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Authors: Santamaría, Jesús Miguel; Elustondo, David; et al.
Journal: ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT
ISSN 1352-2310  Vol. 202  2019  pp. 93 - 104
Atmospheric deposition is considered to be the major pathway by which substances from the atmosphere enter to the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This study constitutes the first exhaustive report on trace metal deposition in Cuba and is aimed to determine the monthly atmospheric flux of 47 major and trace elements in a Caribbean coastal site and investigate the main sources contributing to deposition.
Authors: D.; Rodeles, A. A.; et al.
Journal: WATER
ISSN 2073-4441  Vol. 11  Nº 3  2019  pp. 1 - 17
The signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus Dana, 1852 is a successful invasive species in the Iberian Peninsula. This is of particular conservation concern, as fish fauna is highly endemic and also threatened within this ecoregion. The aim of this study was to analyze behavioral interactions and trophic overlap between signal crayfish and native fishes in Iberian rivers (northern Spain). Video cameras were used to record fish "dominance/evasion" after spatial encounters with crayfish. Diet composition and isotopic signatures (¿13C and ¿15N) were compared to evaluate the niche overlap. Fish were dominant in 25% of the encounters with juvenile crayfish, whereas this percentage was only 4% with adult crayfish. Observations showed a high fish "evasion" response for Pyrenean stone loach Barbatula quignardi (B¿cescu-Me¿ter, 1967) (>30%). Dietary results showed a high trophic overlap between signal crayfish with the pelagic Pyrenean minnow Phoxinus bigerri Kottelat, 2007 and the benthic loach. However, the isotopic niche overlap was low, with brown trout Salmo trutta L., 1758 showing the highest area (only 0.1 ¿2). Overall, our findings suggest that interferences may occur with native species for food (i.e., benthic invertebrates). Consequently, measures should be applied to control invasive crayfish in Iberian rivers.
Authors: Gomez-Moreno, F. J., (Autor de correspondencia); Artinano, B. ; Díaz Ramiro, E.; et al.
Journal: ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
ISSN 0269-7491  Vol. 247  2019  pp. 195 - 205
This work presents the main results of two experimental campaigns carried out in summer and winter seasons in a complex pollution hotspot near a large park, El Retiro, in Madrid (Spain). These campaigns were aimed at understanding the microscale spatio-temporal variation of ambient concentration levels in areas with high pollution values to obtain data to validate models on the effect of urban trees on particulate matter concentrations. Two different measuring approaches have been used. The first one was static, with instruments continuously characterizing the meteorological variables and the particulate matter concentration outside and inside the park. During the summer campaign, the particulate matter concentration was clearly influenced by a Saharan dust outbreak during the period 23 June to 10 July 2016, when most of the particulate matter was in the fraction PM2.5-10. During the winter campaign, the mass concentrations were related to the meteorological conditions and the high atmospheric stability. The second approach was a dynamic case with mobile measurements by portable instruments. During the summer campaign, a DustTrak instrument was used to measure PM10 and PM2.5 in different transects close to and inside the park at different distances from the traffic lane. It was observed a decrease in the concentrations up to 25% at 20 m and 50% at 200 m. High PK10 values were linked to dust resuspension caused by recreational activities and to a Saharan dust outbreak.
Authors: Santiago, J. L., (Autor de correspondencia); Buccolieri, R.; Rivas, E.; et al.
Journal: SUSTAINABLE CITIES AND SOCIETY
ISSN 2210-6707  Vol. 48  Nº 101559  2019  pp. 1 - 18
With the objective of reducing population exposure, vegetation barriers composed by hedges and/or trees are usually located near roads to protect pedestrians from traffic-related pollutants. The main objective of this study is to quantify the effectiveness of this type of barriers. Black Carbon (BC) is used an indicator of the effectiveness of vegetation barrier and its concentration reduction behind the barrier is studied. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling, previously validated against BC experimental data across a vegetation barrier located in an avenue of Pamplona (Spain), is applied to simulate different barrier configurations. Additionally, the contribution of each vegetation effect (aerodynamic and deposition) on this reduction, as well as its sensitivity to different deposition velocities, are investigated. Results show barriers with hedge and trees are effective to locally reduce BC concentrations and suggest that the presence of trees is more crucial in reducing concentration rather than the hedge size or density. At 15 m from road in the presence of a row of trees and a 2 m-height and 2 m-width hedge the average concentration reduction percentage ranges between 45% and 66% (depending on deposition velocity) with respect to the case without vegetation barrier.
Authors: Rivas, E., (Autor de correspondencia); Santiago, J. L.; Lechón, Y.; et al.
Journal: SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT
ISSN 0048-9697  Vol. 649  2019  pp. 1362 - 1380
A methodology based on CFD-RANS simulations (WA CFD-RANS, Weighted Averaged Computational Fluid Dynamic-Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations) which includes appropriate modifications, has been applied to compute the annual, seasonal, and hourly average concentration of NO2 and NOX throughout the city of Pamplona (Spain) at pedestrian level during 2016. The results have been evaluated using measurements provided both by the city's network of air quality monitoring stations and by a network of mobile microsensors carried around by cyclists during their daily commutes, obtaining a maximum relative error lower than 30% when computing NO2 annual average concentrations. The model has taken into account the actual city layout in three dimensions, as well as the traffic emissions. The resulting air pollutionmaps provided information critical for studying the traffic-related health effects ofNO2 and their associated external costs in the city of Pamplona and the spatial representativeness of the current network of air quality monitoring stations (it has not been carried out for an entire city to date). The developed methodology can be applied to similar cities, providing useful information for the decision-makers.
Authors: Nickel, S., (Autor de correspondencia); Schroder, W. ; Schmalfuss, R.; et al.
Journal: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES EUROPE
ISSN 2190-4715  Vol. 30  Nº 53  2018 
BackgroundThis paper aims to investigate the correlations between the concentrations of nine heavy metals in moss and atmospheric deposition within ecological land classes covering Europe. Additionally, it is examined to what extent the statistical relations are affected by the land use around the moss sampling sites. Based on moss data collected in 2010/2011 throughout Europe and data on total atmospheric deposition modelled by two chemical transport models (EMEP MSC-E, LOTOS-EUROS), correlation coefficients between concentrations of heavy metals in moss and in modelled atmospheric deposition were specified for spatial subsamples defined by ecological land classes of Europe (ELCE) as a spatial reference system. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and logistic regression (LR) were then used to separate moss sampling sites regarding their contribution to the strength of correlation considering the areal percentage of urban, agricultural and forestry land use around the sampling location. After verification LDA models by LR, LDA models were used to transform spatial information on the land use to maps of potential correlation levels, applicable for future network planning in the European Moss Survey.ResultsCorrelations between concentrations of heavy metals in moss and in modelled atmospheric deposition were found to be specific for elements and ELCE units. Land use around the sampling sites mainly influences the correlation level. Small radiuses around the sampling sites examined (5km) are more relevant for Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn, while the areal percentage of urban and agricultural land use within large radiuses (75-100km) is more relevant for As, Cr, Hg, Pb, and V. Most valid LDA models pattern with error rates of <40% were found for As, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and V. Land use-dependent predictions of spatial patterns split up Europe into investigation areas revealing potentially high (=above-average) or low (=below-average) correlation coefficients.ConclusionsLDA is an eligible method identifying and ranking boundary conditions of correlations between atmospheric deposition and respective concentrations of heavy metals in moss and related mapping considering the influence of the land use around moss sampling sites.
Authors: Santamaría, Jesús Miguel; Elustondo, David; et al.
Journal: SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT
ISSN 0048-9697  Vol. 642  2018  pp. 723 - 732
The constant increase of anthropogenic emissions of aerosols, usually resulting from a complex mixture from various sources, leads to a deterioration of the ambient air quality. The stable isotope compositions (delta C-13 and delta N-15) of total carbon (TC) and nitrogen (TN) in both PM10 and emissions from potential sources were investigated for first time in a rural and an urban Caribbean costal sites in Cuba to better constrain the origin of the contamination. Emissions from road traffic, power plant and shipping emissions were discriminated by coupling their C and N contents and corresponding isotope signatures. Other sources (soil, road dust and cement plant), in contrast, presented large overlapping ranges for both C and N isotope compositions. delta C-13(PM10) isotope compositions in the rural (average of -25.4 +/- 1.2 parts per thousand) and urban (average of -24.8 +/- 1.2 parts per thousand) sites were interpreted as a mixture of contributions from two main contributors: i) fossil fuel combustion and ii) cement plant and quarries. Results also showed that this last source is impacting more air quality at the urban site. A strong influence from local wood burning was also identified at the rural site. These conclusions were comforted by a statistical analysis using a conditional bivariate probability function. TN and delta N-15 values from the urban site demonstrated that nitrogen in PM10 was generated by secondary processes through the formation of (NH4)(2)SO4.
Authors: García-Gómez, H.; Izquieta, Sheila; Aguillaume, L.; et al.
Journal: ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
ISSN 0269-7491  Vol. 243  Nº Part A  2018  pp. 427 - 436
In Mediterranean areas, dry deposition is a major component of the total atmospheric N input to natural habitats, particularly to forest ecosystems. An innovative approach, combining the empirical inferential method (EIM) for surface deposition of NO3- and NH4+ with stomatal uptake of NH3, HNO3 and NO2 derived from the DO3SE (Deposition of Ozone and Stomatal Exchange) model, was used to estimate total dry deposition of inorganic N air pollutants in four holm oak forests under Mediterranean conditions in Spain. The estimated total deposition varied among the sites and matched the geographical patterns previously found in model estimates: higher deposition was determined at the northern site (28.9 kg N ha-1 year-1) and at the northeastern sites (17.8 and 12.5 kg N ha-1 year-1) than at the central-Spain site (9.4 kg N ha-1 year-1). On average, the estimated dry deposition of atmospheric N represented 77% ± 2% of the total deposition of N, of which surface deposition of gaseous and particulate atmospheric N averaged 10.0 ± 2.9 kg N ha-1 year-1 for the four sites (58% of the total deposition), and stomatal deposition of N gases averaged 3.3 ± 0.8 kg N ha-1 year-1 (19% of the total deposition). Deposition of atmospheric inorganic N was dominated by the surface deposition of oxidized N in all the forests (means of 54% and 42% of the dry and total deposition, respectively).
Authors: Elustondo, David; Lasheras, E; et al.
Journal: ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT
ISSN 1352-2310  Vol. 192  2018  pp. 182 - 192
The deterioration of the air quality is a global concern. Daily PM10 samples were simultaneously collected and chemically characterized at an urban and a rural site in Cienfuegos, Cuba between January 2015 and January 2016. A source apportionment study was conducted in order to identify and quantify the main contributions of both local and long-range sources. Concentrations of PM10 varied similarly at the urban and rural site, with annual averages of 35.4 and 24.8 ug m-3, respectively. The highest concentrations were observed between March and August at both sites, when a strong influence of Saharan dust was identified. The PM10 daily limit (50 ug m-3) established in the Cuban legislation for air quality was exceeded by 3 and 8 times in the rural and urban site, respectively. The chemical characterization of PM10 showed important contributions of mineral matter, total carbon and secondary inorganic compounds in the region, with the highest concentrations observed at the urban site. Marine contribution, by contrast, was higher at the rural site. The highest EFs were obtained for the typical road traffic tracers Mo and Cu. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis coupled with conditional bivariate probability function (CBPF) and concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) identified 5 main sources in the studied sites: Saharan intrusions, marine aerosol, combustion sources and secondary aerosols, road traffic and cement plant.
Authors: López, María; Arango-Mora, C.; Santamaría, C; et al.
Journal: SOIL BIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
ISSN 0038-0717  Vol. 116  2018  pp. 378 - 387
The present work was carried out to assess the effect of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) on soil physicochemical properties, soil enzymatic activities (ß-glucosidase -ß-GLU-, nitrate reductase ¿NR-, urease ¿UR-, protease ¿PRO-, acid phosphatase ¿PHO-, dehydrogenase ¿DHA-), soil microbial biomass and soil respiration. The study was conducted along a NH3 gradient in a Q. pubescens Milld. forest in the vicinity of two livestock farms. Because of NHy (NHy: NH3 and NH4+) deposition, N saturation was detected up to 330 m from the farms. This excess of N led to a decrease in soil C:N and an increase in soil nitrification processes, which resulted in an accumulation of the heavy N isotope (15N) in the soil. N saturation was also reflected in the activity of NR enzyme, which was inhibited. On the other hand, while UR enzyme was inhibited close to the farms possibly due to the high amount of N-NH4+ resulting from the hydrolysis of NH3, PRO activity was stimulated by the presence of organic nitrogen compounds and the need of soil organisms to meet the C demand. In addition, the activity of PHO and ß-GLU enzymes was regulated by the relative amount of C and P that organisms need. Regarding biological variables, enhanced NH3 reduced soil microbial biomass and biomass respiratory efficiency. Finally, soil enzyme activities and soil microbial biomass have proved to be good biological indicators of soil quality.
Authors: Barre, J., (Autor de correspondencia); Deletraz, G.; et al.
Journal: ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
ISSN 0269-7491  Vol. 243  Nº Part B  2018  pp. 961 - 971
Multi-elemental isotopic approach associated with a land-use characteristic sampling strategy may be relevant for conducting biomonitoring studies to determine the spatial extent of atmospheric contamination sources. In this work, we investigated how the combined isotopic signatures in epiphytic lichens of two major metallic pollutants, lead (206Pb/207Pb) and mercury (¿202Hg, ¿199Hg), together with the isotopic composition of nitrogen and carbon (¿15N, ¿13C), can be used to better constrain atmospheric contamination inputs. To this end, an intensive and integrated sampling strategy based on land-use characteristics (Geographic information system, GIS) over a meso-scale area (Pyrénées-Atlantiques, SW France) was applied to more than 90 sampling stations. To depict potential relationships between such multi-elemental isotopic fingerprint and land-use characteristics, multivariate analysis was carried out. Combined Pb and Hg isotopic signatures resolved spatially the contribution of background atmospheric inputs from long range transport, from local legacy contamination (i.e. Pb) or actual industrial inputs (i.e. Pb and Hg from steel industry). Application of clustering multivariate analysis to all studied isotopes provided a new assessment of the region in accordance with the land-use characteristics and anthropogenic pressures.
Authors: Izquieta, Sheila; López, María; Irigoyen, Juan José; et al.
Journal: SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT
ISSN 0048-9697  Vol. 619-620  2018  pp. 883 - 895
Ammonia (NH3) emissions are linked to eutrophication, plant toxicity and ecosystem shifts from N to P limitation. Bryophytes are key components of terrestrial ecosystems, yet highly sensitive to N deposition. Hence, physiological responses of mosses may be indicative of NH3-related impacts, and thus useful to foresee future ecosystem damages and establish atmospheric Critical Levels (CLEs). In this work, samples of Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. were seasonally collected along a well-defined NH3 concentration gradient in an oak woodland during a one-year period. We performed a comprehensive evaluation of tissue chemistry, stoichiometry, metabolic enzymes, antioxidant response, membrane damages, photosynthetic pigments, soluble protein content and N and C isotopic fractionation. Our results showed that all the physiological parameters studied (except P, K, Ca and C) responded to the NH3 gradient in predictable ways, although the magnitude and significance of the response were dependent on the sampling season, especially for enzymatic activities and pigments content. Nutritional imbalances, membrane damages and disturbance of cellular C and N metabolism were found as a consequence to NH3 exposure, being more affected the mosses more exposed to the barn atmosphere. These findings suggested significant implications of intensive farming for the correct functioning of oak woodlands and highlighted the importance of seasonal dynamics in the study of key physiological processes related to photosynthesis, mosses nutrition and responses to oxidative stress. Finally, tissue N showed the greatest potential for the identification of NH3-related ecological end points (estimated CLE = 3.5 mu g m(-3)), whereas highly scattered physiological responses, although highly sensitive, were not suitable to that end.
Authors: Avila, A.; Aguillaume, L.; Izquieta, Sheila; et al.
Journal: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH
ISSN 0944-1344  Vol. 24  Nº 34  2017  pp. 26213 - 26226
To assess the impact of nitrogen (N) pollutants on forest ecosystems, the role of the interactions in the canopy needs to be understood. A great number of studies have addressed this issue in heavily N-polluted regions in north and central Europe. Much less information is available for the Iberian Peninsula, and yet this region is home to mountain forests and alpine grasslands that may be at risk due to excessive N deposition. To establish the basis for ecology-based policies, there is a need to better understand the forest response to this atmospheric impact. To fill this gap, in this study, we measured N deposition (as bulk, wet, and throughfall fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen) and air N gas concentrations from 2011 to 2013 at four Spanish holm oak (Quercus ilex) forests located in different pollution environments. One site was in an area of intensive agriculture, two sites were influenced by big cities (Madrid and Barcelona, respectively), and one site was in a rural mountain environment 40 km north of Barcelona. Wet deposition ranged between 0.54 and 3.8 kg N ha-1 year-1 for ammonium (NH4+)-N and between 0.65 and 2.1 kg N ha-1 year-1 for nitrate (NO3-)-N, with the lowest deposition at the Madrid site for both components. Dry deposition was evaluated with three different approaches: (1) a canopy budget model based in throughfall measurements, (2) a branch washing method, and (3) inferential calculations.
Authors: Nickel, S.; Schroder, W.; Wosniok, W.; et al.
Journal: ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT
ISSN 1352-2310  Vol. 156  2017  pp. 146 - 159
Objective: This study explores the statistical relations between the concentration of nine heavy metals (HM) (arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), vanadium (V), zinc (Zn)), and nitrogen (N) in moss and potential explanatory variables (predictors) which were then used for mapping spatial patterns across Europe. Based on moss specimens collected in 2010 throughout Europe, the statistical relation between a set of potential predictors (such as the atmospheric deposition calculated by use of two chemical transport models (CfM), distance from emission sources, density of different land uses, population density, elevation, precipitation, clay content of soils) and concentrations of HMs and nitrogen (N) in moss (response variables) were evaluated by the use of Random Forests (RF) and Classification and Regression Trees (CART). Four spatial scales were regarded: Europe as a whole, ecological land classes covering Europe, single countries participating in the European Moss Survey (EMS), and moss species at sampling sites. Spatial patterns were estimated by applying a series of RF models on data on potential predictors covering Europe. Statistical values and resulting maps were used to investigate to what extent the models are specific for countries, units of the Ecological Land Classification of Europe (ELCE), and moss species. Results: Land use, atmospheric deposition and distance to technical emission sources mainly influence the element concentration in moss. The explanatory power of calculated RF models varies according to elements measured in moss specimens, country, ecological land class, and moss species. Measured and predicted medians of element concentrations agree fairly well while minima and maxima show considerable differences. The European maps derived from the RF models provide smoothed surfaces of element concentrations (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, N, Ni, Pb, Hg, V, Zn), each explained by a multivariate RF model and verified by CART, and thereby more information than the dot maps depicting the spatial patterns of measured values. Conclusions: RF is an eligible method identifying and ranking boundary conditions of element concentrations in moss and related mapping including the influence of the environmental factors. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Authors: Schröder, W., (Autor de correspondencia); Nickel, S.; Schönrock, S.; et al.
Journal: ANNALS OF FOREST SCIENCE
ISSN 1286-4560  Vol. 74  Nº 31  2017 
Key message: Moss surveys provide spatially dense data on environmental concentrations of heavy metals and nitrogen which, together with other biomonitoring and modelling data, can be used for indicating deposition to terrestrial ecosystems and related effects across time and areas of different spatial extension. Context: For enhancing the spatial resolution of measuring and mapping atmospheric deposition by technical devices and by modelling, moss is used complementarily as bio-monitor. Aims: This paper investigated whether nitrogen and heavy metal concentrations derived by biomonitoring of atmospheric deposition are statistically meaningful in terms of compliance with minimum sample size across several spatial levels (objective 1), whether this is also true in terms of geostatistical criteria such as spatial auto-correlation and, by this, estimated values for unsampled locations (objective 2) and whether moss indicates atmospheric deposition in a similar way as modelled deposition, tree foliage and natural surface soil at the European and country level, and whether they indicate site-specific variance due to canopy drip (objective 3). Methods: Data from modelling and biomonitoring atmospheric deposition were statistically analysed by means of minimum sample size calculation, by geostatistics as well as by bivariate correlation analyses and by multivariate correlation analyses using the Classification and Regression Tree approach and the Random Forests method.
Authors: Aguillaume, L.; Izquieta, Sheila; Garcia Gomez, H.; et al.
Journal: ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT
ISSN 1352-2310  Vol. 152  2017  pp. 191 - 200
Bulk/wet and throughfall fluxes of major compounds were measured from June 2011 to June 2013 at four Mediterranean holm-oak (Quercus ilex) forests in the Iberian Peninsula. Regression analysis between net throughfall fluxes and precipitation indicated that the best defined canopy process was leaching for K+ and uptake for NH4+ at all sites. A more variable response between sites was found for Na+, Ca2+, SO42- and Cl-, which suggests that the interplay of dry deposition, leaching and uptake at the canopy was different depending on site climate and air quality characteristics. A canopy budget model (CBM) was used to try to discriminate between the canopy processes and enable to estimate dry deposition and uptake fluxes at three of the sites that complied with the model specifications. To derive N uptake, an efficiency factor of NH4+ vs. NO3- uptake (xNH(4)) corresponding to moles of NH4+ taken up for each NO3- mol, has to be determined. Up to now, a value of 6 has been proposed for temperate forests, but we lack information for Mediterranean forests. Experimental determination of N absorption on Quercus ilex seedlings in Spain suggests efficiency factors from 1 to 6. Based on these values, a sensitivity analysis for xNH4 was performed and the NH4-N and NO3-N modeled dry deposition was compared with dry deposition estimated with independent methods (inferential modeling and washing of branches). At two sites in NE Spain under a milder Mediterranean climate, the best match was obtained for xNH(4) = 6, corroborating results from European temperate forests. Based on this value, total DIN deposition was 12-13 kg N ha(-1) y(-1) at these sites. However, for a site in central Spain under drier conditions, variation of the NH4+ efficiency factor had little effect on DD estimates (which ranged from 2 to 2.6 kg N ha(-1) y(-1) with varying xNH(4)); when added to wet deposition, this produced a total N deposition in the range 2.6-3.4 kg N ha(-1) y(-1). Dry deposition was the predominant pathway for N, accounting for 60-80% of total deposition, while for base cations wet deposition dominated (55-65%). Nitrogen deposition values at the northwestern sites were close to the empirical critical load proposed for evergreen sclerophyllous Mediterranean forests (15 -17 kg N ha(-1) y(-1)). When organic N deposition at these forests is added (3 kg N ha(-1) y(-1)), the total N input to the sites in NE Spain are close to the critical loads for Mediterranean evergreen oak forests. (
Authors: Izquieta, Sheila; García Gómez, H.; Aguillaume, L.; et al.
Journal: ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
ISSN 0269-7491  Vol. 210  2016  pp. 104 - 112
Deposition of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in both bulk precipitation (BD) and canopy throughfall (TF) has been measured for the first time in the western Mediterranean. The study was carried out over a year from 2012 to 2013 at four evergreen holm oak forests located in the Iberian Peninsula: two sites in the Province of Barcelona (Northeastern Spain), one in the Province of Madrid (central Spain) and the fourth in the Province of Navarra (Northern Spain). In BD the annual volume weighted mean (VWM) concentration of DON ranged from 0.25 mg l-1 in Madrid to 1.14 mg l-1 in Navarra, whereas in TF it ranged from 0.93 mg l-1 in Barcelona to 1.98 mg l-1 in Madrid. The contribution of DON to total nitrogen deposition varied from 34% to 56% in BD in Barcelona and Navarra respectively, and from 38% in Barcelona to 72% in Madrid in TF. Agricultural activities and pollutants generated in metropolitan areas were identified as potential anthropogenic sources of DON at the study sites. Moreover, canopy uptake of DON in Navarra was found in spring and autumn, showing that organic nitrogen may be a supplementary nutrient for Mediterranean forests, assuming that a portion of the nitrogen taken up is assimilated during biologically active periods.
Authors: García-Gómez, H., (Autor de correspondencia); Aguillaume, L.; Izquieta, Sheila; et al.
Journal: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH
ISSN 0944-1344  Vol. 23  Nº 7  2016  pp. 6400 - 6413
Peri-urban vegetation is generally accepted as a significant remover of atmospheric pollutants, but it could also be threatened by these compounds, with origin in both urban and non-urban areas. To characterize the seasonal and geographical variation of pollutant concentrations and to improve the empirical understanding of the influence of Mediterranean broadleaf evergreen forests on air quality, four forests of Quercus ilex (three peri-urban and one remote) were monitored in different areas in Spain. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3) and ozone (O3) were measured during 2 years in open areas and inside the forests and aerosols (PM10) were monitored in open areas during 1 year. Ozone was the only air pollutant expected to have direct phytotoxic effects on vegetation according to current thresholds for the protection of vegetation. The concentrations of N compounds were not high enough to directly affect vegetation but could be contributing through atmospheric N deposition to the eutrophization of these ecosystems. Peri-urban forests of Q. ilex showed a significant below-canopy reduction of gaseous concentrations (particularly NH3, with a mean reduction of 29-38%), which indicated the feasibility of these forests to provide an ecosystem service of air quality improvement.
Authors: Izquieta, Sheila; Elustondo, David; Ederra, Alicia; et al.
Journal: ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS
ISSN 1470-160X  Vol. 60  Nº 1  2016  pp. 1221 - 1228
There is a significant lack of data in biomonitoring surveys from southern Europe and other Mediterranean biogeographic areas. This scarcity is mainly due to the impossibility of finding the commonly recommended species in a great portion of these dry environments. The present work was carried out with the aim of assessing the validity of the moss Pleurochaete squarrosa (Brid.) Lindb. (PS) as a feasible alternative in these regions. The study was developed in the Mediterranean area of Navarra, in northern Spain, where the response of PS to multiple atmospheric pollutants (N, Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti and Zn) was compared to that of Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. (HC), an accepted and widely used species in biomonitoring surveys. Moreover, N isotopic signatures from both species were studied to evaluate their effectiveness when identifying nitrogen emission sources. The enrichment factor (EF) approach was used to evaluate the heavy metal uptake, showing a similar behaviour for both species: low EF for Al, As, Cr and Fe; intermediate for Mn, Ni, Pb and Sb; and high for Cd, Cr, Hg and Zn. Equally, both species depicted the same N deposition patterns across the study area. However, regarding ¿15N, PS gave a more congruent picture with the location of the main sources of N emissions in the area. These data suggest that PS may be a suitable biomonitor to fill the aforementioned gaps in Mediterranean biogeographic areas.
Authors: Schröder, W.; Nickel, S.; Schönrock, S.; et al.
Journal: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH
ISSN 0944-1344  Vol. 23  Nº 11  2016  pp. 10457 - 10476
For analysing element input into ecosystems and associated risks due to atmospheric deposition, element concentrations in moss provide complementary and time-integrated data at high spatial resolution every 5 years since 1990. The paper reviews (1) minimum sample sizes needed for reliable, statistical estimation of mean values at four different spatial scales (European and national level as well as landscape-specific level covering Europe and single countries); (2) trends of heavy metal (HM) and nitrogen (N) concentrations in moss in Europe (1990¿2010); (3) correlations between concentrations of HM in moss and soil specimens collected across Norway (1990¿2010); and (4) canopy drip-induced site-specific variation of N concentration in moss sampled in seven European countries (1990¿2013). While the minimum sample sizes on the European and national level were achieved without exception, for some ecological land classes and elements, the coverage with sampling sites should be improved. The decline in emission and subsequent atmospheric deposition of HM across Europe has resulted in decreasing HM concentrations in moss between 1990 and 2010. In contrast, hardly any changes were observed for N in moss between 2005, when N was included into the survey for the first time, and 2010. In Norway, both, the moss and the soil survey data sets, were correlated, indicating a decrease of HM concentrations in moss and soil.
Authors: Garcia-Gomez, H.; Izquieta, Sheila; Aguillaume, L.; et al.
Journal: ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
ISSN 0269-7491  Vol. 216  2016  pp. 653 - 661
Atmospheric nitrogen deposition is one of the main threats for biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Measurement techniques like ion-exchange resin collectors (IECs), which are less expensive and time-consuming than conventional methods, are gaining relevance in the study of atmospheric deposition and are recommended to expand monitoring networks. In the present work, bulk and throughfall deposition of inorganic nitrogen were monitored in three different holm oak forests in Spain during two years. The results obtained with IECs were contrasted with a conventional technique using bottle collectors and with a literature review of similar studies. The performance of IECs in comparison with the conventional method was good for measuring bulk deposition of nitrate and acceptable for ammonium and total dissolved inorganic nitrogen. Mean annual bulk deposition of inorganic nitrogen ranged 3.09-5.43 kg N ha(-1) according to IEC methodology, and 2.42-6.83 kg N ha(-1) y(-1) using the conventional method. Intra-annual variability of the net throughfall deposition of nitrogen measured with the conventional method revealed the existence of input pulses of nitrogen into the forest soil after dry periods, presumably originated from the washing of dry deposition accumulated in the canopy. Important methodological recommendations on the IEC method and discussed, compiled and summarized.
Authors: Foan, L.; Domercq, M.; et al.
Journal: CHEMOSPHERE
ISSN 0045-6535  Vol. 119  2015  pp. 452 - 458
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) atmospheric deposition was evaluated at a remote site in Northern Spain using moss biomonitoring with Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) Schimp., and by measuring the total deposition fluxes of PAHs. The year-long study allowed seasonal variations of PAH content in mosses to be observed, and these followed a similar trend to those of PAH fluxes in total deposition. Generally, atmospheric deposition of PAHs is greater in winter than in summer, due to more PAH emissions from domestic heating, less photoreactivity of the compounds, and intense leaching of the atmosphere by wet deposition. However, fractionation of these molecules between the environmental compartments occurs: PAH fluxes in total deposition and PAH concentrations in mosses are correlated with their solubility (r=0.852, p<0.01) and lipophilic properties (KOW, r=0.768, p<0.01), respectively. This annual study therefore showed that atmospheric PAH fluxes can be estimated with moss biomonitoring data if the bioconcentration or 'enriching' factors are known.
Authors: Harmens, H.; Norris, A.; Sharps, K.; et al.
Journal: ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
ISSN 0269-7491  Vol. 200  2015  pp. 93 - 104
In recent decades, naturally growing mosses have been used successfully as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and nitrogen. Since 1990, the European moss survey has been repeated at five-yearly intervals. In 2010, the lowest concentrations of metals and nitrogen in mosses were generally found in northern Europe, whereas the highest concentrations were observed in (south-)eastern Europe for metals and the central belt for nitrogen. Averaged across Europe, since 1990, the median concentration in mosses has declined the most for lead (77%), followed by vanadium (55%), cadmium (51%), chromium (43%), zinc (34%), nickel (33%), iron (27%), arsenic (21%, since 1995), mercury (14%, since 1995) and copper (11%). Between 2005 and 2010, the decline ranged from 6% for copper to 36% for lead; for nitrogen the decline was 5%. Despite the Europe-wide decline, no changes or increases have been observed between 2005 and 2010 in some (regions of) countries.
Authors: Meyer, M.; Schröder, W.; Nickel, S.; et al.
Journal: SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT
ISSN 0048-9697  Vol. 538  2015  pp. 600 - 610
High atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) impacts functions and structures of N limited ecosystems. Due to filtering and related canopy drip effects forests are particularly exposed to N deposition. Up to now, this was proved by many studies using technical deposition samplers but there are only some few studies analysing the canopy drip effect on the accumulation of N in moss and related small scale atmospheric deposition patterns. Therefore, we investigated N deposition and related accumulation of N in forests and in (neighbouring) open fields by use of moss sampled across seven European countries. Sampling and chemical analyses were conducted according to the experimental protocol of the European Moss Survey. The ratios between the measured N content in moss sampled inside and outside of forests were computed and used to calculate estimates for non-sampled sites. Potentially influencing environmental factors were integrated in order to detect their relationships to the N content in moss. The overall average N content measured in moss was 20.0 mg g¿ 1 inside and 11.9 mg g¿ 1 outside of forests with highest N values in Germany inside of forests. Explaining more than 70% of the variance, the multivariate analyses confirmed that the sampling site category (site with/without canopy drip) showed the strongest correlation with the N content in moss.
Authors: McBride, J.R.; Shiraishi, K.; et al.
Journal: SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT
ISSN 0048-9697  Vol. 490  2014  pp. 205 - 212
To assess the impact of vehicular emissions on a mixed conifer forest, we measured the contents of the trace elements, N, C, and their respective natural isotopes (delta(15)N and delta(13)C), in the epiphytic lichen, L. vulpina. The samples were collected along transects perpendicular to Interstate 80 (I-80) and along a more remote, secondary forest road (R07). Distance to the road verge, trunk cover, and stand basal area were also recorded. Percent N ranged from 1.10% to 2.00% near I-80 and from 0.78% to 1.13% along R07. Concentrations of N, (15)N, Na, As, Pb, and Zn were enhanced in lichen samples near I-80 and were negatively correlated with distance from the road. Trunk cover values differed between roads (p<0.001) and were negatively correlated with %N (r(2)=0.74; p<0.001). The results indicate that vehicular N emissions are significant enough to alter the surrounding ecosystem, modifying the presence of a sensitive component such as L. vulpina, and suggest that a clean-site threshold of 1.0%N may be too high as an indicator of critical N load exceedance. The study also underscored the potential role of wolf lichen in a large-scale assessment of N deposition and source identification.
Authors: Harmens, H.; Schnyder, E.; Thöni, L.; et al.
Journal: ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
ISSN 0269-7491  Vol. 194  2014  pp. 50 - 59
To assess the relationship between nitrogen concentrations in mosses and wet bulk nitrogen deposition or concentrations in precipitation, moss tissue and deposition were sampled within a distance of 1 km of each other in seven European countries. Relationships for various forms of nitrogen appeared to be asymptotic, with data for different countries being positioned at different locations along the asymptotic relationship and saturation occurring at a wet bulk nitrogen deposition of ca. 20 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1). The asymptotic behaviour was more pronounced for ammonium-N than nitrate-N, with high ammonium deposition at German sites being most influential in providing evidence of the asymptotic behaviour. Within countries, relationships were only significant for Finland and Switzerland and were more or less linear. The results confirm previous relationships described for modelled total deposition. Nitrogen concentration in mosses can be applied to identify areas at risk of high nitrogen deposition at European scale.
Authors: Foan, L.; Leblond, S.; Thöni, L.; et al.
Journal: ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
ISSN 0269-7491  Vol. 184  Nº Supl. 1  2014  pp. 113 - 122
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations and N, C stable isotope signatures were determined in mosses Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. from 61 sites of 3 European regions: Ile-de-France (France); Navarra (Spain); the Swiss Plateau and Basel area (Switzerland). Total PAH concentrations of 100-700 ng g(-1), as well as delta C-13 values of -32 to -29 parts per thousand and delta N-13 values of -11 to -3 parts per thousand were measured. Pearson correlation tests revealed opposite trends between high molecular weight PAH (4-6 aromatic rings) content and delta C-13 values. Partial Least Square regressions explained the very significant correlations (r > 0.91, p < 0.001) between high molecular weight PAH concentrations by local urban land use (<10 km) and environmental factors such as elevation and pluviometry. Finally, specific correlations between heavy metal and PAH concentrations were attributed to industrial emissions in Switzerland and road traffic emissions in Spain.
Authors: Herrero, C.; Uría, Jaime; Ibáñez, R; et al.
Journal: REPORTS OF THE FINNISH ENVIRONMENT INSTITUTE
ISSN 1796-1718  Vol. 25  2013  pp. 47 - 50
Authors: Santamaría, C; Elustondo, David; et al.
Journal: ANALYTICAL METHODS
ISSN 1759-9660  Vol. 5  Nº 2  2013  pp. 554-559
A microwave digestion method in a closed vessel was developed for the simultaneous determination of trace and major elements, with the highest possible recoveries, in atmospheric aerosols using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). This method was developed to quantify the concentration of Na, Mg, Al, P, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce and Pb present in quartz filters containing particulate matter (PM10). The performance of the procedure was evaluated by analysis of the standard reference material NIST 1633b and CTA-FFA-1. Different combinations of nitric acid (HNO3), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydrofluoric acid (HF) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) were tested to improve the recovery factors for the studied elements. The addition of a large amount (3 mL) of HF was required to fully dissolve the quartz filters. This fact made difficult the obtention of high recoveries for alkali (Rb, Cs), alkaline earth (Mg, Ca, Ba), and rare earth (La, Ce) elements, which showed the lowest recoveries. In this study three different digestion methods were assessed using a closed evaporation system, the addition of boric acid and a mixture of both procedures to minimize the effects of residual fluoride.
Authors: Ezcurra, A.; Benech, B.; Echelecou, A.; et al.
Journal: ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT
ISSN 1352-2310  Vol. 74  2013  pp. 367 - 377
The Pyrenees Mountains, the natural border between France and Spain, have experienced a large increase in road traffic in the last decade. Due to this fact, a research program named PAP (Pollution Atmospheric in the Pyrenees) was established in 2004 by several laboratories from Spain and France to address the influence of meteorological regimes on the pollution levels of two adjacent valleys, Aspe valley (France) and Canfranc valley (Spain), situated in the center of the Pyrenean range. Pollution measurements show that mean ozone concentrations increase with height. In Sarrance, the site placed at the bottom of the valleys at 335 m above sea level (ASL), the mean ozone value was 23 ppb, whereas at the Pic Midi observatory (2877 m ASL), the top of the PAP network, the value found for mean ozone values was 52 ppb. A linear trend fits this altitudinal variation with a vertical gradient of 17 ppb km(-1). The data demonstrate that the observatories located over 1400 m ASL do not show the classical mean daily ozone cycle, and that mean ozone concentrations throughout the day are nearly constant. By contrast, below 1400 m ASL, the classical mean daily ozone cycle is clear, reaching a maximum around noon. These findings indicate that the photochemical reactions are almost inactive at the elevated observatories and, as a result, it can be concluded that ozone levels at those locations are mostly caused by advection of aged air masses. Consequently, we could find that the gradient inside the valleys follows a linear trend of 29 ppb km(-1). Finally, it has been observed that in north Foehn situations, intrusions of polluted air coming from the Free Troposphere (FT) can be detected in the upper part of the Spanish valley of Canfranc, where the mean daily ozone cycle changes significantly and becomes similar to the ones measured at the stations situated above 1400 m ASL. However, the results also pointed out that, except for the Foehn situations, the different local air flow regimes do not strongly affect the mean diurnal cycle of ozone and the mean ozone concentrations.
Authors: V Delgado; Ederra, Alicia; Santamaría, Jesús Miguel;
Journal: GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY
ISSN 1354-1013  Vol. 19  Nº 7  2013  pp. 2221 - 2228
In this study we used recent (2010) and herbarium material (1980) of six bryophyte species to assess long-term atmospheric deposition in natural forested areas in northern Spain. For this purpose, tissue nitrogen and carbon content, as well as 13C and 15N signatures of samples of Hypnum cupressiforme, Polytrichastrum formosum, Leucobryum juniperoideum, Rhytidiadelphus loreus, Homalothecium lutescens and Diplophyllum albicans were analysed and comparisons made between years and species. In addition, the usefulness of each of the six species was evaluated. The range of values observed was similar to that in other studies carried out in rural areas. Significantly lower values were found in 2010 for N (H. cupressiforme), 15N (R. loreus and D. albicans), C (R. loreus) and 13C (all except L. juniperoideum). Our natural areas are thus now less influenced by atmospheric pollutants than they were, most probably due to changes in some traditional local activities. Differences were observed between species for all the four parameters studied, so different species must not be analysed together. Finally, R. loreus and H. lutescens seem to be good bioindicators, sensitive even with a few samples, although further studies are needed to corroborate their usefulness.
Authors: Miranda, Rafael; Santamaría, Jesús Miguel;
Journal: Environmental Engineering and Management Journal
ISSN 1582-9596  Vol. 11  Nº 6  2012  pp. 1045 - 1048
Authors: Santamaría, C; Elustondo, David; et al.
Journal: ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT JOURNAL
ISSN 1582-9596  Vol. 11  Nº 6  2012  pp. 1049 - 1058
The concentrations of 15 selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in daily PM10 samples collected at a rural site, an urban site and a traffic site in Navarra during 2009. PAHs were extracted by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) from the corresponding quartz filters and later analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). An intensive annual study was enabled with this analytical procedure as turnover is multiplied by 50 with MAE in comparison with the classical extraction technique (Soxhlet). The annual average total concentrations of the 15 target compounds ranged from 0.6 ng m(-3) to 1.2 ng m(-3) at the rural and traffic sampling stations respectively, showing up to four times higher PAHs concentrations in winter than in summer. When compared to other European cities, Pamplona registered significantly lower PAHs values. Other pollutants like NOx, CO and PM10 were found to be well correlated with PAHs, and O-3 presented a negative correlation. The results of diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis (PCA) revealed the high influence of diesel and gasoline emissions in the three studied areas, although, other main sources were also found.
Authors: Santamaría, Jesús Miguel; Moraza, María Lourdes; Elustondo, David; et al.
Journal: ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT JOURNAL
ISSN 1582-9596  Vol. 11  Nº 6  2012  pp. 1159 - 1169
Mites and springtails are important members of soil mesofauna and have been proven to be good bioindicators of airborne pollutants. We studied the surrounding area of a steel mill located in a mountain valley of North Spain. Previous studies had documented the existence of a pollution gradient in this area due to the emissions of the factory, thus providing an interesting site to investigate the potential effects of pollutants (heavy metals and nitrogen) on soil biodiversity. The density of Acari and Collembola significantly decreased with the increase in concentration of Cr, Mn, Zn, Cd and Pb. Mites appeared to be more sensitive to heavy metal pollution than springtails. Likewise, the density of these microarthropoda was lower in those soils exhibiting higher nitrogen content. The species composition of the community of Acari and Collembola changed according to heavy metal pollution. Significant differences in abundance, species richness and diversity were observed between the communities of the sampling sites. Some species were exclusive of the less polluted sites, while other appeared in the most contaminated ones. This different response of soil mesofauna to pollutants suggests that some mite or springtail species could be used as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution.
Authors: Lasheras, E; et al.
Journal: ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT JOURNAL
ISSN 1582-9596  Vol. 11  Nº 6  2012  pp. 1149 - 1158
In this study we explore the processes of sorption and mobility in experimental soil columns in order to assess the response of natural soils to a hypothetical increase of pollution. The soils were sampled in a forest catchment situated in the Bertiz Natural Park at the western end of the Pyrenees. 21 columns, reproducing 21 soil profiles, were treated with a solution of heavy metals four times more concentrated than under actual conditions of deposition. An undisturbed soil column was tested simultaneously. The competition between cations and the content of clay and oxi-hydroxide compounds in the soils were the main factors determining the mobility of metals along with the influence of temperature. Calculated distribution coefficients show retention of Cr3+ Cu2+, and As5+, and in a lesser extent of Pb2+ and leaching of Mn2+, Zn2+, Cd2+ and Ni2+. Consequently, Mn2+ and Zn2+ have a greater tendency to contribute to groundwater pollution, whereas Cr3+ and Cu2+ are more likely to remain on soil surface. In undisturbed soil column, Ni2+ and Zn2+ were preferably sorbed onto dissolved organic matter (DOC), and the sorption of Mn2+ Cu2+ and Zn2+ was controlled by the ambient temperature. The simulation shows the presence of weakly sorbed metals and of others clearly desorbed (Ni2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+), which suggests that in the near future they will reach groundwater becoming a risk for its quality and for the biota. This kind of experiments in disturbed soils did not prove to be successful, hence their analysis in undisturbed soils is suggested.
Authors: Foan, L.; Domerq, M.; et al.
Journal: ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT JOURNAL
ISSN 1582-9596  Vol. 11  Nº 6  2012  pp. 1101-1110
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in atmospheric deposition in a Nature Park located in the North of Spain over a period of one year (June 2010-May 2011). Total PAH deposition was evaluated monthly by combining samples collected over two-week periods, using 6 throughfall and 2 bulk precipitation collectors distributed over the study area. The latter consisted of glass funnels (with vertical sides) attached to Pyrex glass bottles. PAH determination was performed by liquid-liquid extractions and analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography associated with fluorescence detection. Throughfall deposition revealed a loss under the canopy of 12% of the total atmospheric PAH deposition due to precipitation interception. Spatial variability between the 6 throughfall collectors reached a maximum of 25% during the wet season. Temporal trends showed significant variations of 27 to 54% throughout the year. PAH deposition increased during winter, due to higher emissions from domestic heating, less photoreactivity of the compounds and intense leaching of the atmosphere by wet deposition. Average daily fluxes were estimated for 6 quantified PAHs (PHE, ANT, PYR, B(b)F, B(k)F and B(a)P) at 182 +/- 27 ng m(-2) d(-1), which agreed with studies previously carried out in other local rural areas. The major compounds were phenanthrene and pyrene, both markers of traffic emissions.
Authors: Harmens, H.; Ilyn, I.; Mills, G.; et al.
Journal: ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
ISSN 0269-7491  Vol. 166  2012  pp. 1 - 9
Previous analyses at the European scale have shown that cadmium and lead concentrations in mosses are primarily determined by the total deposition of these metals. Further analyses in the current study show that Spearman rank correlations between the concentration in mosses and the deposition modelled by the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) are country and metal-specific. Significant positive correlations were found for about two thirds or more of the participating countries in 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005 (except for Cd in 1990). Correlations were often not significant and sometimes negative in countries where mosses were only sampled in a relatively small number of EMEP grids. Correlations frequently improved when only data for EMEP grids with at least three moss sampling sites per grid were included. It was concluded that spatial patterns and temporal trends agree reasonably well between lead and cadmium concentrations in mosses and modelled atmospheric deposition.
Authors: Ariño, A.H.; Ibáñez, R; et al.
Journal: THE FINNISH ENVIRONMENT
ISSN 1238-7312  Nº 18  2011  pp. 53 - 57
Authors: Elustondo, David; Santamaría, C; et al.
Journal: Atmospheric research
ISSN 0169-8095  Vol. 102  Nº 1  2011  pp. 191 - 205
Authors: Harmens, H.; Norris, D.A.; Cooper, D.M.; et al.
Journal: Environmental Pollution
ISSN 0269-7491  Vol. 159  Nº 10  2011  pp. 2852 - 2860
Authors: Elustondo, David; Lasheras, E; et al.
Journal: Chemosphere
ISSN 0045-6535  Vol. 78  Nº 8  2010  pp. 965 - 971
A biomonitoring survey using the moss species Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. was conducted in the surroundings of two steel plants located in the North of Spain. Levels of V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, Pb and N were determined. Very high concentrations in the areas of study were detected when compared to nearby unaffected regions. Similar trends were observed for all the elements in the differently orientated transects, showing an appreciable influence of the NW prevailing winds of the region in the dispersion of pollutants, as well as a clear decreasing gradient in the concentrations of metals in mosses within a distance of 1500 meters from the facilities. A differentiation between the elements emitted by the chimney as result of the industrial activity (V, Cr, Ni, Cu and As) and those with a high presence in steel slag deposits (Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb) was observed. The range of contamination was also established by means of the Contamination Factor, indicating a category 4 out of 6 categories, which shows the high levels reported in the areas of study. A different dynamic was registered for nitrogen regarding the rest of the heavy metals analysed except for Hg, probably due to the elevated volatility and mobility of both elements, as well as their high persistence in the atmosphere.
Authors: Elustondo, David; Lasheras, E; et al.
Journal: WATER AIR SOIL POLL
ISSN 0049-6979  Vol. 210  Nº 1-4  2010  pp. 335 - 346
Authors: Schröder, W.; Holy, M.; Pesch, R.; et al.
Journal: Journal of Soils and Sediments-protection, risk assessment and remediation
ISSN 1439-0108  Vol. 10  Nº 8  2010  pp. 1572 - 1584
Authors: Parra, María Asunción; et al.
Journal: WATER AIR SOIL POLL
ISSN 0049-6979  Vol. 206  Nº 1-4  2010  pp. 23 - 34
Authors: Harmens, H.; Norris, D.A.; Steinnes, E.; et al.
Journal: Environmental Pollution
ISSN 0269-7491  Vol. 158  Nº 10  2010  pp. 3144 - 3156
In recent decades, mosses have been used successfully as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals. Since 1990, the European moss survey has been repeated at five-yearly intervals. Although spatial patterns were metal-specific, in 2005 the lowest concentrations of metals in mosses were generally found in Scandinavia, the Baltic States and northern parts of the UK; the highest concentrations were generally found in Belgium and south-eastern Europe. The recent decline in emission and subsequent deposition of heavy metals across Europe has resulted in a decrease in the heavy metal concentration in mosses for the majority of metals. Since 1990, the concentration in mosses has declined the most for arsenic, cadmium, iron, lead and vanadium (52-72%), followed by copper, nickel and zinc (20-30%), with no significant reduction being observed for mercury (12% since 1995) and chromium (2%). However, temporal trends were country-specific with sometimes increases being found. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Authors: Parra, María Asunción; Santiago, J.L.; Martín, Fernando; et al.
Journal: Atmospheric environment
ISSN 1352-2310  Vol. 44  Nº 17  2010  pp. 2089 - 2097
Authors: Schröder, W.; Holy, M.; Pesch, R.; et al.
Journal: Atmospheric environment
ISSN 1352-2310  Vol. 44  Nº 29  2010  pp. 3485 - 3491
Authors: Foan, L.; Sablayrolles, C.; Elustondo, David; et al.
Journal: Atmospheric environment
ISSN 1352-2310  Vol. 44  Nº 26  2010  pp. 3207 - 3214
Authors: Holy, M.; Pesch, R.; Schröder, W.; et al.
Journal: J ATMOS CHEM
ISSN 0167-7764  Vol. 63  Nº 2  2010  pp. 109 - 124
Authors: Pons, Juan José; Santamaría, Jesús Miguel; Ariño, A.H.; et al.
Book title:  Tecnologías de la Información Geográfica: perspectivas multidisciplinares en la sociedad del conocimiento
2018  pp. 414 - 423
La calidad del aire urbano es un aspecto muy relevante para el bienestar de los ciudadanos y está cada vez más presente en el debate social y político. Para contar con una atmósfera saludable en nuestras ciudades, resulta necesario disponer de información detallada sobre cómo se distribuye la contaminación en cada punto de la ciudad y no solo en torno a las cabinas de control de calidad del aire. En este contexto, se inscribe el proyecto LIFE+ RESPIRA (2014-2017), concebido como una iniciativa de ciencia ciudadana, en la que cerca de 150 ciclistas voluntarios han recorrido el área metropolitana de Pamplona a lo largo de dos años, equipados con captadores geolocalizados de diferentes tipos de contaminantes atmosféricos (CO , NOX, O3 y partículas en suspensión). A lo largo de ese tiempo, los voluntarios han recorrido unos 47.000 km en bicicleta, contribuyendo a obtener casi 150 millones de medidas en más de 4 millones de posiciones geolocalizadas a lo largo de las calles de la ciudad y sus alrededores, cubriendo la mayoría de las situaciones estacionales, horarias, climáticas y de tráfico de un año típico. Con toda esa ingente cantidad de información se ha podido realizar gran cantidad de mapas muy detallados de la calidad del aire, que han permitido modelizar el comportamiento de cada contaminante estudiado de acuerdo a las diferentes condiciones que se presentan.
Authors: Santamaría, C; Elustondo, David; Lasheras, E; et al.
Book title:  Chromatographic analysis of the environment : mass spectrometry based approaches
2017  pp. 427 - 452
Authors: Harmens, H.; Norris, D.A.; Cooper, D.M.; et al.
Book title:  Nitrogen Deposition and Natura 2000 Science and Practice in Determining Environmental Impacts
2011  pp. 148-155
Authors: Harmens, H.; Mills, G.; Hayes, F.; et al.
Book title:  ICP Vegetation Programme Coordination Centre
2011  pp. 50
Authors: Whitfield, C.; Strachan, I.; Aherne, J.; et al.
Book title:  Nitrogen Deposition and Natura 2000 Science & practice in determining environmental impacts
2011  pp. 88-100
Authors: Ariño, A.H.; Gimeno, Benjamín S.; Pérez de Zabalza, A.; et al.
Book title:  Nitrogen Deposition and Natura 2000: Science & Practice in determining environmental impacts
2011  pp. 140 - 146
Authors: Santamaría, Jesús Miguel, (Editor); Ariño, A.H.; León, Bienvenido; et al.
2018 
This book collects the main outcomes that were generated during the implementation of the LIFE+RESPIRA project (LIFE13 ENV/ES/000417), carried out in the city of Pamplona, Navarra, Spain. The research was conducted by a cross-functional team made up of more than 30 researchers belonging to three entities: The University of Navarra, the Centre for Energy, Environmental and Technological Research (CIEMAT) and Environmental Management of Navarra (GAN-NIK).
Authors: Santamaría, Jesús Miguel, (Editor); Ariño, A.H.; León, Bienvenido; et al.
2018 
Recoge los principales resultados generados durante la realización del proyecto LIFE+RESPIRA, llevado a cabo en la ciudad de Pamplona (Navarra, España) por un equipo interdisciplinar constituido por más de 30 investigadores pertenecientes a la Universidad de Navarra, el Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT) y Gestión Ambiental de Navarra (GAN-NIK). El libro, que se ha publicado en castellano y en inglés, se ha dividido en 7 capítulos: 1. ¿Ciudades sostenibles? 2. Exposición de los ciudadanos a la contaminación atmosférica 3. Papel de la vegetación urbana en la calidad del aire 4. Modelos de alta resolución para evaluar la calidad del aire 5. Impactos de la contaminación urbana 6. Movilidad y sostenibilidad urbanas 7. Comunicación y educación ambiental. Este libro pretende ser una guía de utilidad para científicos, gestores y ciudadanos, aportando un conjunto de herramientas que permitan mejorar la calidad de vida de nuestras ciudades. Además, quiere rendir un homenaje a todos los voluntarios ciclistas que han participado en dicho proyecto y que son los verdaderos artífices del mismo, ya que gracias a su dedicación incondicional durante más de dos años, han proporcionado una cantidad ingente de datos sobre la calidad del aire de la ciudad de Pamplona.