Our researchers

María Icíar Astiasarán Anchía

Ciencias de la Alimentación y Fisiología
Facultad de Farmacia y Nutrición. Universidad de Navarra
Research lines
Esteroles y sus oxidos, Fracción lipídica de los alimentos, Oxidación lipidica y antioxidantes, Alimentos funcionales, Nuevas formulaciones de derivados cárnicos, Sexenio CNEAI: 4 (1988, 1991-1995; 1996-2001; 2002-2007; 2008-2013)
34, (Scopus, 20/01/2017)
32, (WoS, 25/10/2016)

Most recent scientific publications (since 2010)

Authors: Roxo, M.; Cavero, R Y; et al.
ISSN 1756-4646  Vol. 44  2018  pp. 146 - 154
Melissa officinalis, Lavandula latifolia and Origanum vulgare are widely used medicinal plants and spices. Their extracts were evaluated as potential antioxidants for functional food formulations. After being submitted to an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, all the extracts showed antioxidant activity (measured by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, TPC). Furthermore, their main polyphenols maintained high stability. Biological activity was measured using Caenorhabditis elegans, which is a widely used model in this context. Treatments of 50 and 100 mu g/mL of M. officinalis significantly attenuated juglone-induced stress in the survival assay performed; moreover, all tested concentrations decreased intracellular ROS. Lavandula latifolia and O. vulgare had no significant effect against acute stress in the survival assay, but significantly decreased ROS basal levels. GST-4 expression under juglone-induced oxidative stress was significantly down-regulated by treatment with the three plant extracts (up to 63%). Besides, similar biological activity of all digested extracts was demonstrated in all in vivo assays.
Authors: Barriuso, Blanca; Ansorena D; Astiasarán I;
ISSN 0960-0760  Vol. 169  2017  pp. 39 - 45
Dietary sterols are nutritionally interesting compounds which can suffer oxidation reactions. In the case of plant sterols, they are being widely used for food enrichment due to their hypocholesterolemic properties. Besides, cholesterol and plant sterols oxidation products are associated with the development of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, among others. Therefore, the evaluation of the particular factors affecting sterol degradation and oxysterols formation in foods is of major importance. The present work summarizes the main results obtained in experiments which aimed to study four aspects in this context: the effect of the heating treatment, the unsaturation degree of the surrounding lipids, the presence of antioxidants on sterols degradation, and at last, oxides formation. The use of model systems allowed the isolation of some of these effects resulting in more accurate data. Thus, these results could be applied in real conditions.
Authors: Thomsen, B. R.; Hermund, D. B.; et al.
ISSN 1438-7697  Vol. 119  Nº 3  2017  pp. 1600072
A water and an acetone extract of the Icelandic brown algae Fucus vesiculosus were evaluated as potential natural sources of antioxidant compounds in skin care emulsions. To assess their efficacy in inhibiting lipid oxidation caused by photo- or thermoxidation, they were stored in darkness and room temperature as control conditions, and compared to samples stored under accelerated conditions (light and room temperature, or darkness and 40 degrees C). The presence of extracts in the skin care emulsions induced remarkable colour changes when the emulsions were exposed to light, and more extensively under high temperature. High temperature also caused greater increments in the droplet size of the emulsions. The analysis of the tocopherol content, peroxide value and volatile compounds during the storage revealed that, whereas both water and acetone extracts showed (at 2mg/g of emulsion) protective effect against thermooxidation, only the water extract showed antioxidant activity against photooxidation. Practical applications: This research is the basis of developing natural antioxidants derived from seaweed to limit lipid oxidation in skin care products.
Authors: Passerini, D.; Astiasarán I; et al.
ISSN 0309-1740  Vol. 134  2017  pp. 7 - 3
A new low-energy gelled emulsion containing algae oil was developed as animal fat replacer. Its stability was evaluated under different storage conditions: 4 V (4 degrees C/vacuum), 4NV (4 degrees C/no vacuum), 25 V (25 degrees C/vacuum) and 25NV (25 degrees C/no vacuum). According to moisture, hardness, color and lipid oxidation data, 4 degrees C under vacuum (4 V) was selected as the best condition. Once the gelled emulsion was characterized, its effectiveness as fat analogue was demonstrated in beef patties. Reformulated patties were produced with 100% of animal fat replacement and compared to conventional patties (9%fat). A 70%fat reduction was achieved in the new patties, mainly due to a reduction in the saturated fatty acids. Also, decreased n-6 (76%lower content) and increased eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (55%higher content) were noticed in the new formulation. The incorporation of the gelled emulsion containing reduced amount of n-6 fatty acids and increased amounts of long chain n-3 fatty acids (EPA + DHA) reduced the oxidation status of the patties and their sensory evaluation resulted in acceptable scores.
Authors: Calvo, María Isabel; et al.
ISSN 0022-1155  Vol. 54  Nº 9  2017  pp. 2842 - 2851
Gelled emulsions with carrageenan are a novel type of emulsion that could be used as a carrier of unsaturated fatty acids in functional foods formulations. Lipid degradation through volatile compounds was studied in gelled emulsions which were high in polyunsaturated oils (sunflower or algae oil) after 49 days of storage. Aqueous Lavandula latifolia extract was tested as a natural antioxidant. Analysis of the complete volatile profile of the samples resulted in a total of 40 compounds, classified in alkanes, alkenes, aldehydes, ketones, acids, alcohols, furans, terpenes and aromatic hydrocarbons. During storage, the formation of the volatile compounds was mostly related to the oxidation of the main fatty acids of the sunflower oil (linolenic acid) and the algae oil (docosahexaenoic acid). Despite the antioxidant capacity shown by the L. latifolia extract, its influence in the oxidative stability in terms of total volatiles was only noticed in sunflower oil gels (p < 0.05), where a significant decrease in the aldehydes fraction was found.
Authors: Astiasarán I; Abella, E.; Gatta, G.; et al.
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 9  Nº 7  2017  pp. 662
The lipid fraction of margarines and fast food French fries, two types of foods traditionally high in trans fatty acids (TFA), is assessed. TFA data reported worldwide during the last 20 years have been gathered and show that some countries still report high TFA amounts in these products. The content of TFA was analysed in margarines (two store and four premium brands) and French-fries from fast-food restaurants (five chains). All samples were collected in Pamplona (Navarra, Spain). The margarines showed mean values of 0.68% and 0.43% (g TFA/100 g fat) for the store and premium brands, respectively. The French fries' values ranged from 0.49% to 0.89%. All samples were lower than the 2% set by some European countries as the maximum legal content of TFA in fats, and contained less than 0.5 g/serving, so they could also be considered "trans free products". This work confirmed that the presence of TFA is not significant in the two analysed products and contributes updated food composition tables, key tools for epidemiological and nutrition studies.
Authors: Ansorena D; et al.
ISSN 1132-2675  Vol. 256  2017  pp. 97 - 106
Authors: L.; Claerbout, A. S.; Calvo, María Isabel; et al.
ISSN 1756-4646  Vol. 26  2016  pp. 428 - 438
The bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of rutin, caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid were evaluated using three in nitro gastrointestinal digestion models: filtration, centrifugation and dialysis. At intestinal level, a significant degradation of all compounds was observed when results were expressed on concentration basis (mg/mg lyophilised sample), mainly due to the dilution effect that occurs during digestion. However, when results were expressed as absolute amounts (total mg in the digested fraction), this degradation was much lower, or even absent in the case of rutin. Moreover, bioaccessibility (in terms of total mg) was higher in filtration and centrifugation than in the dialysis method. A significant reduction of antioxidant activity was observed after intestinal digestion of the three standards, regardless of the method used. In conclusion, the methodology and units used to report results are two critical parameters to take into account in bioaccessibility studies.
Authors: Alejandre, M.; Ansorena D; et al.
ISSN 0309-1740  Vol. 121  2016  pp. 107 - 113
Different levels of animal fat replacement by a high omega-3 content carrageenan gelled emulsion in dry fermented sausages were studied in order to improve their fatty acid composition. Percentages of fat replacement were 26.3% (SUB1), 32.8% (SUB2) and 39.5% (SUB3). ¿-linolenic acid (ALA) content increased up to 1.81, 2.19 and 2.39g/100g (SUB1, SUB2, and SUB3 products) as compared to the Control (0.35g/100g), implying an increment in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supply (up to 10.3%) and reductions in omega-6/ omega-3 ratio (75, 82 and 84%, respectively). Peroxides and TBARs values were not affected (P>0.05) by the fat modification and a slight low formation of volatile aldehydes derived from lipid oxidation was detected. Fat replacement did not cause relevant modifications on the instrumental color properties and no sensory differences (P>0.05) were found between Control and SUB2 products (32.8%) for taste and juiciness, pointing out the viability of this formulation for human consumption.
Authors: Barriuso, Blanca; Astiasarán I; Ansorena D;
ISSN 1873-7072  Vol. 196  2016  pp. 451 - 458
The interest in plant sterols enriched foods has recently enhanced due to their healthy properties. The influence of the unsaturation degree of different fatty acids methyl esters (FAME: stearate, oleate, linoletate and linolenate) on a mixture of three plant sterols (PS: campesterol, stigmasterol and ß-sitosterol) was evaluated at 180 °C for up to 180 min. Sterols degraded slower in the presence of unsaturated FAME. Both PS and FAME degradation fit a first order kinetic model (R(2)>0.9). Maximum oxysterols concentrations were achieved at 20 min in neat PS and 120 min in lipid mixtures and this maximum amount decreased with increasing their unsaturation degree. In conclusion, the presence of FAME delayed PS degradation and postponed oxysterols formation. This protective effect was further promoted by increasing the unsaturation degree of FAME. This evidence could help industries to optimize the formulation of sterol-enriched products, so that they could maintain their healthy properties during cooking or processing.
Authors: Barriuso, Blanca; Mariutti, L.; Ansorena D; et al.
ISSN 1438-7697  Vol. 118  Nº 8  2016  pp. 1125 - 1131
Harmful health effects have been attributed to cholesterol oxidation products (COPs). Factors that modulate their formation in foods are light, oxygen, heat, and food matrix (such as antioxidants content or unsaturation degree of lipids), among others. The objective of this work was to assess the effectiveness of an extract obtained from Solanum sessiliflorum (mana-cubiu) (MCE) as a potential inhibitor of cholesterol oxidation under heating conditions. The influence of free DHA presence in the system was also evaluated. Results showed that MCE inhibited cholesterol degradation (44 vs. 18% without and with MCE, respectively) and reduced ninefold COPs formation in the absence of DHA. However, when DHA was present, the MCE was not effective toward cholesterol oxidation. In this case, MCE showed its antioxidant effect protecting DHA from degradation (89 vs. 64%). Practical applications: Antioxidant properties of this solvent free natural extract make MCE a potential good ingredient in food products containing highly polyunsaturated lipids to protect them from oxidation and in food products lacking polyunsaturated lipids to protect cholesterol from oxidation.
Authors: Astiasarán I; Barriuso, Blanca; et al.
ISSN 0023-6438  Vol. 62  Nº 2  2015  pp. 1069 - 1075
A new gelled carrageenan containing emulsion developed as ingredient was used as fat replacer in burger patties. Increasing amounts (25, 50, 75 and 100%) of this gelled emulsion were added into the product in order to reduce the fat content while improving its fatty acid profile. A 41% reduction of the total fat content with an increment of the 74.5% of the unsaturated fatty acids, and a significant decrease in cholesterol (47%) and saturated fat (62%) were achieved in the product with the highest level of substitution. These products showed significantly lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) compared to control. Additionally, when samples were subjected to thermal treatment (180 degrees C, 15 min, oven conditions) higher lipid oxidation rates were found when increasing amounts of the gelled emulsion were incorporated into the new formulations, without impairment of their final sensory properties.
Authors: Ansorena D; Berasategi, Izaskun; et al.
ISSN 1138-9028  Nº 98  2015  pp. 36 - 39
La aplicación de las distintas estrategias tecnológicas permite la obtención de productos carnicos frescos, cocidos y curados con mejoradoras en su composicion y valor nutricional. Mediante modificaciones como la reduccion de sal y grasas o el incremento de sales minerales o de fibra, se han logrado productos susceptibles de incluir declaraciones nutricionales de acuerdo al reglamento 1924/2006.
Authors: Barriuso, Blanca; Ansorena D; et al.
ISSN 0039-128X  Vol. 99  2015  pp. 155-160
The characteristics of the lipid matrix surrounding sterols exert a great influence in their thermal oxidation process. The objective of this work was to assess the oxidation susceptibility of equal amounts of cholesterol and stigmasterol within a sunflower oil lipid matrix (ratio 1:1:200) during heating (180 degrees C, 0-180 min). Remaining percentage of sterols was determined and seven sterol oxidation products (SOPs) were analysed for each type of sterol along the heating treatment. Evolution of the fatty acid profile and vitamin E content of the oil was also studied. Overall oxidation status of the model system was assessed by means of Peroxides Value (PV) and TBARS. PV remained constant from 30 min onwards and TBARS continued increasing along the whole heating treatment. Degradation of both cholesterol and stigmasterol fitted a first order curve (R-2 = 0.937 and 0.883, respectively), with very similar degradation constants (0.004 min(-1) and 0.005 min(-1), respectively). However, higher concentrations of oxidation products were found from cholesterol (79 mu g/mg) than from stigmasterol (53 mu g/mg) at the end of the heating treatment. Profile of individual oxidation products was similar for both sterols, except for the fact that no 25-hydroxystigmasterol was detected. 7 alpha-Hydroxy and 7-keto-derivatives were the most abundant SOPs at the end of the treatment. PUFA and vitamin E suffered a significant degradation along the process, which was correlated to sterols oxida
Authors: Encalada, M.; Ansorena D; et al.
ISSN 0023-6438  Vol. 63  Nº 2  2015  pp. 1016 - 1022
The cytotoxic effect of the aqueous extract from Verbena officinalis, was evaluated in vitro on DHD/K12/PROb rat colonic epithelial cell line and HCT-116 human colon adenocarcinoma cell line. In both cell lines, the IC50 values were lower than 20 mu g/mL after 72 h of treatment. Bioassay guided fractionation led to the isolation of 12 phenylethanoid glycosides with anti-proliferative activity, five of them are being reported for the first time. The new compounds were elucidated as 4 ''-acetyl-O-isoverbascoside, 2 '',4 ''-diacetyl-O-verbascoside, 3"',4"'-diacetyl-O-isoverbascoside, 4"',6 ''-diacetyl-O-betonyoside A and 3"',4"'-diacetyl-O-betonyoside A. The IC50 results suggest that antiproliferative activity is determined by not only the number of acetyl-groups but also their position in the aliphatic rings. Compounds exhibiting vicinal acetyl-groups in the sugar rings such as 3"',4"'-diacetyl-O-isoverbascoside and 3"',4"'-diacetyl-O-betonyoside A are particularly strong cytotoxic compounds against both cell lines. This investigation indicated that diacetyl-phenylethanoids might be valuable as cancer chemopreventive agents.
Authors: Barriuso, Blanca; Ansorena D; Calvo, María Isabel; et al.
ISSN 0963-9969  Vol. 69  2015  pp. 133 -140
Cholesterol oxidation products (COPS) constitute a known health risk factor. The antioxidant effect of a lyophilized aqueous Melissa officinalis extract against cholesterol degradation and COPs formation during a heating treatment was evaluated in a model system (180 degrees C, 0-180 min) at a ratio of 2 mg extract/100 mg cholesterol. Furthermore, the plant extract was subsequently added to beef patties alone or incorporated within an oil-in-water olive oil emulsion to assess its effectiveness during cooking. Melisa extract protected cholesterol from thermal degradation in the model system, yielding higher remaining cholesterol and lower COPs values throughout the whole heating process. Maximum total COPs were achieved after 30 and 120 min of heating for control and melisa-containing samples, respectively. In cooked beef patties, even though the olive oil emulsion was used as flavor-masking approach, melisa extract off-flavor limited the maximum dose which could be added. At these doses (65 mu g/g and 150 mu g/g without and with the emulsion, respectively), no additional protective effect of melisa over the use of the emulsion was found. Addition of natural extracts into functional foods should definitively take into account sensory aspects.
Authors: Pinacho, R.; Cavero, R Y; Astiasarán I; et al.
ISSN 1756-4646  Vol. 19  Nº Sub. A  2015  pp. 49 - 62
Total phenolic, flavonoid and anthocyanin contents of dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and aqueous extracts of branches, leaves and fruits from Prunus spinosa were quantified by spectrophotometrical methods and the results showed solvent and botanical organ dependence. In order to detect antioxidant activity, a method based on the reduction of DPPH was carried out. Activity of ethanol, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of branches demonstrated a higher scavenging capacity compared to other analysed extracts. Phytochemical analysis allowed detecting flavonoids, coumarins, phenolic acids and flavan-3-ols. Ethanolic extract of branches was subjected to an in vitro digestion. Buccal and gastric digestion had no substantial effect on any of the phenolic compounds. However, these compounds were significantly altered during intestinal digestion. The results showed that a significant proportion of these compounds would be transformed into other unknown and/or undetected structural forms. Furthermore, three phenolic acids, two coumarins, fourteen flavan-3-ols, and six flavonols were identified using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS.
Authors: Berasategi, Izaskun; García, Mikel; Navarro-Blasco, I.; et al.
ISSN 0022-5142  Vol. 94  Nº 4  2014  pp. 744 - 751
BACKGROUND: This applied research was done in order to obtain cooked products (bologna sausages) with significantly lower amounts of energy, total fat and saturated fat and higher amounts of ¿-3 fatty acids than conventional ones. Two subsequent experiments were performed. RESULTS: Experiment 1 aimed at pork back-fat reduction and enabled sausages to be obtained with 84¿g¿kg-1 fat and 1334¿kcal¿kg-1 , without significant negative effects on sensory quality. Carrageenan was used as fat replacer. Experiment 2 aimed at improving the lipid profile of the 'energy-reduced' sausages previously developed, by a partial substitution of the pork back-fat with a linseed oil-in water emulsion (substitution levels: 25-100%). Using the 100% substitution level gave rise to products with 27¿g¿kg-1 ¿-linolenic acid, and low saturated fat content (13.5¿g¿kg-1 ), showing good sensory results regarding taste, smell and texture. The use of antioxidant maintained low TBARs (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) values in all formulations. CONCLUSION: It is possible to obtain cooked meat products (bologna sausages) with low energy, low saturated fat and a high amount of ¿-3 fatty acids simultaneously, applying a combination of the use of carrageenan, linseed oil emulsion and increment of water, without significant effects on sensory quality. Functional products, interesting from a nutritional standpoint, were achieved.
Authors: Berasategi, Izaskun; Navarro-Blasco, I.; Calvo, María Isabel; et al.
ISSN 0309-1740  Vol. 96  Nº 3  2014  pp. 1185 - 1190
Reduced-energy and reduced-fat Bologna products enriched with ¿-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were formulated by replacing the pork back-fat by an oil-in-water emulsion containing a mixture of linseed-algae oil stabilized with a lyophilized Melissa officinalis extract. Healthier composition and lipid profile was obtained: 85 kcal/100 g, 3.6% fat, 0.6 g ALA and 0.44 g DHA per 100 g of product and ¿-6/¿-3 ratio of 0.4. Technological and sensory problems were not detected in the new formulations. Reformulation did not cause oxidation problems during 32 days of storage under refrigeration. The results suggest it is possible to obtain reduced-fat Bologna-type sausages rich in ALA and DHA and stabilized with natural antioxidants, applying the appropriate technology without significant effects on the sensory quality, yielding interesting products from a nutritional point of view.
Authors: Ansorena D; Navarro-Blasco, I.; et al.
ISSN 0963-9969  Vol. 57  2014  pp. 152 - 161
The oxidative stability of seven oils with different fatty acid profiles was assessed. Oxidation at 0, 2 and 4 h at 180 °C was monitored by measuring the absorbance of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) along the absorption spectrum (300¿600 nm), the volatile aldehydes (HS-SPME¿GC¿MS) and the fatty acid profile (FID-GC). TBARS absorption spectrum behavior depended on the lipid composition of heated oils. Higher absorbance increments during heating were noticed at 390 nm compared to 532 nm (from 2 to 21 fold higher depending on the oil), pointing to its better sensitivity to detect oxidation. Furthermore, a close relationship between ABS390, the loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their corresponding oxidation compounds (volatile aldehydes) was revealed by Principal Component Analysis. Multiparametric equations allowed predicting the formation of volatile aldehydes of heated oils by measuring only two parameters: TBARS390 during their heating, and the lipid profile in unheated oils (MUFA, ¿-3 and ¿-6). Results pointed out the interest of choosing ABS390 when the oxidative evolution of vegetable oils under heating is assessed by the TBARS test
Authors: Ansorena D; Berasategi, Izaskun; et al.
ISSN 0309-1740  Vol. 98  Nº 4  2014  pp. 615 - 621
The optimization of a gelled oil-in-water emulsion was performed for use as fat replacer in the formulation of ¿-3 PUFA-enriched cooked meat products. The linseed oil content, carrageenan concentration and surfactant¿oil ratio were properly combined in a surface response design for maximizing the hardness and minimizing the syneresis of the PUFA delivery system. The optimal formulation resulted in a gelled emulsion containing 40% of oil and 1.5% of carrageenan, keeping a surfactant¿oil ratio of 0.003. The gel was applied as a partial fat replacer in a Bologna-type sausage and compared to the use of an O/W emulsion also enriched in ¿-3. Both experimental sausages contributed with higher ¿-3 PUFA content than the control. No sensory differences were found among formulations. The selected optimized gelled oil-in-water emulsion was demonstrated to be a suitable lipophilic delivery system for ¿-3 PUFA compounds and applicable in food formulations as fat replacer.
Authors: Barriuso, Blanca; Astiasarán I; Ansorena D;
ISSN 1438-2377  Vol. 236  Nº 1  2013  pp. 1-15
Lipid oxidation analysis in food samples is a relevant topic since the compounds generated in the process are related to undesirable sensory and biological effects. Proper measurement of lipid oxidation remains a challenging task since the process is complex and depends on the type of lipid substrate, the oxidation agents and the environmental factors. A great variety of methodologies have been developed and implemented so far, for determining both primary and secondary oxidation products. Most common methods and classical procedures are described, including peroxide value, TBARS analysis and chromatography. Some other methodologies such as chemiluminescence, fluorescence emission, Raman spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy or magnetic resonance provide interesting and promising results. Therefore, attention should be paid to these alternative techniques in the area of food lipid oxidation analysis.
Authors: García, Mikel; Berasategi, Izaskun; Navarro-Blasco, I.; et al.
ISSN 0022-5142  Vol. 93  Nº 4  2013  pp. 876-881
BACKGROUND: A combined technological approach was applied in the development of healthier dry fermented sausages: a partial substitution of the pork back fat by pre-emulsified linseed oil and a partial replacement of sodium chloride with calcium ascorbate at two different levels, leading to low amounts of salt (14gSalt and 10gSalt, with 14 g and 10 g NaCl per kg of mixture, respectively). RESULTS: The developed products (14gSalt and 10gSalt) showed adequate results for aw (0.85 and 0.87) and pH (4.98 and 5.21), and low lipid oxidation values (1.4 x 104 and 1.5 x 105 g malondialdehyde (MDA) kg1). The lipid modification led to a significantly higher supply of -3 (23.3 g kg1) compared to the control (3.2 g kg1). Simultaneously, reductions of 38% and 50% in sodium content and a calcium supply of 4 and 5.2 g kg1 were achieved in the 14gSalt and 10gSalt formulations, respectively, compared to the control products (26 g salt and 0.87 g kg1 Ca). Instrumental analysis of colour and texture and sensory studies demonstrated that the organoleptic quality of the new formulations was similar to that of traditional products. CONCLUSIONS: The developed dry fermented sausages showed healthier properties than traditional ones owing to their reduced sodium and higher calcium content and a significant supply of -3 fatty acids. (c) 2012 Society of Chemical Industry
Authors: Ansorena D; Barriuso, Blanca; Cardenia, V.; et al.
ISSN 1873-7072  Vol. 141  Nº 3  2013  pp. 2757 - 2764
The influence of the unsaturation degree of different triacylglycerols (tristearin, triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin) on cholesterol oxidation at 180 °C, was evaluated. Cholesterol degraded faster when heated alone than in the presence of triacylglycerols; moreover, the more unsaturated the matrix, the slower the degradation of cholesterol. Both cholesterol and triacylglycerols degradation fit a first order kinetic model (R(2)>0.9), except for the tristearin sample. Cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) and peroxides were formed during the heating treatment. The presence of any type of lipid matrix postponed and decreased the maximum concentration of both oxidation parameters. Maximum total COPs concentrations were achieved at 20 min in neat cholesterol, 120 min in tristearin and triolein and 180 min in polyunsaturated matrix samples. 7-Ketocholesterol was the main COP in most cases during the whole heating treatment. Both the presence of triacylglycerols and their unsaturation degree inhibited cholesterol thermooxidation at 180 °C.
Authors: Ansorena D; Pascual, M.; Echarte, A.; et al.
ISSN 1138-9028  Vol. 90  2013  pp. 112 - 115
Authors: Poyato, C.; Navarro-Blasco, I.; Calvo, María Isabel; et al.
ISSN 0963-9969  Vol. 51  Nº 1  2013  pp. 132-140
The effect of storage temperature (65 degrees C, 48 h) on the oxidative stability of a food-grade water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsion was studied by comparison with an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion. The emulsions were prepared with linseed oil or olive oil, and in each case, two antioxidants were evaluated, an aqueous Melissa lyophilized extract and BHA. Emulsions were characterized using bright field light microscopy and the oxidation was monitored by measuring the lipid hydroperoxides, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes (CD) and trienes (CT), alpha-tocopherol and Lipophilic Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (L-ORACFL) Assay. A great stability of olive oil emulsions was observed, without noticing differences between antioxidants or type of emulsion. This behavior was not observed in linseed oil emulsions. In this case the lipophilic antioxidant (BHA) seemed to be more efficient delaying the lipid oxidation in W/O/W emulsions than the water Melissa extract while the opposite occurs in the O/W emulsion. The type of antioxidant is a key factor in controlling oxidation in W/O/W and O/W emulsions which are prepared with highly polyunsaturated oils, but not in the case of highly monounsaturated ones.
Authors: Ansorena D; Echarte, A; Olle, R; et al.
ISSN 0308-8146  Vol. 138  Nº 1  2013  pp. 422-429
Authors: García, Mikel; Berasategi, Izaskun; et al.
ISSN 2159-5828  Vol. 2  Nº 1  2012  pp. 56 - 63
A pre-emulsified mixture of linseed and algae oils (15/10) and stabilized with 686 ppm of a lyophilized water extract of Melissa officinalis, was successfully applied in dry fermented sausages to increase the ¿-3 PUFA content. The objective of this work was to evaluate the stability of this modified formulation during the storage and to compare it to that of a traditional formulation. Traditional and modified products were stored during 90 days at 4 ºC in aerobic conditions. Fatty acid profiles, TBARS and volatile compounds derived from oxidation were analyzed at 0, 30 and 90 days of storage. The fatty acid profiles did not significantly change along the storage period. The stabilizing effect of the natural antioxidants of M. officinalis could contribute to detect no losses of ¿-3 PUFA in Modified (30 days: 2.13 g/100 g of product, 90 days: 2.33 g/100 g of product), whereas in Control products a slightly significant reduction was detected (30 days: 0.34 g/100 g of product, 90 days: 0.29 g/100 g of product). After 90 days, the increases of TBARS and hexanal content were much higher in Control than in Modified (Control: 1.41 mg MDA/kg & 17,915 ng dodecane/kg of dry matter; Modified: 0.48 mg MDA/kg & 2,496 ng dodecane/kg of dry matter). In conclusion, the lyophilized water extract of M. officinalis protected high ¿-3 PUFA of dry fermented sausages from oxidation along the storage time, guaranteeing the nutritional improvements achieved with the modified formulation.
Authors: Barriuso, Blanca; Otaegui-Arrazola, A.; et al.
ISSN 0308-8146  Vol. 135  Nº 2  2012  pp. 706-712
Cholesterol and phytosterols can be oxidised under heating conditions to give sterol oxidation products (SOPs), known by their toxic effects. This paper studied the degradation of cholesterol and three plant sterols during a 360 min heating treatment (180 degrees C). The formation and further degradation of SOPs was also analysed by GC-MS. Results revealed a sterol susceptibility to degradation according to the following decreasing order: campesterol approximate to beta-sitosterol >= stigmasterol > cholesterol. The degradation curve fit (R-2 = 0.907-0.979) a logarithmic model. SOPs increased their concentration during the first 5-10 min and thereafter, their degradation rate was higher than their formation rate, resulting in a decrease over time. Irrespective of the sterol from which they had derived, 7-keto derivatives presented the highest levels throughout the entire process, and also SOPs with the same type of oxidation followed a similar degradation pattern (R = 0.90-0.99). (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Authors: Berasategi, Izaskun; Barriuso, B; Ansorena D; et al.
ISSN 0308-8146  Vol. 132   Nº 1  2012  pp. 439-446
Authors: Varo, N; Mugueta, Carmen; et al.
Journal: Nutricion Hospitalaria
ISSN 0212-1611  Vol. 26  Nº 1  2011  pp. 144 - 151
Authors: Encalada, M.A.; Hoyos, K.M.; et al.
Journal: Plant foods for human nutrition
ISSN 0921-9668  Vol. 66  Nº 4  2011  pp. 328 - 334
Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) is consumed as a traditional herbal tea in the Mediterranean region. The cytotoxic effect of the 50% ethanolic and aqueous extract, determined by the MTT and NR assays, was evaluated in vitro on Human Colon Cancer Cell Line (HCT-116), using Triton 10% as positive control. The 50% ethanolic extract showed significant differences after 72 h of treatment, reducing cell proliferation to values close to 40%, even the lowest dose tested (5 mu g/ml). In the MTT assay, the same extract caused the lowest cell viability with 13% at a concentration of 1,000 mu g/ml after 72 h of treatment, being a value lower than Triton 10%. The antioxidant activity was also confirmed evaluating the capacity of the extracts to scavenge ABTS and DPPH radicals, and IC(50) values were highly correlated with the total phenolic and flavonoid content. Bioassay guided fractionation led to the isolation of an anti-proliferative compound, rosmarinic acid. Its structural elucidation was performed by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS analysis. High dose of rosmarinic acid (1,000 mu g/ml) was clearly cytotoxic against HCT-116 cells, with a significant decrease in cell number since the earliest time point (24 h).
Authors: Berasategi, Izaskun; Cuervo, M; Ruiz de las Heras, A; et al.
Journal: Public Health Nutrition
ISSN 1368-9800  Vol. 14  Nº 3  2011  pp. 451 - 458
The growing interest in maintaining good health status through optimal nutrition has boosted the launch of a number of functional foods on the market. The objective of the present study was to theoretically evaluate the nutritional relevance of incorporating selected enriched foods in the diet. DESIGN: A 28 d dietary plan, designed to be balanced under the recommended macronutrients criteria, was used as a basal diet. Some conventional foods were exchanged with foods enriched in fibre, calcium, iodine, vitamins A, D, E or n-3 fatty acids. SETTING: Nutritional composition of basal and modified diets was derived and compared to the Spanish recommended intakes (RI). RESULTS: The basal diet covered the recommendations for fibre and calcium with mean intake of 28 g and 1241 mg, respectively. The current intake of salt, if iodized, or bread elaborated with this salt, allowed reaching the daily intake of iodine every day, with a mean supply of 216 ¿g/d and 278 ¿g/d, respectively. The deficient supply of vitamin E in the basal diet (mean = 8 mg/d) was covered by including enriched margarine and dairy products (mean = 15 mg/d). The low n-3 fatty acids intake in the basal diet (1·1 g/d) increased up to 1·9 g/d after the use of enriched margarine, butter and biscuits and soya drink instead of milk. CONCLUSIONS: In order to improve the accomplishment of the RI iodine, vitamin E and n-3 fatty acids, interesting strategies dealing with the incorporation of enriched foods in the diet were successfully initiated.
Authors: Hidalgo, O.; García, Mikel; et al.
Journal: LWT- Food Science and Tecnology
ISSN 0023-6438  Vol. 44  Nº 4  2011  pp. 875 - 882
Authors: Berasategi, Izaskun; García, Mikel; et al.
Journal: Meat Science
ISSN 0309-1740  Vol. 88  Nº 4  2011  pp. 705 - 711
Authors: Santiago, Susana; Zazpe I; Cuervo, M; et al.
ISSN 2173-1292  Vol. 15  Nº 3  2011  pp. 144
Authors: Goñi, Leticia; Ansorena D; et al.
ISSN 2173-1292  Vol. 15  Nº 3  2011  pp. 157
Authors: Otaegui-Arrazola, A; Ansorena D; et al.
Journal: Food and Chemical Toxicology
ISSN 0278-6915  Vol. 48  Nº 12  2010  pp. 3289 - 3303
Oxysterols (oxidized derivatives of cholesterol and phytosterols) can be generated in the human organism through different oxidation processes, some requiring enzymes. Furthermore, oxysterols are also present in food due to lipid oxidation reactions caused by heating treatments, contact with oxygen, exposure to sunlight, etc., and they could be absorbed from the diet, at different rates depending on their side chain length. In the organism, oxysterols can follow different routes: secreted into the intestinal lumen, esterified and distributed by lipoproteins to different tissues or degraded, mainly in the liver. Cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) have shown cytotoxicity, apoptotic and pro-inflammatory effects and they have also been linked with chronic diseases including atherosclerotic and neurodegenerative processess. In the case of phytosterol oxidation products (POPs), more research is needed on toxic effects. Nevertheless, current knowledge suggests they may also cause cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects, although at higher concentrations than COPs. Recently, new beneficial biological activities of oxysterols are being investigated. Whereas COPs are associated with cholesterol homeostasis mediated by different mechanisms, the implication of POPs is not clear yet. Available literature on sources of oxysterols in the organism, metabolism, toxicity and potential beneficial effects of these compounds are reviewed in this paper.
Authors: García, Mikel; Astiasarán I; et al.
ISSN 1120-1770  Vol. 22  Nº 2  2010  pp. 156 - 164
Water extracts of borage (Borago officinalis L.) were prepared from raw stems and leaves and from cooked (boiled and steamed) stems. Antioxidant activity (AA) was determined by ABTS and DPPH after their respective calibration with Trolox as standard and the results of both assays are expressed as mu g Trolox/g fresh plant. Total phenolic compounds (TPC) were also determined for each extract. The DPPH and ABTS values in leaf extracts were similar and approximately 3.5 times higher than the values obtained for stem extracts. The high antioxidant activity of leaf extracts might be attributed to the high amount of phenolic compounds (2.36 mg GAE/g fresh plant for leaves and 0.57 mg GAE/g fresh plant for stems). Boiling significantly decreased the antioxidant activity (51-52% decrease) and total phenolic compounds (67% decrease). Steaming had no significant effect on the antioxidant activity values, whereas the total phenolic compound values showed approximately half of the decrease found for boiling (35%). Borage water extracts, particularly those of their by-products (leaves), showed high antioxidant activity, that could potentially be used for different applications in the food industry.
Authors: Ansorena D; Mendizábal, T.; et al.
Journal: Journal of food science.
ISSN 0022-1147  Vol. 75  Nº 2  2010  pp. H62 - H67
The modifications on a lean fish (cod-Gadus morhua) and a fatty fish (farmed salmon-Salmo salar) after the application of pan-frying using 2 types of oil with different lipid profile (extra virgin olive oil and sunflower oil) was the aim of this study. Fat content and total energetic value increased significantly after the frying process only in the lean fish, without relevant changes in the fatty fish. Extra virgin olive oil led to a higher fat absorption rate than sunflower oil in both fish. Frying hardly affected the lipid profile of farmed salmon regardless the oil used, however it drastically changed in fried cod compared to raw cod. Omega-6/omega-3 ratio increased from 0.08 in raw cod to 1.01 and 6.63 in fried cod with olive oil and sunflower oil, respectively. In farmed salmon, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio was 0.38 (raw), and 0.39 to 0.58 in fried salmon. The amount of EPA + DHA slightly decreased with frying in salmon, and increased in cod. The type of oil has more influence in the nutritional fish quality for the lean fish compared to that of the fatty fish. The use of extra virgin olive oil was efficient to avoid a significant increase of the lipid oxidation intensity during frying in cod but not in salmon. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Food modifies its composition and nutritional value with the application of cooking technologies. As most food table composition tables are based on raw food products, this article contributes with interesting data on pan-fried fish composition, which may improve the approach to achieve a real intake of healthy nutrients as omega 3 fatty acids.
Authors: García, Mikel; et al.
Journal: Meat Science
ISSN 0309-1740  Vol. 85  Nº 2  2010  pp. 274 - 279
Authors: García, Mikel; Calvo, María Isabel; et al.
Journal: Meat Science
ISSN 0309-1740  Vol. 85  Nº 2  2010  pp. 373 - 377
Authors: Ansorena D; Astiasarán I; et al.
Journal: Food Chemistry
ISSN 0308-8146  Vol. 122  Nº 1  2010  pp. 277 - 284
Oxidation products of stigmasterol were characterised by their polarity and molecular size using solid phase extraction (SPE) and high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) methods. Monomeric oxides were studied further by GC-MS and GC-FID. The focus was on identifying and quantifying non-polar and mid-polar monomeric oxides after SPE fractionation. Commercial stigmasterol was subjected to 180 degrees C up to 3 h. Six oxidation products were identified by GC-MS in the non-polar and mid-polar monomeric fractions; all appeared during the first hour of heating. Quantification by GC-FID showed an increase in the non-polar and mid-polar oxidation products during the heating time, and their amounts reached values of 6.1 and 47.0 g/kg of commercial stigmasterol, respectively. Polar oxidation products commonly measured reached a value of 193 g/kg after 1 h of heating, while after 3 h of heating their concentration was only 164 g/kg. Since as much as 550 g/kg of stigmasterol was decomposed, the monomeric products explained only partly the stigmasterol loss. Dimeric and polymeric products contributed to 165 g/kg of the loss showing the importance of polymerisation reactions at 180 degrees C.
Authors: Cuervo, M; Goñi, Leticia; Santiago, Susana; et al.
ISSN 1138-0322  Vol. 14  Nº 3  2010  pp. 151 - 152
Authors: Astiasarán I; Ansorena D; Calvo, María Isabel; et al.
Book title:  Productos cárnicos seguros nutritivos y saludables
2017  pp. 13 - 19
Authors: Astiasarán I; Ansorena D; Calvo, María Isabel; et al.
Book title:  Productos cárnicos seguros, nutritivos y saludables. Red de excelencia Consolider PROCARSE
2017  pp. 13 - 19
Authors: Astiasarán I; Ansorena D;
Book title:  Encyclopedia of food and health
Nº 612  2016  pp. 728 - 733
This article reports the composition of some of the best-known types of dry fermented sausages and describes the nutritional value of their constituent ingredients and the impact that these may have on health. Strategies to improve the composition of these products, primarily from a health perspective, by means of modification of ingredients and processing conditions are also presented. These modifications deal primarily with changes in the lipid fraction, the mineral content, and the use of additives and antioxidants.
Authors: Ansorena D; Astiasarán I;
Book title:  Encyclopedia of food and health
Nº 285  2016  pp. 649 - 655
This article gives a general view on the different types of fermented products that are mostly consumed all over the world. The most relevant characteristics about the composition and nutritional value of each group are reported. Additionally, some of the bioactive compounds that are released or synthesized during the fermentation process of different foods and exert a health effect in the organism are also presented. The current scientific evidence of these effects is summarized.
Authors: Astiasarán I; Ansorena D;
Book title:  Handbook of fermented meat and poultry.
Nº 27  2015  pp. 241 - 250
Authors: Ansorena D; Astiasarán I;
Book title:  Food enrichment with omega-3 fatty acids
Nº 252  2013  pp. 299 - 318
Authors: Ansorena D; Astiasarán I;
Book title:  Functional ingredients from algae for foods and nutraceuticals
2013  pp. 634 - 657
PART 4 APPLICATIONS OF ALGAE AND ALGAL COMPONENTS IN FOODS, FUNCTIONAL FOODS AND NUTRACEUTICAL Development of nutraceuticals containing marine algae oils D Ansorena and I Astiasarán, Universidad de Navarra, Spain - Introduction - Health benefits of omega-fatty acids - Algae oils as sources of omega-fatty acids - Health benefits of other lipidic bioactive compounds (carotenoids) obtained from microalgae - Legal aspects of algae oil and carotenoid supplements - Market considerations - Conclusions and future trends - Sources of further information and advice - Acknowledgements - References - Appendix: Acronyms - See more at: http://www.woodheadpublishing.com/en/book.aspx?bookID=2612#sthash.psvRM9Q5.dpuf
Authors: Ansorena D; Astiasarán I;
Book title:  Handbook of animal-based fermented food and beverage technology
2012  pp. 623 - 636
Authors: Torres Villanueva MT; Ansorena D; Astiasarán I;
Book title:  Fundamentos de Nutrición y Dietética: bases metodológicas y aplicaciones
2011  pp. 189 - 195
Authors: Ansorena D; Navarro-Blasco, I.; García, Mikel; et al.
Book title:  Productos cárnicos para el S XXI: seguros, nutritivos y saludables
2011  pp. 113 - 120
Authors: Cuervo, M; García-Unciti, M; Vidurrizaga, Carlos Antonio; et al.
Book title:  Alimentación, ejercicio físico y salud
2010  pp. 91 - 138
Authors: Toldrá, F., (Coeditor); Hui, Y. H., (Coeditor); Astiasarán I, (Coeditor); et al.
Authors: Muguerza E; Astiasarán I; Ansorena D;
Hoy en día los consumidores sabemos que una alimentación correcta es muy importante en la prevención y tratamiento de diversas enfermedades, en la mejora del rendimiento, bienestar, calidad de vida y en el control de peso. Exigimos comidas que a la vez de ser sanas, naturales y apetitosas aporten beneficios adicionales. Los embutidos crudos curados son alimentos de gran tradición, presentes en la dieta habitual de nuestra población desde tiempos inmemorables, sin embargo es conocido su elevado aporte de grasa animal que hace que sean rechazados por ciertos sectores de la población. En este trabajo realizado en el Departamento de Ciencias de la Alimentación, Fisiología y Toxicología de la Universidad de Navarra se estudia la elaboración de embutidos crudos curados (chorizo de Pamplona y embutidos tradiconales griegos) con diferentes aceites vegetales que mejoren las propiedades nutritivas de este tipo de productos. El estudio por tanto comprende entre otros el análisis nutricional de la fracción lipídica, el análisis de la composición general, la valoración sensorial, así como el análisis microbiológico que permitan asegurar la inocuidad de los nuevos productos elaborados.
Authors: Ibáñez, Javier; Astiasarán I;

Teaching experience


Trabajo fin de grado (Nutrición). 
Universidad de Navarra - Facultad de Farmacia y Nutrición.

Investigación aplicada en compuestos bioactivos en los alimentos (EMENU). 
Universidad de Navarra - Facultad de Farmacia y Nutrición.