Although transplantation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) in chronic myocardial infarction (MI) models is associated with functional improvement, its therapeutic value is limited due to poor long-term cell engraftment and survival. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine whether transplantation of collagen patches seeded with ADSC could enhance cell engraftment and improve cardiac function in models of chronic MI. With that purpose, chronically infarcted Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 58) were divided into four groups and transplanted with media, collagen scaffold (CS), rat ADSC, or CS seeded with rat ADSC (CS-rADSC). Cell engraftment, histological changes, and cardiac function were assessed 4 months after transplantation. In addition, Gottingen minipigs (n = 18) were subjected to MI and then transplanted 2 months later with CS or CS seeded with autologous minipig ADSC (CS-pADSC). Functional and histological assessments were performed 3 months post-transplantation. Transplantation of CS-rADSC was associated with increased cell engraftment, significant improvement in cardiac function, myocardial remodeling, and revascularization. Moreover, transplantation of CS-pADSC in the pre-clinical swine model improved cardiac function and was associated with decreased fibrosis and increased vasculogenesis. In summary, transplantation of CS-ADSC resulted in enhanced cell engraftment and was associated with a significant improvement in cardiac function and myocardial remodeling. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.