Circulating markers of iron overload are associated with insulin resistance. Less is known about the impact of iron overload on adipose tissue (AT). We hypothesized that gene expression markers of iron metabolism in AT could be associated with insulin action. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The AT expression of ferroportin (SLC40A1), transferrin (TF), TF receptor (TFRC), ferritin (FT) heavy polypeptide 1 (FTH1), and FT light polypeptide (FTL) was analyzed cross-sectionally in three independent cohorts and also after weight loss-induced changes in insulin sensitivity (clamp M value) in an independent fourth cohort. RESULTS In human AT, TF mRNA and protein levels were decreased with obesity and insulin resistance in the three cohorts and were positively associated with adipogenic mRNAs and insulin action. Otherwise, FTL mRNA and protein and SLC40A1 transcripts were positively associated with BMI and negatively linked to adipogenic genes and insulin action. Bariatric surgery-induced weight loss led to increased TF and decreased TFRC, FTH1, FTL, and SLC40A1 in subcutaneous AT in parallel to improved insulin action. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that iron overload impacts on AT in association with insulin resistance.