Our researchers

Nerea Crespo Eguilaz

Facultad de Medicina. Universidad de Navarra
Teoría y Métodos de Investigación Educativa y Psicológica
Facultad de Educación y Psicología. Universidad de Navarra
Facultad de Filosofía y Letras. Universidad de Navarra
Facultad de Filosofía y Letras. Universidad de Navarra
Clínica Universidad de Navarra. Clínica Universidad de Navarra
Research lines
Trastornos del neurodesarrollo, Dificultades de aprendizaje, Evaluación neuropsicológica, Trastorno de aprendizaje procedimental
6, (WoS, 27/02/2018)
6, (Scopus, 27/02/2018)

Most recent scientific publications (since 2010)

Authors: Sánchez-Carpintero Abad, Rocío (Autor de correspondencia); Urrestarazu Bolumburu, Elena; Cieza Ortiz, Sofía Isabel; et al.
ISSN 1090-3798  Vol. 24  2020  pp. 134 - 141
Objective: To evaluate the capability of children with Dravet syndrome to generate brain gamma-oscillatory activity in response to auditory steady-state stimulation. Methods: Fifty-one subjects were included: 13 with Dravet syndrome with SCN1A gene alterations, 26 with non-Dravet epilepsies and 12 healthy controls. Responses to auditory steady-state stimulation elicited with a chirp-modulated tone between 1 and 120 Hz were collected in subjects and compared across groups. Results: Subjects with Dravet syndrome showed weak or no responses in the 1-120 Hz frequency range. Healthy controls showed oscillatory responses following the frequency of the modulation that were maximal in the low (30-70 Hz) and high (80-120) gamma-ranges both, in the power and inter-trial coherence estimates. Non-Dravet epileptic children showed differences in the auditory responses when compared with the healthy controls but were able to generate oscillatory evoked activities following the frequency-varying stimulation. Conclusions: The ability to generate brain gamma-oscillatory activity of children with Dravet in response to a chirp-modulated auditory stimulus is highly impaired, is not due to epilepsy and is consistent with the Nav1.1 channel dysfunction affecting interneuron activity seen in Dravet mouse models. Significance: The reported deficits in the brain oscillatory activity evoked by chirp modulated tones in children with Dravet is compatible with Dravet syndrome disease mechanisms and constitutes a potential biomarker for future disease-modifying interventions. (C) 2019 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Authors: Zulueta, A.; Torrano, F., (Autor de correspondencia); Fernandez, V. L.; et al.
ISSN 0185-6073  Vol. 36  Nº 2  2019  pp. 17 - 29
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (adhd) are characterized by persistent patterns of inattention and impulsivity-hyperactivity, besides deficits in other cognitive functions, such as processing speed, despite of not having been completely clarified. This study aimed to determine whether there are differences between children with and without adhd in reaction time and in intra-individual variability in reaction time (VRT). Using a quasi-experimental design, 474 children (209 with adhd and 265 controls) answered the aula test; nonparametric analyses were used. Results revealed that children with adhd combined subtype manifested a higher reaction time in targets and commission errors, while children with adhd combined and inattentive subtypes showed greater vrt than the control group. Evidently, the vrt is a key marker of ADHD.
Authors: Zulueta, A., (Autor de correspondencia); Diaz-Orueta, U. ; Crespo Eguilaz, Nerea; et al.
ISSN 1135-755X  Vol. 25  Nº 1  2019  pp. 13 - 22
The diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is mainly based on structured scales, such as Conners' ADHD Rating Scale (EDAH in the Spanish version) and DSM interviews. The use of technologies in neuropsychological assessment, such as the AULA virtual reality based test leads to more accurate diagnosis. The current study presents findings from analyzing the external validity of AULA and its contribution to the diagnosis of ADHD. Four hundred and seven children (272 girls and 135 boys) from 6 to 16 years old (213 with ADHD diagnosis, 105 inattentive children, 108 combined-type, and 194 controls) were evaluated. First, a factor analysis of AULA variables was conducted in order to reduce data to factor and 5 factors or components that account for 82.37% of the total variance were obtained from 407 subjects, namely, sustained attention, impulsivity control, processing speed, response variability, and control of motor activity. Second, a discriminant analysis was then performed on data obtained by participants from whom the five factors were obtained, showing that AULA presents moderate levels of both specificity and sensitivity. Finally, in order to study whether AULA adds relevant information in the diagnosis of ADHD, a cluster analysis was carried out, showing 4 clusters in the analysis of conglomerates with the control group and 6 groups of clusters in the ADHD group. In summary, AULA test shows adequate external validity, allows correct classification of children with and without attentional problems, and confirms and provides additional ADHD diagnostic information that it is essential for the design of interventions.
Authors: Zulueta, A.; Torrano, F., (Autor de correspondencia); Lopez Fernandez, V.; et al.
ISSN 0185-6073  Vol. 36  Nº 1  2019  pp. 17 - 29
Authors: Crespo Eguilaz, Nerea; Domínguez Echávarri, Pablo Daniel; Vaquero, M.; et al.
ISSN 0210-0010  Vol. 66  Nº Supl. 1  2018  pp. S83 - S89
AIM: To contribute to neuropsychological profiling of developmental amnesia subsequent to bilateral damage to both hippocampi in early age. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The total sample of 24 schoolchildren from both sexes is distributed in three groups: perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and everyday complaints of memory in school age (n = 8); perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy without memory complaints (n = 7); and a group of typically developing (n = 9). All participants in every groups did have normal general intelligence and attention. Both clinical groups had, as another clinical consequence, spastic cerebral palsy (diplegia). Neuropsychological exam consisted on tests of general intelligence, attentional abilities, declarative memory and semantic knowledge. All participants had a brain magnetic resonance image and spectroscopy of hippocampi. Scheltens criteria were used for visual estimation of hippocampal atrophy. Parametric and non-parametric statistical contrasts were made. RESULTS: Despite preservation of semantic and procedural learning, declarative-episodic memory is impaired in the first group versus the other two groups. A significant proportion of bilateral hippocampal atrophy is only present in the first group versus the other two non-amnesic groups using Scheltens estimation on MRI. Two cases without evident atrophy did have diminished NAA/(Cho + Cr) index in both hippocampi. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results contribute to delineate developmental amnesia as an specific impairment due to early partial bihippocampal damage, in agreement with previous studies. After diagnosis of developmental amnesia, a specific psychoeducational intervention must be made; also this impairment could be candidate for pharmacological trials in the future.
Authors: Aguilera Albesa, Sergio; Crespo Eguilaz, Nerea; del Pozo León, José Luis; et al.
ISSN 1087-0547  Vol. 22  Nº 9  2018  pp. 864 - 871
Authors: Gambra Echeverria, Leyre; Magallón Recalde, Sara; Crespo Eguilaz, Nerea
ISSN 2386-7418  Vol. Extr.  Nº 11  2017  pp. 16-19
El TAP es una afectación poco conocida. Ha sido denominado de múltiples formas según los diferentes autores. Se diagnostica con menos frecuencia que otros trastornos del aprendizaje/neurodesarrollo debido a que los síntomas se confunden con frecuencia con los de otras patologías. Se caracteriza especialmente por una perturbación de la coordinación motora, aunque la causa explicativa del mismo reside en la dificultad para el desarrollo de ciertas habilidades perceptivo-motoras y de rutinas cognitivas. Actualmente hay una gran variedad de enfoques de intervención (sobre todo en el ámbito motor), con diverso grado de evidencia científica.
Authors: Gambra Echeverria, Leyre; Crespo Eguilaz, Nerea; Magallón Recalde, Sara
ISSN 2386-7418  Vol. Extra  Nº 9  2017  pp. 10-12
La coherencia central puede definirse como la tendencia que tiene el sistema cognitivo a integrar la información en representaciones de alto nivel con significado. El término coherencia central ha sido utilizado en la mayoría de las investigaciones centrándose en los aspectos perceptivos y visuales y no tanto en la parte verbal. Trastornos del neurodesarrollo como el Trastorno de aprendizaje procedimental (TAP) o el Trastorno del espectro del autismo (TEA) tienen esta afectación. Además, hay pocas herramientas de diagnóstico y escasos métodos y estrategias de intervención psicoeducativa.
Authors: Crespo Eguilaz, Nerea; Magallón Recalde, Sara; Sánchez-Carpintero Abad, Rocío; et al.
ISSN 0210-0010  Vol. 62  Nº Supl. 1  2016  pp. S49-S57
Authors: Vélez Galarraga, Maria del Rosario; Guillén Grima, Francisco; Crespo Eguilaz, Nerea; et al.
ISSN 1090-3798  Vol. 20  Nº 6  2016  pp. 925 - 937
Symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity are correlated with impaired sleep duration and quality; specifically, there is an association between ADHD symptoms and problems falling asleep and parasomnias, however, the current study does not address the nature and direction of causality. Children with ADHD and receiving methylphenidate had fewer sleep disorders, suggesting that, at least in some children, stimulant treatment is associated with improvement of some aspects of sleep. Shorter sleep duration in adolescents under pharmacological treatment for ADHD tended to result in more errors of omission, suggesting that it is important to promote good sleep habits in this population.
Authors: Magallón Recalde, Sara; Narbona García, Juan; Crespo Eguilaz, Nerea
ISSN 1549-1277  Vol. 11  Nº 7  2016  pp. e0158684
Background Procedural memory allows acquisition, consolidation and use of motor skills and cognitive routines. Automation of procedures is achieved through repeated practice. In children, improvement in procedural skills is a consequence of natural neurobiological development and experience. Methods The aim of the present research was to make a preliminary evaluation and description of repetition-based improvement of procedures in typically developing children (TDC). Ninety TDC children aged 6-12 years were asked to perform two procedural learning tasks. In an assembly learning task, which requires predominantly motor skills, we measured the number of assembled pieces in 60 seconds. In a mirror drawing learning task, which requires more cognitive functions, we measured time spent and efficiency. Participants were tested four times for each task: three trials were consecutive and the fourth trial was performed after a 10-minute nonverbal interference task. The influence of repeated practice on performance was evaluated by means of the analysis of variance with repeated measures and the paired-sample test. Correlation coefficients and simple linear regression test were used to examine the relationship between age and performance. Results TDC achieved higher scores in both tasks through repetition. Older children fitted more pieces than younger ones in assembling learning and they were faster and more efficient at the mirror drawing learning task. Conclusions These findings ...
Authors: Reynoso, C.; Crespo Eguilaz, Nerea; Alcázar Zambrano, Juan Luis; et al.
ISSN 1695-4033  Vol. 82  Nº 3  2015  pp. 183-191
Authors: Magallón Recalde, Sara; Crespo Eguilaz, Nerea; Narbona García, Juan
ISSN 0883-0738  Vol. 30  Nº 11  2015  pp. 1496-506
The aim is to assess repetition-based learning of procedures in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD), reading disorder (RD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants included 187 children, studied in 4 groups: (a) DCD comorbid with RD and ADHD (DCD+RD+ADHD) (n = 30); (b) RD comorbid with ADHD (RD+ADHD) (n = 48); (c) ADHD (n = 19); and typically developing children (control group) (n = 90). Two procedural learning tasks were used: Assembly learning and Mirror drawing. Children were tested on 4 occasions for each task: 3 trials were consecutive and the fourth trial was performed after an interference task. Task performance by DCD+RD+ADHD children improved with training (P < .05); however, the improvement was significantly lower than that achieved by the other groups (RD+ADHD, ADHD and controls) (P < .05). In conclusion, children with DCD+RD+ADHD improve in their use of cognitive-motor procedures over a short training period. Aims of intervention in DCD+RD+ADHD should be based on individual learning abilities.
Authors: Díaz-Orueta, U.; García-López, C.; Crespo Eguilaz, Nerea; et al.
ISSN 0929-7049  Vol. 20  Nº 3  2014  pp. 328 - 342
The majority of neuropsychological tests used to evaluate attention processes in children lack ecological validity. The AULA Nesplora (AULA) is a continuous performance test, developed in a virtual setting, very similar to a school classroom. The aim of the present study is to analyze the convergent validity between the AULA and the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) of Conners. The AULA and CPT were administered correlatively to 57 children, aged 6¿16 years (26.3% female) with average cognitive ability (IQ mean = 100.56, SD¿=¿10.38) who had a diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Spearman correlations analyses were conducted among the different variables. Significant correlations were observed between both tests in all the analyzed variables (omissions, commissions, reaction time, and variability of reaction time), including for those measures of the AULA based on different sensorial modalities, presentation of distractors, and task paradigms. Hence, convergent validity between both tests was confirmed. Moreover, the AULA showed differences by gender and correlation to Perceptual Reasoning and Working Memory indexes of the WISC-IV, supporting the relevance of IQ measures in the understanding of cognitive performance in ADHD. In addition, the AULA (but not Conners¿ CPT) was able to differentiate between ADHD children with and without pharmacological treatment for a wide range of measures related to inattention, impulsivit
Authors: Crespo Eguilaz, Nerea; Magallón Recalde, Sara; Narbona García, Juan
ISSN 1662-5161  Vol. 8  2014  pp. 449
Authors: Crespo Eguilaz, Nerea; Narbona García, Juan; Magallón Recalde, Sara
ISSN 0210-0010  Vol. 55  Nº 9  2012  pp. 513-519
Introduction. Children with coordination disorder-non verbal learning disorder, procedural learning disorder (PLD)-have difficulties in understanding complex simultaneous visual information. Aim. Validation of two different visual tasks to measure central coherence function of children with PLD. Subjects and methods. A chimeric image and a complex visual story are showed to 200 schoolchildren: 20 of them have PLD, 60 have PLD plus attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (PLD + ADHD), 60 have non comorbid ADHD, and 60 subjects are typical control children. A chi square test and a discriminant analysis are used to study the performances of the different groups in verbal description of both images. Results. Performance is lower in children with PLD and PLD + ADHD than in those with non-comorbid ADHD or controls. Moreover 93% and 92% of children with poor performance in, respectively, chimeric and complex images, have PLD or PLD + ADHD. Eighty seven per cent of subjects with PLD + ADHD fail in some of the tasks and, by contrast only 15% of children with ADHD do. Conclusions. Children with PLD have disability in quick understanding of simultaneous complex information and central coherence. The two tasks used in this research are useful to detect these difficulties, with high sensibility and specificity.
Authors: Narbona García, Juan; Crespo Eguilaz, Nerea
ISSN 0210-0010  Vol. 54  2012  pp. S127 - S130
Introduction. Plasticity makes possible adaptative modelling of the nervous system to experiences i.e. learning and development. Aim. To review current literature on clinical long term evolution and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) features of brain remodelling after focal stroke in left perisylvian regions involved in basic language processing during infancy and childhood. Development. Each of the main neurocognitive subsystems develops with different timing, so altered plasticity and vulnerability are diverse, according with age at insult and its topography. Genetic programming makes human brain capable for installing basic formal linguistic abilities on an associative perisylvian subsystem, highly specialised. A focal lesion of this region leads to remodelling phenomena by disinhibition of contralateral frontal and perisylvian structures and by a more or less efficacious activation of neighboring homolateral cortex, as it has been shown by fMRI studies and DTI tractography. As a result, very early local stroke to language areas is generally well compensated in terms of linguistic behaviour. Meanwhile acquired aphasias into middle and late childhood, even if they have a better prognosis than in adults, they fail to resume without lexical access defaults and/or difficulties in written language. Conclusion. Brain plasticity can promote restoration and further development of language following a stroke in left perisylvian areas, specially when lesion occurs at perinatal to middle childhood.
Authors: Crespo Eguilaz, Nerea; Narbona García, Juan
ISSN 0210-0010  Vol. 52  Nº Supl 1  2011  pp. S39-41
These difficulties may reflect a central coherence dysfunction and can partly account for the deficient ability to adapt their social behaviour displayed by these children.
Authors: Narbona García, Juan; Crespo Eguilaz, Nerea
Book title:  Trastornos del neurodesarrollo
2011  pp. 195-229
Authors: Narbona García, Juan; Crespo Eguilaz, Nerea; Magallón Recalde, Sara
Book title:  Trastornos del neurodesarrollo
2011  pp. 427-449
Authors: Lizasoain Rumeu, Olga (Coordinador); Ochoa Linacero, Belén (Coordinador); Arellano Torres, Araceli (Coordinador); et al.

Teaching experience