Our researchers

Martiño Rodríguez González

Educación de la Afectividad Y de la sexualidad humana
Instituto Cultura y Sociedad (ICS). Universidad de Navarra
Research lines
Differentiation of self (e.g., measurement, couple relationship, cross-cultural research, family functioning, stress and health), Emotionally focused couple therapy (S. Johnson; e.g., training of Spanish speaking therapists, outcomes in EFT in Spanish speaking countries, evidence-based), Marriage and family, emotional maturity and marriage (e.g., proceses in psychotherapy, educational programs)
8, (Google Scholar, 07/01/2021)

Most recent scientific publications (since 2010)

Authors: Neophytou, K., (Autor de correspondencia); Rodríguez González, Martiño
ISSN 1099-1743  Vol. 38  Nº 1  2021  pp. 80 - 92
Arguably, the medical model's narrative achieved an iconic mental health status eulogized within our evidence¿based era. Despite Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders' atheoretical pretensions, we attempt to shed light and critically challenge its dogmatic mental health presumptions through a family systems perspective. Specifically, our critical study of a fictitious vignette attempts to expose how the medical model's systematic de¿emphasis of familial environments directs clinicians away from the true source of triangulated children's distress, an attention shift that may result in unintentionally perpetuating children's psychological turmoil. Alternatively, we attempt to delineate how the system paradigm may holistically account for children's familial emotional environments, thereby potentially attributing their psychological distress to its true, yet concealed, familial dysfunction. In essence, we argue that the medical model seems to operate within a decontextualized restricted disease¿carrier¿child mind frame, hence potentially ascribing faux diagnoses and false medical treatments to healthy children.
Authors: Lampis, J., (Autor de correspondencia); Cataudella, S.; Agus, M.; et al.
ISSN 0951-5070  Vol. 34  Nº 1  2021  pp. 54 - 71
Bowen and colleagues argued through their clinical observations that psychological distress is a result of low levels of differentiation of self. Starting from these premises, the main objective of the present investigation was to compare a normative sample and a sample of adults seeking services at a systemic therapy clinic. Initially, we assessed differences between groups in dimensions related to differentiation of self and psychological distress. In the second step, we examined whether differentiation of self dimensions would increase or reduce the likelihood that an individual belonged to either of the two groups. The help-seeking sample was comprised of 64 adults seeking therapeutic services, and the normative sample was comprised of 85 students. All participants completed the Differentiation of Self Inventory and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. We found that the participants of the help-seeking sample had significantly higher scores on the Global Severity Index and in I-position and emotional cutoff dimensions. We also found that higher emotional cutoff was the strongest predictor of the probability of belonging to the help-seeking group in the hypothesized model. These data suggest that information about differentiation of self might enable counseling psychologists and therapist to define effective interventions.
Authors: Rived-Ocaña, M., (Autor de correspondencia); Schweer-Collins, M. L.; Rodríguez González, Martiño; et al.
ISSN 1573-3335  Vol. 42  2020  pp. 346 - 359
Contextual therapy posits that a truly comprehensive grasp of human existence is composed of individual and relational realities. The Relational Ethics Scale (RES) is the only validated instrument to measure relational ethics, one of the relational realities' four dimensions, which was theorized by Boszormenyi-Nagy. The RES measures people's perception about constructs of loyalty, entitlement, trust and justice in their family of origin and in their current and significant relationships. Relational ethics has been shown to have implications for mature development, psychological health and family functioning. The aim of this research was to adapt the RES for use with Spaniards residing in Spain (N = 1181). Psychometric properties were analyzed, and construct validity was assessed using the Spanish-Differentiation Self Inventory. Results obtained indicate the Spanish Relational Ethics Scale (S-RES) is a valid and reliable tool for relational ethics assessment in Spanish populations. Couple and family counselors in Spain may consider the clinical assessment of relational ethics using the S-RES in order to explore issues of fairness, trust, roles, and re-balance when working to support complex family systems. Future research directions using the newly validated S-RES are discussed.
Authors: Rodríguez González, Martiño (Autor de correspondencia); Lampis, J.; Murdock, N. L.; et al.
ISSN 1545-5300  Vol. 59  Nº 4  2020  pp. 1552 - 1568
This study comprises a first attempt to explore a cross¿cultural application of Bowen family systems theory and examines the relationship between differentiation of self and couple adjustment using measurement invariance. A sample of 2,141 individuals (n = 915 from the United States; n = 635 from Italy; n = 591 from Spain) completed measures of differentiation of self (DSI¿R; Skowron & Schmitt, J Marital Fam Ther, 29, 2003, 209) and couple adjustment (DAS; Spanier, J Marriage Fam, 38, 1976, 15). Results showed evidence of partial measurement equivalence for the DSI¿R across the three samples. Additionally, results from latent regression showed that less emotional cutoff predicted greater couple adjustment in the United States, Spain, and Italy, whereas greater emotional reactivity predicted poorer couple adjustment only in the more collectivistic cultures, Spain and Italy. Our findings are consistent with prior empirical studies, which suggest that emotional cutoff is a strong predictor of relationship adjustment. The use of measurement invariance provides a foundation for future studies to continue employing rigorous statistical methods when examining constructs across different cultures. The findings highlight culture¿specific similarities and differences in differentiation that may benefit practitioners by informing psychotherapy with individuals, couples, or families from diverse populations.
Authors: Rodríguez González, Martiño (Autor de correspondencia); Schweer-Collins, M.; Greenman, P.; et al.
ISSN 0194-472X  Vol. 46  Nº 2  2020  pp. 304 - 320
This study seeks to validate the cross-cultural effectiveness of Emotionally Focused Couple Therapy (EFT) training in a sample of Spanish-speaking clinicians. The 28-hour formalized training for EFT was offered in six different Spanish-speaking countries, covering Europe, North America, Central America, and South America. Two hundred and seven therapists of 14 different Spanish-speaking nationalities completed pre-training assessments, 153 of them completed post-training assessments, and 92 therapists also completed the follow-up assessment. Using multilevel growth modeling, results indicated that therapists experienced significant and positive changes in terms of EFT competence (knowledge and skill acquisition), mature empathy, self-compassion, and attachment over time. Implications for transnational EFT training, specifically in Spanish-speaking countries, are discussed.
Authors: Sandberg, J. G., (Autor de correspondencia); Rodríguez González, Martiño; Pereyra, S.; et al.
ISSN 0194-472X  Vol. 46  Nº 2  2020  pp. 256 - 271
This study is a multi-national follow-up to the original (Sandberg and Knestel (2011) Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 37, 393-410) article on the process of learning Emotionally Focused Couples Therapy (EFT). A total of 102 clinicians from nine Spanish-speaking countries (Mexico, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Spain, Colombia, Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, and El Salvador) participated in the study. A comparison of results across the two studies revealed more similarities than differences. However, a few notable differences emerged from responses to qualitative questions, namely a heightened sense of appreciation for and resonance with the focus on core emotion in EFT and less frequent reports of difficulty learning and adapting to the model among Spanish-speaking therapists. These differences were consistent with common cultural values and forms of expression in Latin America and Spain. Results are discussed in terms of training, supervision, and future research as well.
Authors: Isik, E., (Autor de correspondencia); Özbiler, S.; Schweer-Collins, M. L.; et al.
ISSN 0192-6187  Vol. 48  Nº 3  2020  pp. 235 - 249
Previous studies have documented the link between differentiation of self and life satisfaction. However, the underlying mechanisms explaining these associations are yet to be tested at the dyadic level. This study examined the mediating role of marital adjustment in the association between differentiation of self and life satisfaction among 113 Turkish heterosexual married couples (N=226). Analyses using the Common Fate Model demonstrated that differentiation of self was associated with higher levels of marital adjustment and life satisfaction, such that marital adjustment was positively associated with life satisfaction, and in turn, marital adjustment fully mediated this association. Implications are discussed for clinicians and cross-cultural researchers who seek to promote greater life satisfaction by targeting both differentiation and marital adjustment.
Authors: Peixoto-Freitas, J., (Autor de correspondencia); Rodríguez González, Martiño; Crabtree, S. A.; et al.
ISSN 0192-6187  Vol. 48  Nº 4  2020  pp. 299 - 316
This study explores differentiation of self (DoS) and its association with couple adjustment across the family life cycle, in a sample of Spanish individuals (n¿=¿506). Individuals in stage VII (nearing the end of life) revealed significantly lower levels of DoS than those in other stages, except for V (moving on at midlife). Individuals in stages V and VII also revealed lower couple adjustment than individuals in stage II (couple formation). DoS was positively associated with couple adjustment across all stages, particularly V-VII. Longitudinal studies will confirm the trend for decrease in DoS and couple adjustment. Implications for therapy are discussed.
Authors: Rodríguez González, Martiño (Autor de correspondencia); Schweer-Collins, M.; Skowron, E. A.; et al.
ISSN 0194-472X  Vol. 45  Nº 4  2019  pp. 578 - 591
The pathways between differentiation of self and health remain only partly elucidated. This cross-cultural study sought to test Bowen's hypothesis about the associations between differentiation, stressful life events, and physical and psychological health, in a sample of 466 Spanish adults. Results show that people with higher levels of differentiation were less prone to physical ailments (e.g., heart disease, cancer, or blood disorders) and psychological symptoms (e.g., depression or anxiety). Further, differentiation mediated the association between stress (i.e., perceived negativity of stress in the past year and number of stressful events across the lifetime) and physical and psychological health. The current research provides cross-cultural empirical evidence for the links between differentiation and mind and body health in a Mediterranean culture.
Authors: Rodríguez González, Martiño (Autor de correspondencia); Martins, M. V.; Bell, C. A.; et al.
ISSN 0892-2764  Vol. 41  Nº 3  2019  pp. 293 - 303
This study used an actor¿partner interdependence analytic approach to examine a theoretical model assessing whether lower differentiation of self is linked to higher psychological distress and lower dyadic adjustment. Data from 195 heterosexual Spanish couples were analyzed. Results showed significant actor effects in all variables. Regarding partner effects, women¿s emotional cutoff had a significant influence on their partner¿s psychological distress and dyadic adjustment; however, men¿s emotional cutoff had a significant relationship with their partner¿s dyadic adjustment but not psychological distress. Emotional reactivity on the other hand, the intrapersonal dimension of differentiation of self, did not manifest any partner effect. The findings provide (a) a new approach on the role of differentiation of self in intra- and interpersonal distress; (b) cross-cultural support for previous research; and (c) an integrated model for a systemic understanding of these variables, grounded in a strong theoretical framework, which explained up to 62% of model variance. Overall, our results support Bowen¿s basic assumptions and systems theory principles that a couple is an emotional unit, and suggest that interventions targeting emotional cutoff may be particularly helpful to benefit both members of the couple. Other implications for therapy and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Authors: Rodríguez González, Martiño (Autor de correspondencia); Schweer-Collins, M.; Bell, C. A.; et al.
ISSN 0748-9633  Vol. 97  Nº 2  2019  pp. 209 - 219
This study used an actor¿partner interdependence model to assess the relationship between differentiation of self and family functioning in a sample of 118 heterosexual Spanish couples, with additional attention to family structural correlates, including age of the children, number of children in the household, and educational level. Results showed a significant actor effect, with greater differentiation of self levels predicting better family functioning within individuals. Implications for mental health professionals regarding differentiation are provided.
Authors: Lampis, J., (Autor de correspondencia); Rodríguez González, Martiño; Cataudella, S.; et al.
ISSN 0814-723X  Vol. 40  Nº 4  2019  pp. 457 - 482
We present a comparison between Italy, Spain, Greece, and Portugal to test the cross¿cultural validity of the Differentiation of Self Inventory Revised (DSI¿R) Scales of emotional cut¿off (EC) and emotional reactivity (ER). Our study focuses on the importance of in¿depth analyses of the differentiation of self¿constructs from a cross¿cultural perspective and reflects on the possibility of conceptualising the universality of Bowen theory in southern European countries. The study involved 1,807 healthy individuals. All participants completed the DSI¿R (Skowron & Schmitt, 2003). It was found that the measurement models had a suitable fit for each country group. Nevertheless, in our study, the two DSI¿R subscales, ER and EC, highlighted a weak invariance, specifically demonstrating only the invariance of the pattern factor loadings and the magnitude of factor loadings in the four samples. The empirical and clinical implications of these data are discussed.
Authors: Rodríguez González, Martiño (Autor de correspondencia); Skowron, E. A.; Cagigal, V.; et al.
ISSN 0192-6187  Vol. 44  Nº 1  2016  pp. 11 - 23
This research investigates relationships between differentiation of self, mate selection, and marital adjustment in a Spanish sample of 118 heterosexual couples (N = 236). In line with Bowen theory, greater differentiation of self and greater similarity in partners' differentiation of self levels each predicted greater marital adjustment. Contrary to theory, gender differences were observed on the S-DSI, with males showing higher total differentiation scores than females, and hypothesized links between differentiation of self and mate selection were not observed. Implications for therapy and suggestions for future research with the S-DSI are discussed.
Authors: Rodríguez González, Martiño (Autor de correspondencia); Skowron, E. A.; Jódar, R.;
ISSN 0718-4808  Vol. 33  Nº 1  2015  pp. 47 - 58
This study introduces the Spanish Differentiation of Self Inventory(S-DSI) version, a 26 item measure, consisting of 2 subscales¿Emotional Reactivity and Emotional Cutoff¿focusing on adults (ages 25+) and their significant relationships, including current relations with family of origin. Translation of DSI into Spanish was conducted using a back translation method, with two independent teams for translation into Spanish and back-translation into English. A sample of 1047 adult men and women (living in Spain, native Spanish speakers) completed the Spanish-DSI scale and a socio-demographic questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on a randomly selected half of the sample, and results yielded a two subscale-solution that closely conformed with the original DSI's Emotional Reactivity and Emotional Cutoff scales. Results of a confirmatory factor analysis cross-validated the measure's factor structure in the remaining sample. Implications for cross-cultural research and culturally-informed study of Bowen theory in Spanish populations are further discussed.
Authors: Major, S. O., (Autor de correspondencia); Miranda, C.; Rodríguez González, Martiño; et al.
ISSN 1135-3848  Vol. 1  Nº 37  2014  pp. 99 - 123
The present research focuses on the studies of adaptation and validation for the Portuguese population of an inventory which assesses the differentiation of self, the Differentiation of Self Inventory-Revised (DSI-R; Skowron & Schmitt, 2003). The sample of this research included 470 adults, 249 women and 221 men, aged between 18 and 80 years. Regarding the exploratory factor analyses for the Portuguese version, a total replication of the original factor structure for the four considered factors wasn¿t obtained. The results for the internal consistency studies presented an adequate value for investigation purposes. The analysis of the impact of socio-demographic variables, on the total score of this inventory, indicated higher levels of differentiation of self in younger participants, as well as with a superior academic level. Once this is an exploratory research, additional studies could reinforce the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the DSI-R.
Authors: González-Martín, M. R.; Rodríguez González, Martiño; Génova-Fuster, G.;
ISSN 0163-8548  Vol. 34  Nº 4  2011  pp. 431 - 449
Based on experience in marriage counseling and contributions made by philosophy of phenomenology and psychology, we have carried out an in-depth analysis of the forgiveness process in the marriage relationship. Philosophy of phenomenology allows to define the conceptual framework of the marriage relationship and its essential features, which gives the therapist a reference to guide the therapeutical process. The description of the process is enriched with contributions of Psychology and particularly Systemic Family Theories. We have identified a number of steps in the forgiveness process, which can be summarized as the passing from the initial pain, through the recovery of dignity and hope, up to the final consciousness of having reached forgiveness, where the intrapersonal process in the offended spouse is imbricated with the interpersonal relationship with the partner in marriage. This interdisciplinary perspective, bringing together clinical practice, philosophy of phenomenology, and psychology, has proven particularly fruitful: it has allowed us to identify when forgiveness becomes a case of regeneration and strengthening of the bonds of marriage, or on the contrary, the cases in which the problems, together with situations of imbalance or relational pathology progress to a chronic state. Apart from this, we have reflected upon the practical application of this theoretical approach in a therapeutic context with couples that need to pass through the forgiveness process, paying special attention to the risks they may encounter. Finally, we suggest possibilities for further investigations along these interdisciplinary lines of study.
Authors: Rodríguez González, Martiño (Autor de correspondencia); Kerr, M. E.;
ISSN 0213-7941  Nº 77  2011  pp. 7 - 15
Bowen es considerado uno de los fundadores de la Terapia Familiar Sistémica. Su Teoría, sin embargo, es muy desconocida en España. A través de este artículo se introduce, con suma brevedad, la enorme riqueza de una teoría construida en profunda conexión con la biología y las neurociencias, en constante actualización, y cuya aplicación a la terapia tiene que ver con compartir con la familia una forma de pensar que se convierta en una forma de ser. Una terapia centrada en el aquí y el ahora que tiene como objetivo central desarrollar un mayor grado de Diferenciación del Self en cada uno de los individuos del sistema familiar.
Authors: Rodríguez González, Martiño
Book title:  Aprendamos a amar: Proyecto de educación afectivo sexual 5-12 años
2017  pp. 69 - 99
Authors: Rodríguez González, Martiño
Book title:  Perspectivas psicológica y educativa de las Necesidades Educativas Especiales
2017  pp. 245 - 251
Authors: Major, S. O.; Rodríguez González, Martiño; Miranda, C.; et al.
Book title:  Instrumentos de Avaliação Familiar. Funcionamento e Intervenção
Vol. 1  2014  pp. 69 - 96
Authors: Rodríguez González, Martiño
Book title:  La teoría familiar sistémica de Bowen: avances y aplicación terapéutica
2014  pp. 3 - 35
Authors: Iglesias-Souto, P. M.; Rodríguez González, Martiño; Dosil-Díaz, C.;
Book title:  Desarrollo cognitivo, afectivo, lingüístico y social
2012  pp. 47 - 80
Authors: Iglesias-Souto, P. M.; Rodríguez González, Martiño
Book title:  Desarrollo cognitivo, afectivo, lingüístico y social
2012  pp. 117 - 150
Authors: Rodríguez González, Martiño; Iglesias-Souto, P. M.; Dosil-Díaz, C.;
Book title:  Desarrollo cognitivo, afectivo, lingüístico y social
2012  pp. 17 - 46
Authors: Rodríguez González, Martiño; Martínez-Berlanga, M.;

Teaching experience


Salud familiar intergeneracional (MPGS). 
Universidad de Navarra - Facultad de Educación y Psicología.

Trabajo fin de Máster (MPGS). 
Universidad de Navarra - Facultad de Educación y Psicología.

Comunicación en la familia (MPGS). 
Universidad de Navarra - Facultad de Educación y Psicología.

Síntomas en la familia de malestar psicológico (MPGS). 
Universidad de Navarra - Facultad de Educación y Psicología.

Ciclo vital de la familia (MPGS). 
Universidad de Navarra - Facultad de Educación y Psicología.