Nuestros investigadores

María Concepción Cid Canda

Ciencias de la Alimentación y Fisiología
Facultad de Farmacia y Nutrición. Universidad de Navarra
Líneas de investigación
Alimentos tratados térmicamente, Compuestos volátiles, Compuestos fenólicos, Actividad funcional, Productos de la Reacción de Maillard, Antioxidantes, Bioaccesibilidad, Sexenios CNEAI: 4 (1992-1997, 1998-2003, 2004-2009, 2010-2015)
Índice H
19, (WoS, 05/04/2017)
18, (Scopus, 05/04/2017)

Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: Domínguez-Fernández, M.; Concepción Cid; et al.
ISSN 0308-8146  Vol. 240  2018  págs. 1055 - 1062
The impact of cooking methods (boiling, microwaving, griddling and frying in olive and soybean oils) on nutritional composition (protein, minerals, fat, carbohydrates, fibre, fatty acid profile and energy), antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenolic compounds of cactus cladodes (Opuntia ficus-indica) was evaluated. Culinary processes, except boiling, increased soluble and insoluble fibre up to 5.0 g/100 g becoming a good fibre source. Cactus cladodes fried in olive oil showed a healthier fatty acid profile and lower ¿-6/¿-3 ratio than in soybean oil. Flavonoids accounted for 80% of total (poly)phenolic compounds, being isorhamnetin the most abundant. Heat treatment, particularly griddling and microwaving, increased every flavonoid and phenolic acid up to 3.2-fold higher than in raw samples, and consequently their antioxidant capacity. Even boiling induced losses in total (poly)phenols and antioxidant capacity by leaching into water, the main compounds were maintained. Principal Component Analysis distributed heat treated cactus cladodes according to their distinctive polyphenols and antioxidant capacity.
Autores: Bresciani, L.; et al.
ISSN 1756-4646  Vol. 32  2017  págs. 195 - 207
A total of 17 (poly)phenolic compounds have been quantified in the free and bound fraction of raw, olive oil fried, sunflower oil fried and griddled cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.). Caffeoylquinic acid derivatives (CQAs), particularly 5-CQA, were the major compounds. The bioaccessibility of (poly)phenols after gastrointestinal digestion and fecal fermentation (24 h) was studied. Heat treatment exerted a positive effect on the bioaccessibility of (poly)phenols. In raw cardoon, only 2% of the total amount of (poly)phenolic compounds was still bioaccessible after gastrointestinal digestion, while in cooked cardoon samples, between 60 and 67% of the total amount of (poly)phenolic compounds remained unmodified. An important microbial metabolic activity was observed during the fecal fermentation, which resulted in a complete degradation of CQAs after 5 h and in the formation of different catabolites. 3-(3¿-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid was by far the most abundant catabolite produced. Catabolic pathways for colonic microbial degradation of CQAs of cardoon have been proposed.
Autores: Bresciani, L.; et al.
ISSN 1756-4646  Vol. 27  2016  págs. 201 - 213
A total of 21 (poly)phenolic compounds (free and bound) were quantified in raw, olive oil fried, sunflower oil fried and griddled green pepper before and after a simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Flavonoids, particularly quercetin rhamnoside, were the main compounds. The bioaccessibility of (poly)phenolic compounds after gastrointestinal digestion was higher in cooked (>82%) than in raw (48%) samples, showing a positive effect of heat treatment on the release of (poly)phenols from the vegetal matrix. Additionally, a faecal fermentation was carried out for 24h. A time-dependent microbial metabolic activity was observed, which resulted firstly (<5h) in the hydrolysis of flavonoid glycosides and then in the formation of 3 catabolites, namely 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, dihydrocaffeic acid and 3-(3¿-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, this being by far the most abundant. Catabolic pathways for colonic microbial degradation of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids have been proposed. Griddled pepper showed the highest amount of (poly)phenols both after gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation.
Autores: Zocco, C.; Mouro, V.; et al.
ISSN 0023-6438  Vol. 68  2016  págs. 549 - 555
Furan content in eight bread-coated frozen foods (ham croquettes, squid rings, tuna pasties, churros, nuggets, fish fingers, onion rings and san jacobos) deep-fried in fresh and reheated olive oil, and in five cooked vegetables was evaluated. Deep fried foods showed the highest levels of furan between 12 mu g kg(-1) (tuna pasties) and 172 mu g kg(-1) (onion rings), with a furan increase tendency when reheated oil was used. In vegetables, furan was only found at low level in griddled onion (3.5 ng kg(-1)). The lower temperature applied (<150 degrees C) in comparison to that of the deep-fried foods (190 degrees C), the furan volatilization during longer time cooking (15 min vs 6 min) together with the food composition differences might explain the low furan content in vegetables. As a preliminary approach for risk assessment, the margin of exposure (MOE) was calculated. The total daily intake of furan by Spanish population (239 -4372 ng/kg bw/day) with MOEs below 10,000 indicates a human public health concern. However, MOEs for fried foods showed that furan could suppose a possible health risk only in people with a high consumption of these products. Nevertheless, further studies should be developed to provide furan exposure data of other fried foods.
Autores: Huarte Cilveti, E.; et al.
ISSN 0308-8146  Vol. 197  2016  págs. 466 - 473
The impact of cooking heat treatments (frying in olive oil, frying in sunflower oil and griddled) on the antioxidant capacity and (poly) phenolic compounds of onion, green pepper and cardoon, was evaluated. The main compounds were quercetin and isorhamnetin derivates in onion, quercetin and luteolin derivates in green pepper samples, and chlorogenic acids in cardoon. All heat treatments tended to increase the concentration of phenolic compounds in vegetables suggesting a thermal destruction of cell walls and sub cellular compartments during the cooking process that favor the release of these compounds. This increase, specially that observed for chlorogenic acids, was significantly correlated with an increase in the antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH (r = 0.70). Griddled vegetables, because of the higher temperature applied during treatment in comparison with frying processes, showed the highest amounts of phenolic compounds with increments of 57.35%, 25.55% and 203.06% compared to raw onion, pepper and cardoon, respectively.
Autores: Vitas, Ana Isabel; et al.
ISSN 1756-4646  Vol. 12  2015  págs. 365 - 374
Coffee consumption decreases the risk of oxidative stress-related diseases. The by-product obtained after brewing process (spent coffee) also has antioxidant capacity. Spent coffee and coffee brews (filter and espresso) extracts were obtained from Arabica and Robusta coffees, respectively. Spent coffee showed slightly high amounts in chlorogenic acids, but caffeine content was similar to their respective coffee brew. All samples exhibited strong protection activity against indirect acting mutagen 2-AF (<= 92%), whereas the protection against NPD (direct mutagen) was 12-35% (Ames Test). The growth inhibition of common food-borne pathogen and food spoilage microorganisms by coffee extracts was also studied. Spent coffee showed antimicrobial activity, mainly against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes) and yeast (Candida albicans). The role of phenolic acids, caffeine and melanoidins in the antimutagenic and antimicrobial activities is discussed. Thus, spent coffee extracts could be a potential source of bioactive compounds, thereby becoming a promising new functional food ingredient.
Autores: Irigoyen, Ángel María; et al.
ISSN 0021-8561  Vol. 63  Nº 17  2015  págs. 4327 - 4334
Spent coffee is the main byproduct of the brewing process and a potential source of bioactive compounds, mainly phenolic acids easily extracted with water. Free and bound caffeoylquinic (3-CQA, 4-CQA, 5-CQA), dicaffeoylquinic (3,4-diCQA, 3,5-diCQA, 4,5-diCQA), caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric, sinapic, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids were measured by HPLC, after the application of three treatments (alkaline, acid, saline) to spent coffee extracts. Around 2-fold higher content of total phenolics has been estimated in comparison to free compounds. Phenolic compounds with one or more caffeic acid molecules were approximately 54% linked to macromolecules such as melanoidins, mainly by noncovalent interactions (up to 81% of bound phenolic compounds). The rest of the quantitated phenolic acids were mainly attached to other structures by covalent bonds (62-97% of total bound compounds). Alkaline hydrolysis and saline treatment were suitable to estimate total bound and ionically bound phenolic acids, respectively, whereas acid hydrolysis is an inadequate method to quantitate coffee phenolic acids.
Autores: Stalmach, A.; et al.
ISSN 0963-7486  Vol. 66  Nº 6  2015  págs. 657 - 664
Spent coffee grounds are a potential commercial source of substantial amounts of chlorogenic acids (CGAs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of spent coffee CGAs using in vitro simulated gastroduodenal digestion and to investigate their potential absorption using an in vitro Caco-2 model of human small intestinal epithelium. During in vitro digestion, lactones were partially degraded while caffeoylquinic and feruloylquinic acids were much more stable. Transport and metabolism studies showed that 1% of the total CGAs were absorbed and transported from the apical to the basolateral side of a Caco-2 cell monolayer after 1 h. Lactones and coumaroylquinic acids showed the rate of highest absorption. Caco-2 cells possessed low metabolic activity. In conclusion, spent coffee extracts contain large amounts of CGAs, which remained bioaccessible across the intestinal barrier, albeit to a relatively low degree.
Autores: de Peña, María Paz; et al.
ISSN 0963-9969  Vol. 61  2014  págs. 67 - 74
Heterocyclic volatile compounds present in coffee have been proposed as potent antioxidants, but their contribution to the antioxidant capacity of coffee is still unclear and controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the actual contribution of the main volatile compounds to the overall antioxidant capacity of coffee. A total of sixty-two and sixty-four volatile compounds were identified and quantified in Arabica and Robusta coffee, respectively, by static headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SH-GC-MS). ABTS (2,2'-Azino-bi(3-ethylbenzothiazonile-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt) and DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) antioxidant activity of the most abundant volatile heterocyclic compounds (7 furans (Fu), 3 pyrroles (Py) and 2 thiophenes (Th)), aldehydes (5) and diketones (2) was evaluated in model systems at different concentrations including those found in coffee. The model system with all the heterocyclic volatiles (Fu-Py-Th) was the most active followed by pyrroles and furans. Thiophenes were ineffective as radical scavengers at all concentrations including 100-fold, and aldehydes and ketones showed negligible activities in comparison to heterocyclic volatiles. In addition, only furans exhibited linear concentration dependent ABTS antioxidant activity and individual volatile model systems showed that only 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran-3-one and pyrrole for ABTS, and also 1-methylpyrrole for DPPH, were the main volatile compounds responsible for the coffee antioxidant activity. However, the contribution of the heterocyclic volatile compounds to the overall antioxidant capacity of a filter coffee brew was almost insignificant, even at 100-fold concentrated Fu-Py-Th model system, accounting only for up to 3.3%.
Autores: Mena, P.; Calani, L.; et al.
ISSN 2042-6496  Vol. 5  2014  págs. 1718 - 1726
The effect of roasting of coffee beans and the extraction of ground coffee with different volumes of hot pressurised water on the caffeine and the total caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) content of the resultant beverages was investigated. While caffeine was stable higher roasting temperatures resulted in a loss of CQAs so that the caffeine/CQA ratio was a good marker of the degree of roasting. The caffeine and CQA content and volume was determined for 104 espresso coffees obtained from coffee shops in Scotland, Italy and Spain, limited numbers of cappuccino coffees from commercial outlets and several instant coffees. The caffeine content ranged from 48¿317 mg per serving and CQAs from 6¿188 mg. It is evident that the ingestion of 200 mg of caffeine per day can be readily and unwittingly exceeded by regular coffee drinkers. This is the upper limit of caffeine intake from all sources recommended by US and UK health agencies for pregnant women. In view of the variable volume of serving sizes, it is also clear that the term ¿one cup of coffee¿ is not a reproducible measurement for consumption, yet it is the prevailing unit used in epidemiology to assess coffee consumption and to link the potential effects of the beverage and its components on the outcome of diseases. More accurate measurement of the intake of coffee and its potentially bioactive components are required if epidemiological studies are to produce more reliable information.
Autores:  et al.
ISSN 0963-9969  Vol. 50  Nº 2 SI  2013  págs. 610 - 616
Spent coffee that is produced in tons by restaurants and cafeterias, and consumers at domestic levels, could be a good opportunity to have an important source of natural antioxidants. The main aim of this work was to study the influence of several process factors on the antioxidant capacity extraction from spent coffee. Total phenolic compounds, radical scavenging activity (ABTS and DPPH) and browned compounds (Abs 420 nm) of spent coffee extracts obtained with continuous (Soxhlet 1 h and 3 h) and discontinuous methods (solid-liquid extraction and filter coffeemaker), several solvents (water, ethanol, methanol and their mixtures), successive extractions, and water with different pHs (4.5, 7.0 and 9.5) were carried out. Spent coffee extracts with the highest antioxidant capacity were obtained after one extraction with neutral water (pH 7.0) in a filter coffeemaker (24 g spent coffee per 400 mL water). Furthermore, spent coffee defatting and extract lyophilization allowed us to obtain spent coffee extracts powder with high antioxidant capacity that can be used as an ingredient or additive in food industry with potential preservation and functional properties.
Autores: de Peña, María Paz; Concepción Cid; et al.
ISSN 0951-6433  Vol. 39  Nº 6  2013  págs. 623 - 632
Several studies have indicated potential health benefits associated with coffee consumption. These benefits might be ascribed in part to the chlorogenic acids (CGAs), the main (poly)phenols in coffee. The impact of these dietary (poly)phenols on health depends on their bioavailability. As they pass along the gastrointestinal tract, CGAs are metabolized extensively and it is their metabolites rather than the parent compounds that predominate in the circulatory system. This article reports on a study in which after incubation of espresso coffee with human fecal samples, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to monitor CGA breakdown and identify and quantify the catabolites produced by the colonic microflora. The CGAs were rapidly degraded by the colonic microflora and over the 6-h incubation period, 11 catabolites were identified and quantified. The appearance of the initial degradation products, caffeic and ferulic acids, was transient, with maximum quantities at 1 h. Dihydrocaffeic acid, dihydroferulic acid, and 3-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid were the major end products, comprising 75-83% of the total catabolites, whereas the remaining 17-25% consisted of six minor catabolites. The rate and extent of the degradation showed a clear influence of the composition of the gut microbiota of individual volunteers. Pathways involved in colonic catabolism of CGAs are proposed and comparison with studies on the bioavailability of coffee CGAs ingested by humans helped distinguish between colonic catabolites and phase II metabolites of CGAs.
Autores: Arbillaga, L; Concepción Cid; et al.
ISSN 0278-6915  Vol. 60  2013  págs. 397 - 403
Spent coffee has been shown as a good source of hydrophilic antioxidant compounds. The ability of two spent coffee extracts rich in caffeoylquinic acids, mainly dicaffeoylquinic acids, and caffeine (Arabica filter and Robusta espresso) to protect against oxidation and DNA damage in human cells (HeLa) was evaluated at short (2 h) and long (24 h) exposure times. Cell viability (MTT) was not affected by spent coffee extracts (>80%) up to 1000 mu g/mL after 2 h. Both spent coffee extracts significantly reduced the increase of ROS level and DNA strand breaks (29-73% protection by comet assay) induced by H2O2. Pretreatment of cells with robusta spent coffee extract also decreased Ro photosensitizer-induced oxidative DNA damage after 24 h exposure. The higher effectiveness of Robusta spent coffee extract, with less caffeoylquinic acids and melanoidins, might be due to other antioxidant compounds, such as caffeine and other Maillard reaction products. This work evidences the potential antioxidant and genoprotective properties of spent coffee in human cells.
Autores:  et al.
ISSN 0963-9969  Vol. 50  Nº 2  2013  págs. 682 - 690
In this work, the influence of an Ultra High Temperature (UHT) treatment on chemical and sensory composition of Arabica coffee brews for a longer shelf-life has been studied. A temperature of 120 °C for 2 s allows to obtain a microbiologically safe coffee brew, good valued from the sensory point of view. The behavior of the UHT vs non UHT treated coffee brew was followed throughout 120 days of storage at 4 °C. The UHT treatment keeps the typical acidity of the brews longer, delaying and softening the pH decrease and the development of sourness, which is one of the main causes for the rejection of stored coffee brews. The UHT treatment hardly affects the concentrations of caffeine and trigonelline, and of some phenolic compounds such as 5-caffeoylquinic (5-CQA), caffeic or ferulic acids. Sixteen key odorants and staling volatiles were analyzed by HS¿GC¿MS and lower changes were observed in the UHT treated coffee brew throughout storage. Higher DPPHradical dot scavenging activity was observed in the UHT treated coffee brew from days 60 to 120. In conclusion, the application of an UHT treatment is proposed to extend the shelf-life (up to 60 days) of stored coffee brews.
Autores: de Peña, María Paz; et al.
ISSN 0023-6438  Vol. 51  Nº 2  2013  págs. 553-559
The addition of sugar during roasting (torrefacto) has been proposed as a technique to increase the antioxidant capacity. However, other factors such as roasting degree and coffee origin also play a key role. Two batches of Colombian green coffee were roasted adding increased amounts of sucrose (0-15 g per 100 g of coffee) to reach the same roasting degree than a commercial Colombian coffee. Moreover, seven conventional roasted coffees from different origins (Colombia, Brazil, Kenya, Guatemala and Vietnam) and roasting degrees (Dark, Medium and Light), and one 100% Torrefacto roasted coffee were analyzed. Although the addition of sugar during roasting increased the DPPH quenching activity, phenolic compounds (5-caffeoylquinic, caffeic and ferulic acids, and 4-vinylguaiacol) were hardly affected by torrefacto roasting process, showing that Maillard and other roasting reactions products, such as browned-colored compounds including melanoidins (Abs 420 nm), have an important role as antioxidants. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that roasting degree also plays a key role on overall antioxidant activity. Moreover, the Absorbance at 420 nm has been proposed as a good marker of torrefacto roasting process, whereas the roasting degree might be better characterized by L* values. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Autores:  et al.
ISSN 0021-8561  Vol. 60  Nº 51  2012  págs. 12565 - 12573
The main hydrophilic antioxidant compounds (3-, 4-, and 5-monocaffeoylquinic and 3,4-, 3,5-, and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acids, caffeine, and browned compounds, including melanoidins) and the antioxidant capacity (Folin-Ciocalteu, ABTS, DPPH, Fremy's salt, and TEMPO) were evaluated in Arabica and Robusta spent coffee obtained from the preparation of coffee brews with the most common coffeemakers (filter, espresso, plunger, and mocha). All spent coffee grounds, with the exception of those from the mocha coffeemaker, had relevant amounts of total caffeoylquinic acids (6.22-13.24 mg/g of spent coffee), mainly dicaffeoylquinic acids (3.31-5.79 mg/g of spent coffee), which were 4-7-fold higher than in their respective coffee brews. Caffeine ranged from 3.59 to 8.09 mg/g of spent coffee. The antioxidant capacities of the aqueous spent coffee extracts were 46.0-102.3% (filter), 59.2-85.6% (espresso), and <42% (plunger) in comparison to their respective coffee brews. This study obtained spent coffee extracts with antioxidant properties that can be used as a good source of hydrophilic bioactive compounds.
Autores: Caemmerer, B.; et al.
ISSN 0963-9969  Vol. 48  Nº 1  2012  págs. 57 - 64
The aim of this work was to study the extraction behavior of the main coffee antioxidants (caffeoylquinic acids, melanoidins and caffeine) and the antioxidant capacity, during brewing time in the most widely consumed coffee brew methods (filter and espresso) in coffee. Antioxidant capacity by colorimetric assays (Folin-Ciocalteau, ABTS and DPPH) and electron spin resonance spectroscopy techniques (Fremy's salt and TEMPO) were analyzed. In espresso coffee, more than 70% of the antioxidants (except dicaffeoylquinic acids, diCQA) of a coffee brew were extracted during the first 8s. In filter coffee, a U-shape antioxidants extraction profile was observed, starting later (after 75 s) in Vietnam coffee than in Guatemala one, probably due to different wettability. Other technological parameters, such as turbulences and a longer contact time between water and ground coffee in filter coffeemaker, increased extraction efficiency, mainly in less polar antioxidant compounds as diCQA. In conclusion, these technological factors should be considered to optimize coffee antioxidants extraction that can be used as ingredients for functional foods. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Autores: Cämmerer, B.; de Peña, María Paz; et al.
Revista: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
ISSN 0021-8561  Vol. 58  Nº 5  2010  págs. 2958 - 2965
The antioxidant capacity of coffee brews prepared with different coffeemakers (filter, plunger, mocha, and espresso) was measured by colorimetric (total phenolic compounds and ABTS) and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy techniques (Fremy's salt and TEMPO). The mocha coffeemaker had the highest yield in coffee antioxidant extraction per gram of ground roasted coffee, but espresso coffee was richest in terms of antioxidant intake (per milliliter of coffee brew) followed by mocha, plunger, and filter. Both Folin-Ciocalteu (total phenolic compounds) and ABTS assays reacted with standard solutions of chlorogenic acids (CGA) and melanoidins (MO-Ala and MO-Gly). However, Fremy's salt was mainly scavenged by chlorogenic acids, whereas the stabilized radical TEMPO was effectively scavenged by melanoidins, but not by chlorogenic acids. Thus, ESR spectroscopy allows distinguishing between phenolic and nonphenolic antioxidants. Moreover, the addition of pH-regulator agents to coffee, such as sodium carbonate (75 ppm) and bicarbonate (75 ppm), to extend its shelf life, slightly increases the pH, modifying the antioxidant capacity in those coffee brews with the highest capacity (mocha and espresso).
Autores: Concepción Cid; de Peña, María Paz;
Libro:  Encyclopedia of food and health
Vol. 2  2016  págs. 225 - 231
Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world and a rich source of antioxidants. This article reviews the composition of arabica and robusta coffee from green beans to the different types of coffee brew (infusion methods like drip filter coffee and pressure methods like espresso coffee) with special attention to the effects of the roasting process on the coffee bioactive compounds, primarily caffeine and phenolics, and compounds responsible for aroma, flavor, and sensorial properties, including Maillard reaction products. Furthermore, the analytic methodologies used to evaluate the main coffee compounds have been reported.
Autores: Concepción Cid;



Bromatología (F. Farmacia). 
Universidad de Navarra - Facultad de Farmacia y Nutrición.

Trabajo fin de grado (Nutrición). 
Universidad de Navarra - Facultad de Farmacia y Nutrición.

Investigación aplicada en compuestos bioactivos en los alimentos (EMENU). 
Universidad de Navarra - Facultad de Farmacia y Nutrición.