learning process from one crisis to the next one.
Autores: Laugé Eizaguirre, Ana; Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune; Labaka Zubieta, Leire; et al.
Revista: REVISTA INTERNACIONAL DE DESASTRES NATURALES, ACCIDENTES E INFRAESTRUCTURA CIVIL
ISSN 1535-0088  Vol. 12  Nº 2  2012  págs. 179 - 186
Las crisis son fenómenos complejos, de diversa naturaleza, la mayoría de las veces inevitables y cuya gestión resulta muy complicada. Por ello, para facilitar el proceso de gestión, es necesario realizar un profundo análisis de los posibles impactos que puedan ser consecuencia de una crisis. En el presente artículo se procede a analizar las diversas metodologías para la clasificación de impactos que se utilizan actualmente para, posteriormente, hacer una crítica constructiva sobre las dificultades que en dichas clasificaciones se encuentran. Finalmente se describen una serie de recomendaciones para mejorar el proceso de clasificación de impactos en situaciones de crisis.
Autores: Lomba Fernández, María de la Cinta; Sarriegi Domínguez, José María; Maraña, P.; et al.
Libro:  Safety and Reliability - Safe Societies in a Changing World
2018  págs. 1297-1304
Autores: Maraña, Patricia; Labaka Zubieta, Leire; Sarriegi Domínguez, José María
Libro:  Safety and Reliability - Safe Societies in a Changing World
2018  págs. 1167-1173
Autores: Labaka Zubieta, Leire; Sarriegi Domínguez, José María
Libro:  Optimum decision making in asset management
2017  págs. 62 - 82
The increase in the frequency of disastrous events and society¿s dependence on Critical Infrastructures (CIs) has led to greater concern about the need to increase resilience in order to improve Critical Infrastructure Protection. CIs are basic service providers for society and they need to be effectively protected against hazards. Nowadays, CIs can be owned by private entities. However, although they can be privately owned or managed, they provide a public service that directly affects the whole society. Consequently, those activities that increase the overall resilience level of CIs need to be under the supervision of public entities. Increasing resilience requires special attention be paid to correct infrastructure and crisis response equipment maintenance. This chapter explains why effective Public- Private Partnerships (PPP) are valuable for correctly maintaining CIs and illustrates examples of real situations that demonstrate the need for effective PPPs in maintenance activities.
Autores: Giménez Duque, Raquel; Labaka Zubieta, Leire; Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune
Libro:  Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management in Mediterranean Countries
2016  págs. 131-142
Autores: Sainz Martín, Maider; Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune; Labaka Zubieta, Leire; et al.
Libro:  Natural Disasters: Risk Assessment, Management Strategies and Challenges
2016  págs. 165 - 184
Climate change is a worldwide reality. In the past decade weather-related natural hazards have been the cause of 90% of natural disasters and they have been responsible for 98% of the impacts on disaster-affected populations, the majority in developing countries (IFRC, 2005). Climate change may not be responsible for all the skyrocketing costs of natural disasters, but it is very likely that it will impact future catastrophes by considerably increasing natural hazards. Despite genuine efforts to mitigate climate change, leading scientists claim that a changing climate is inevitable and that natural hazards such as higher temperatures, more frequent storms, changing precipitation patterns and rises in sea level are expected. Pro-active adaptation to climate change is therefore imperative (EEA, 2010a). The goal of this chapter is to review and to deepen our understanding of on-going work in urban resilience related to climate change using three different units of analysis: global, European and regional. This review first explains actions taken to fight climate change from a worldwide approach. Then, the European vision and objectives are presented. Finally, the situation in the Basque Country, place in northern Spain is analyzed. The final objective of this chapter is to have an overall map of the current actions taken against climate change and the analysis of the characteristics of resilient cities and the global networks.
Autores: Giménez Duque, Raquel; Labaka Zubieta, Leire; Sarriegi Domínguez, José María; et al.
Libro:  Natural Disasters:: Risk Assessment, Management Strategies and Challenges
2016  págs. 129-150
Autores: Maraña, P.; Labaka Zubieta, Leire; Sarriegi Domínguez, José María
Libro:  Crisis Management: New Perspectives, Technologies and Challenges
2015  págs. 51 - 62
Autores: Maraña, P.; Labaka Zubieta, Leire; Sarriegi Domínguez, José María
Libro:  Crisis Management: New Perspectives, Technologies and Challenges
Nº 4  2015  págs. 51 - 62
Autores: Labaka Zubieta, Leire; Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune; Sarriegi Domínguez, José María
Libro:  ELITE International Scientific Conference on best practices and lessons learned from natural disasters
2014  págs. 95-105
Autores: Laugé Eizaguirre, Ana; Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune; Labaka Zubieta, Leire; et al.
Libro:  Communications in Computer and Information Science
Vol. 318  2012  págs. 105 - 116
Crisis management needs intensive cooperation of a significant amount of stakeholders. These stakeholders need to cooperate during the critical peak of crisis, and also during crisis preparation and long term recovery phases. In addition, agents have to learn from each other and from previous events. However, they have different perspectives based on their backgrounds, previous experiences and interests. Collaborative modelling methodologies can help on this knowledge gathering and integration process. This paper presents Group Model Building collaborative methodology and its use on a crisis management research project, where a set of international and multidisciplinary domain experts discussed and contributed to three simulation models development. Through several exercises experts shared and integrated their perspectives, which were initially fragmented. Domain experts also took part in models validation. Resulting models constitute a more holistic, integrated and agreed visualization of crises than the ones each agent had at the beginning of the modelling process.
Autores: Labaka Zubieta, Leire; Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune; Laugé Eizaguirre, Ana; et al.
Libro:  Communications in Computer and Information Science
Vol. 318  2012  págs. 509 -512

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