DOI: https://doi.org/10.15581/003.32.4.207-221

Feminist hashtag activism in Spain: measuring the degree of politicisation of online discourse on #YoSíTeCreo, #HermanaYoSíTeCreo, #Cuéntalo y #NoEstásSola

 -Ainara Larrondo  -Jordi Morales-i-Gras  -Julen Orbegozo-Terradillos


Full Text:     PDF (65)        | PDF (Español) (64)   
         View in DADUN


Abstract

 169
The use of Twitter as a tool for mobilisation has made digital social and political activism a growing area of interest in communication research. Scholars have underscored the effectiveness of Twitter in galvanising the opinion of broad sectors of the public and expressing the indignation of average citizens on issues of social concern (Bruns et al., 2015; Martínez, 2017). The rise of feminist social media activism has prompted a number of studies on the feminist movement’s use of hashtags to foster online conversations on specific issues (Jinsook, 2017; Turley & Fisher, 2018; etc.). This article examines the correlation between the degree of ideological commitment amongst social media users and the nature of their Twitter conversations on a given issue. The analysis focuses on Twitter conversations generated by feminists, influencers, journalists and politicians in reaction to the controversial sentencing of the Wolf Pack (La Manada) –a gang of men involved in a sexual assault perpetrated during the San Fermín festival in Pamplona. Big data techniques were used to explore the nature of messages containing four highly charged hashtags central to feminist discourse on this issue: #YoSiTeCreo (Yes, I believe you), #HermanaYoSíTeCreo (Yes, sister, I believe you), #Cuéntalo (Talk about it) and #NoEstásSola (You are not alone). Our findings indicate that the levels of ideological commitment of Twitter users participating in what was essentially a feminist conversation varied to an extent that impeded serious interaction amongst them, either online or offline. From the perspective of communication strategy, feminist hashtag activism would appear to be an intermediate step in a longer process of creating a higher consciousness regarding gender equality issues in Spain.

Keywords

Hashtag activism; feminism; Twitter; politicisation; digital conversation; big data


Authors

Ainara Larrondo e-mail (Login required)

Jordi Morales-i-Gras e-mail (Login required)

Julen Orbegozo-Terradillos e-mail (Login required)

References

Arroyas-Langa, E., Martínez-Martínez, H. & Berná-Sicilia, C. (2018). Twitter como espacio alternativo a la esfera política institucional. Análisis retórico de las estrategias discursivas de Podemos durante la moción de censura contra Rajoy. In J. Segarra, T.

Hidalgo & R. Rodríguez (Coords.), Actas de las Jornadas Científicas Internacionales sobre Análisis del discurso en un entorno transmedia (pp. 85-94). Alicante: Colección Mundo Digital de Revista Mediterránea de Comunicación. https://www.doi.org/10.14198/medcom/2017/11cmd

Baer, H. (2016). Redoing feminism. Digital activism, body politics, and neoliberalism. Feminist Media Studies, 16(1), 17-34. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2015.1093070

Batagelj, V. & Mrvar, A. (1998). Pajek Program for Analysis and Visualization of Large Networks Reference Manual List of commands with short explanation version BE. Connections, 21(2), 47-57. Retrieved from https://assets.noviams.com/novi-file-uploads/insna/Connections_Archive/1998_Volume_21__Issue_2.pdf

Bastian M., Heymann S. & Jacomy M. (2009). Gephi: an open source software for exploring and manipulating networks. International AAAI. Conference on Weblogs and Social Media. Retrieved from https://gephi.org/publications/gephi-bastian-feb09.pdf

Billig, M. (1995). Banal nationalism. London: SAGE.

Blondel, V. D., Guillaume, J. L., Lambiotte, R. & Lefebvre, E. (2008). Fast unfolding of communities in large networks. Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment, 10, 10008-10020. https://www.doi.org/10.1088/1742-5468/2008/10/P10008

Borra E. & Rieder B. (2014). Programmed method: developing a toolset for capturing and analyzing tweets. Aslib Journal of Information Management, 66(3), 262-278.

Bradley, P. (2003). Mass media and the Shaping of American Feminism (1963-1975). University Press of Mississippi. https://www.doi.org/10.1108/AJIM-09-2013-0094

Bruns, A., Enli, G., Skogerbø, E., Larsonn, A. & Christensen, C. (2015). The Routledge Companion to Social Media and Politics. London: Routledge.

Cancian, F. M. & Ross, B. L. (1981). Mass Media and the Women’s Movement (1900-1977). The Journal of Applied Behavioural Science, 17(1), 9-26. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/002188638101700102

Caro Castaño, L. (2015). Construir y comunicar un “nosotras” feminista desde los Medios Sociales. Una reflexión acerca del “Feminismo del Hashtag”. Commons, Revista de Comunicación y Ciudadanía Digital, 4(2), 124-154. Retrieved from https://revistas.uca.es/index.php/cayp/article/view/3098

Clark, R. (2016). Hope in a Hashtag: The Discursive Activism of #WhyIStayed. Feminist Media Studies, 16(5), 788–804. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2016.1138235

Dadas, C. (2017). Hashtag Activism: The Promise and Risk of ‘Attention. In M. W. Douglas & S. Vie (Eds.), Social Writing/Social Media: Publics, Presentations, Pedagogies (pp. 17-36). Collins, Colorado: The WAC Clearinghouse and University Press.

Demsar, J., Curk, T., Erjavec, A., Gorup, C., Hocevar, T., Milutinovic, M., Mozina, M., Polajnar, M., Toplak, M., Staric A., Stajdohar, M., Umek, L., Zagar L., Zbontar, J., Zitnik, M. & Zupan, B. (2013). Orange: Data Mining Toolbox in Python. Journal of Machine Learning Research, 14, 2349−2353. Retrieved from http://jmlr.org/papers/volume14/demsar13a/demsar13a. pdf

Downing, J. (2001). Radical Media: Rebellious Communication and Social Movements. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.

Earl, J. & Kimport, K. (2011). Digitally Enabled Social Change: Activism in the Internet Age. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Ergas, Y. (1993). El sujeto mujer: el feminismo de los años sesenta-ochenta. In G. Duby & M. Perrot (Dirs.), Historia de las mujeres. El siglo XX (vol. V) (pp. 539-561). Madrid: Taurus.

Fotopoulou, A. (2014). Digital and networked by default? Women’sorganisations and the social imaginary of networked feminism. New Media & Society, 1-17. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/1461444814552264

Fox, J. (2005). The R Commander: A Basic Statistics Graphical User Interface to R. Journal of Statistical Software, 14(9), 1-42. https://www.doi.org/10.18637/jss.v014.i09

Gamson, W. A. & Wolfsfeld, G. (1993). Movements and media as interacting systems. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 526, 114-27. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/1047795

García, A. & Silva, A. (2017). Ciberfeminismo o feminismo en la Red. Antropología experimental, 17, 277-286. Retrieved from https://revistaselectronicas.ujaen.es/index.php/rae/article/view/3515

Hooghe, L. & Mark, G. (2012). Politicization. In E. Jones, A. Menon & S. Weatherill (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the European Union. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Huddy, L. (1997). Feminists and Feminism in the News. In P. Norris (Ed.), Women, Media and Politics (pp. 183-204). Cambridge: Oxford University Press.

Jimsook, K. (2017). #iamafeminist as the “mother tag”: feminist identification and activism against misogyny on Twitter in South Korea. Feminist Media Studies, 17(5), 804-820. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2017.1283343

Kelly, E. A. (2005). A new generation of feminism? Reflections on the third wave. New Political Science, 27(2), 233-244. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/07393140500098516

Kendal, E. (2012). There’s no one perfect girl: Third wave feminism and the Powerpuff Girls. Colloquy: Text theory critique, 24, 234-252. Retrieved from http://xurl.es/article

Larrondo, A. (2005). La Red al servicio de las mujeres. Aproximación a la relación mujer y medios de comunicación en Internet. Estudios sobre el Mensaje Periodístico (EMP), 11, 375- 392. Retrieved from https://revistas.ucm.es/index.php/ESMP/article/view/ESMP0505110375A/12513

Larrondo, A. (2017). La imagen pública del feminismo en la Transición (1975-1979). Una mirada desde la prensa. Leioa: Servicio Editorial de la UPV/EHU.

Larumbe, A. (2002). Una inmensa minoría. Feminismo en la Transición. Zaragoza: Universidad de Zaragoza.

Mann, S. A. (2013). Cambios de paradigma en el pensamiento feminista de EU. Mundo Siglo XXI, 31(9), 11-26. Retrieved from https://biblat.unam.mx/hevila/MundosigloXXI/2013/no31/2.pdf

Martínez, H. (2017). La construcción discursiva de la identidad en los nuevos movimientos sociales: el caso español del 15M (Tesis Doctoral). Murcia: UCAM.

Mendes, K., Ringrose, J. & Keller, J. (2018). #Metoo and the promise and pitfalls of challenging rape culture through digital feminist activism. European Journal of Women Studies, 25(2), 236-246. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/1350506818765318

Munro, E. (2013). Feminism: A fourth wave? Political Insight, 4(2), 22-25. https://www.doi.org/10.1111/2041-9066.12021

Nash, M. (2005). El aprendizaje del feminismo histórico en España. Retrieved from http://www.nodo50.org/mujeresenred/historia.MaryNash.1.html

Olesen, T. (2016). Politicizing cultural sociology: The power of/in global injustice symbols. International Sociology, 31(3), 324-340. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/0268580916629613

Rendueles, C. (2013). Sociofobia. El cambio político en la era de la utopía radical. Madrid: Capitán Swing Libros.

Reverter, S. (2001). Reflexiones en torno al Ciberfeminismo. Asparkia, 12, 35-52. Retrieved from http://www.e-revistes.uji.es/index.php/asparkia/article/view/883/793

Roate, C. (2015). #ourFword: Understand Contemporary Feminism in a Media-Saturated Landscape. Southern Illinois University Carbondale. OpenSIUC.

Stubbs-Richardson, M., Rader, N. E. & Cosby, A. C. (2018). Tweeting rape culture: Examining portrayals of victim blaming in discussions of sexual assault cases on Twitter. Feminism & Psychology, 28(1), 90-108. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/0959353517715874

Thompson, J. B. (2005). La nueva visibilidad. Papers, 78, 11-30.

Tsouvalis, J. & Waterton, C. (2012). Connected Communities. Public participation as a process of de-politicization. Lancaster: Centre for the Study of Environmental Change (CSEC), Lancaster University.

Turley, E. & Fisher, J. (2018). Tweeting back while shouting back: social media and feminism activism. Feminism & Psychology, 28(1), 128-132. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/0959353517715875

Vie, S. (2014). In defense of ‘slacktivism’: The human rights campaign Facebook logo as digital activism. First Monday, 19(4). Retrieved from https://firstmonday.org/article/view/4961/3868

Von Storch, H. & Bray, D. (2010). Against politicization of science. Comment on S. Keller: Scientization: putting global climate change on the scientific agenda since 1970 and the role of the IPCC. Poiesis & Praxis, 7, 211-219. https://www.doi.org/10.1007/s10202-010- 0085-3

Weber, A., Hiers, W. & Flesken (2016). Politicized Ethnicity. A comparative perspective. New York: Palgrave Macmillan US.

Wilding, F. (1998). Where is feminism in cyberfeminism? Retrieved from https://www.ktpress.co.uk/pdf/vol2_npara_6_13_Wilding.pdf

Zafra, R. (2010). Un cuarto propio conectado. (Ciber)espacio y (auto)gestión del yo. Madrid: Fórcola.


Metrics





Search GoogleScholar

















Licencia de Creative Commons
Communication & Society is published under Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0.