Nuestros investigadores

Íñigo Adin Marcos

Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: Valdivia, L. J., (Autor de correspondencia); Adin, Íñigo; Añorga, Javier; et al.
ISSN 0748-8017  Vol. 35  Nº 2  2019  págs. 561 - 571
A malicious attack on a safety-critical system can derive in an undesired behavior of the system that may result in a failure. In this case, the reliability of the device is decreased, and it might affect directly to safety. Therefore, the security is also an essential issue to consider in the design of safety-critical systems. The main problem when safety and security are considered is to make them work together without interfering each other. A safety-critical device needs to be certified following standards like IEC-61508, and any security mechanisms must not affect this certification. This paper describes a system that integrates safety and security mechanisms to improve reliability without affecting safety certification. With the aim of reaching the required safety level, a redundant system is considered. This system is an n out of m distributed and synchronized voter. The synchronization method is based on the precision time protocol (IEEE-1588) allowing that all devices on a local network have the same time.
Autores: Goya, J., (Autor de correspondencia); De Miguel, G.; Arrizabalaga, Saioa; et al.
ISSN 1524-9050  Vol. 19  Nº 12  2018  págs. 4035 - 4042
The European Union (EU) is bolstering the railway sector with the aim of making it a direct competitor of the aviation sector. For that to occur, railway efficiency has to be improved by means of increasing capacity and reducing operational expenditure. Tracks are currently used below their maximum capacity. Given this fact and the EU's goals for the railway sector, research on solutions for on-board positioning system based on global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) have arisen in recent years. By taking advantage of GNSS, safety critical positioning systems will be able to use the infrastructure more efficiently. However, GNSS based positioning systems still cannot fulfill current normative validation processes, mainly, due to the fact that GNSS based positioning performance evaluation is not compatible with the key performance indicators (KPIs) used to assess railway systems performance: reliability, availability, maintainability, and safety. This paper proposes a methodology and unified key performance indicators (KPIs). Additionally, it shows real examples to address this issue. It aims to fill the gap between the current railway standardization process and any on-board positioning system.
Autores: Valdivia, Leonardo Jesús, (Autor de correspondencia); Adin, Íñigo; Arrizabalaga, Saioa; et al.
ISSN 1556-6072  Vol. 13  Nº 1  2018  págs. 48 - 55
Most critical applications today depend on computers, so a computer failure can cause financial disaster, serious injury, or even death. In this context, railways are considered a critical application, so they must meet the highest standards of availability and safety. Availability ensures continuous operation of the system, while a safe system must behave correctly in all operating and environmental conditions.
Autores: Adin, Íñigo; et al.
ISSN 2211-5463  Vol. 8  Nº Supl. 1  2018  págs. 412 - 412
Autores: Daniel Valderas; Mesa, I.; Adin, Íñigo; et al.
ISSN 0018-9545  Vol. 66  Nº 11  2017  págs. 9743 - 9752
This paper presents a model that anticipates the emissions from eddy current brakes (ECBs) installed in high-speed trains. The emissions are computed in the 10 KHz-1.3 MHz range, where trackside signaling devices operate and issues related to electromagnetic compatibility have arisen, hindering ECB's promise of full deployment. The electromagnetic model provides a transfer function in the frequency domain between the nondesired harmonic currents produced by the train power supply and the subsequent radiated emissions by the ECBs at the trackside. The model includes the influence of the on-board ECB system's electric circuitry on the three-dimensional field computation of the electromagnets by a cosimulation approach (circuit and electromagnetic cross talk). After the data are post-processed, the simulated results are compared with the results of an extensive measurement campaign on board a high-speed ICE 3 train equipped with ECBs. The high correlation makes it possible to anticipate ECB emissions in order to save costly on-track test runs, to suggest ECB design strategies and to provide safe limits when the worst cases occur.
Autores: Adin, Íñigo; Arrizabalaga, Saioa; et al.
ISSN 0263-2241  Vol. 77  2016  págs. 124 - 131
The interoperability between on track balises and the on board Balise Transmission Module systems depends on both sides' susceptibility and allowed emissions. For that assessment, the document that governs the testing methodology, tools and procedures (Subset 116) needs to be completed prior to its publication. The present paper proposes an advance beyond the state of the art for the rolling stock emission assessment in terms of the test setup and of the post-processing procedure. The documentation commonly used in ERTMS-related issues has been analyzed and the common tools and procedures have been taken into consideration for the proposal presented by the authors. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Autores: Alvarado, Unai; Juanicorena, Aitor; Adin, Íñigo; et al.
ISSN 2161-3915  Vol. 23  Nº 8  2012  págs. 728 - 741
Power consumption is one of the most critical issues when designing low-cost electronic devices, such as sensing nodes in wireless sensor networks. To support their operation, such systems usually contain a battery; however, when the battery has consumed all its energy, the node (e.g. the sensor) must be retrieved and the battery replaced. If the node is located in a remote and non-accessible placement, battery replacement can become an expensive (and even impossible) task. This way, energy harvesting has emerged as a suitable alternative to supply low-power electronic systems, by converting ambient energy into electric power. Scavenged energy can be used to directly supply the circuits, or stored to be used when needed. This paper summarises the power needs of a general wireless sensor node and describes the main principles of most representative energy harvesting technologies. Copyright (c) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Autores: Sancho, Juan Ignacio; Gurutzeaga, Iñaki; et al.
ISSN 0895-2477  Vol. 53  Nº 12  2011  págs. 2742 - 2746
Transmitting antenna in a Railway Spot Signalling System needs to be optimized in order to ensure data transfer reliability and minimize the required power. This paper analyses the improvement of the HF transmitting antenna taking into account the size of the receiving antenna, the presence of metallic objects and the misalignment between transmitting and receiving antennas. A novel HF transmitting antenna structure is proposed and verified to improve the read range. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 53: 2742-2746, 2011; View this article online at DOI 10.1002/mop.26400
Autores: Gonzalez, J.; Solar, Héctor; Adin, Íñigo; et al.
ISSN 0018-9480  Vol. 59  Nº 9  2011  págs. 2318 - 2330
A decreasing-sized pi-model electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection structure is presented and applied to protect against ESD stresses at the RF input pad of an ultra-low power CMOS front-end operating in the 2.4-GHz industrial-scientific-medical band. The proposed ESD protection structure is composed of a pair of ESD devices located near the RF pad, another pair close to the core circuit, and a high-quality integrated inductor connecting these two pairs. This structure can sustain a human body-model ESD level higher than 16 kV and a machine-model ESD level higher than 1 kV without degrading the RF performance of the front-end. A combined on-wafer transmission line pulse and RF test methodology for RF circuits is also presented confirming previous results. The front-end implements a zero-IF receiver. It has been implemented in a standard 2P6M 0.18-mu m CMOS process. It exhibits a voltage gain of 24 dB and a single-sideband noise figure of 8.4 dB, which make it suitable for most of the 2.4-GHz wireless short-range communication transceivers. The power consumption is only 1.06 mW from a 1.2-V voltage supply.
Autores: Alvarado, Unai; Berenguer, Roque José; Adin, Íñigo; et al.
ISSN 0098-9886  Vol. 38  Nº 2  2010  págs. 123 - 129
Low-frequency (flicker) noise is one of the most important issues in the design of direct-conversion zero-IF front-ends. Within the front-end building blocks, the direct-conversion mixer is critical in terms of flicker noise, since it performs the signal down-conversion to baseband. This paper analyzes the main sources of low-frequency noise in Gilbert-cell-based direct-conversion mixers, and several issues for minimizing the flicker noise while keeping a good mixer performance in terms of gain, noise figure and power consumption are introduced in a quantitative manner. In order to verify these issues, a CMOS Gilbert-cell-based zero-IF mixer has been fabricated and measured. A flicker noise as low as 10.4 dB is achieved (NF at 10 kHz) with a power consumption of only 2 mA from a 2.7 V power supply. More than 14.6 dB conversion gain and noise figure lower than 9 dB (DSB) are obtained from DC to 2.5 GHz with an LO power of -10 dBm, which makes this mixer suitable for a multi-standard low-power zero-IF front-end. Copyright (C) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.