Our researchers

Jokin de Irala Estévez

Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública
Facultad de Medicina. Universidad de Navarra
Instituto de Ciencias para la Familia (ICF). Universidad de Navarra
Educación de la Afectividad Y de la sexualidad humana
Instituto Cultura y Sociedad (ICS). Universidad de Navarra
Research lines
Sexualidad, Planificación Familiar Natural, Salud Pública, Epidemiología, Salud Adolescente y juvenil, Salud Sexual y Reproductiva, Educación Afectivo Sexual
28, (WoS, 04/06/2019)
38, (Google Scholar, 04/06/2019)
30, (Scopus, 04/06/2019)

Most recent scientific publications (since 2010)

Authors: Carlos, Silvia; Lopez-del Burgo, C; Ndarabu, A.; et al.
Journal: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 14  Nº 1  2019  pp. e0210398
BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections can be spread through oral and anal heterosexual sex. There are few data on these practices in Sub-Saharan Africa. We analyzed the prevalence of heterosexual oral and anal sex among HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) attendees in Kinshasa and the associated sociodemographics, perceptions and behavioral factors. METHODS: OKAPI (Observational Kinshasa AIDS Prevention Initiative) prospective cohort study. It evaluates the VCT impact on HIV-related knowledge and behaviors at 6 and 12-month follow-up. Since April 2016 until April 2018, 797 persons aged 15-59 years were HIV tested and replied to a baseline interview, including information about anal and oral sex. Descriptive, bi- and multivariate analyses were performed using baseline data. RESULTS: Among 718 sexually active participants reporting heterosexual sex, 59% had had oral sex, 22% anal sex and 18% both practices. Among participants reporting "not" having had sex, 6% reported oral sex, 3% anal sex and 1% both. Oral sex was associated with a daily use of the Internet/mobile phone, perceiving low community HIV risk, reporting HIV-related behaviors (multiple partners, inconsistent condom use, anal, paid and forced sex) and having been pregnant. Being married-monogamous was inversely associated with oral sex. Anal sex was directly associated with having other risk sexual behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: Oral and anal sex were common among people reporting heterosexual sex in Kinshasa. Perceiving a low community HIV risk and having other sexual risk behaviors are associated with these practices, which are commonly not considered as risky despite their strong association with HIV/STIs. They need to be considered when designing preventive strategies in Kinshasa.
Authors: Benjamín Prieto-Damm; de la Rosa, Pedro Antonio; Lopez-del Burgo, C; et al.
ISSN 0376-8716  Vol. 199  2019  pp. 27-34
Introduction: Structured and unstructured leisure are known protective and risk factors, respectively, for alcohol consumption during adolescence. However, little is known about the interaction between the two leisure types and alcohol consumption. Method: A cross-sectional study was performed among high-school students in El Salvador and Peru. Schooled adolescents, aged 13¿18 (N=5,640), completed a self-administered questionnaire about risk behaviors, including their leisure activities and whether they had consumed alcoholic beverages. They were classified into tertiles of the amount of time of both structured and unstructured activities. A non-conditional multivariate logistic regression was conducted to evaluate the association of both types of leisure with alcohol consumption. We also used a likelihood ratio test to assess the potential interaction of structured and unstructured leisure time in alcohol consumption. Results: Alcohol consumption was much more frequent among adolescents in the highest tertile of unstructured leisure time compared to the lowest one, and less frequent among those from the highest tertile of structured leisure time compared to the lowest one. We did not find an interaction effect between structured and unstructured leisure time with regard to initiation of alcohol consumption. Discussion: The study suggests that structured leisure is not enough to compensate for the possible harmful effect of unstructured leisure. Parents, educators and policy
Authors: Lopez-del Burgo, C; Martínez, Miguel Ángel; et al.
ISSN 0007-1145  Vol. 122  Nº 7  2019  pp. 800 - 807
It is crucial to identify people at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) to implement preventive interventions in order to address these pandemics. A simple score exclusively based on dietary components, the Dietary-Based Diabetes-Risk Score (DDS) showed a strong inverse association with incident T2DM. The objective was to assess the association between DDS and the risk of GDM in a cohort of Spanish university graduates. The 'Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra' project is a prospective and dynamic cohort which included data of 3455 women who notified pregnancies between 1999 and 2012. The diagnosis of GDM is self-reported and further confirmed by physicians. A validated 136-item semi-quantitative FFQ was used to assess pre-gestational dietary habits. The development of the DDS was aimed to quantify the association between the adherence to this a priori dietary score and T2DM incidence. The score exclusively included dietary components (nine food groups with reported inverse associations with T2DM incidence and three food groups which reported direct associations with T2DM). Three categories of adherence to the DDS were assessed: low (11-24), intermediate (25-39) and high (40-60). The upper category showed an independent inverse association with the risk of incident GDM compared with the lowest category (multivariate-adjusted OR 0 center dot 48; 95 % CI 0 center dot 24, 0 center dot 99; P for linear trend: 0 center dot 01). Several sensitivity analyses supported the robustness of these results. These results reinforce the importance of pre-gestational dietary habits for reducing GDM and provide a brief tool to practically assess the relevant dietary habits in clinical practice.
Authors: Moulin, Daniel Peter James, (Autor de correspondencia); de Irala, J; Beltramo, Carlos; et al.
ISSN 0305-7240  Vol. 47  Nº 4  2018  pp. 466-480
How young people spend time out of school is important for their character development. In this article we explore the relationships between adolescents¿ leisure time and other aspects of their lives, with a particular focus on religion. Using a data set generated by secondary school students in Peru and El Salvador (n = 6085) for a public health project, YOURLIFE, we conducted multiple logistic regression analyses of the relationships between religious identification, salience and practice; five indicators of adolescent risk behaviors; and, four indicators of prosocial attitudes and behaviors. In addition to not participating in risk behaviors such as sex, smoking, drinking alcohol and taking illicit drugs, these analyses show significant relationships between religion and prosocial activities and attitudes. These data are considered in the context of the wider debate over the role of religion in adolescent character development in Latin America and elsewhere.
Authors: Lopez-del Burgo, C; Martínez, Miguel Ángel; et al.
ISSN 0261-5614  Vol. 37  Nº 2  2018  pp. 638 - 645
Background & aims: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) prevalence is increasing worldwide. To the best of our knowledge the specific evaluation of soft drink consumption as a risk factor for developing GDM has only been conducted in the Nurses' Health Study II. Objective: To investigate the incidence of GDM according to soft drink consumption in the SUN project. Design: The "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" (SUN) project is a prospective and dynamic cohort which included data of 3396 women who notified at least one pregnancy between December 1999 and March 2012. A validated 136-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess soft drink consumption. Four categories of sugar-sweetened soft drink (SSSD) and diet soft drink (DSD) consumption (servings) were established: rarely or never (< 1/month), low (1-3/month), intermediate (> 3/month and <= 1/week) and high (>= 2/week). Potential confounders were adjusted through non-conditional logistic regression models. Results: During the follow-up, we identified 172 incident cases of GDM. After adjusting for age, baseline body mass index, family history of diabetes, smoking, total energy intake, physical activity, parity, fast-food consumption, adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern, alcohol intake, multiple pregnancy, cardiovascular disease/hypertension at baseline, fiber intake, following special diet and snacking, SSSD consumption was significantly associated with an increased risk of incident GDM, with multivariable adjusted odds ratios (OR) of 2.03 (95% confidence interval [Cl]: 1.25-3.31) and 1.67 (95% Cl: 1.01-2.77) for the highest and intermediate categories, respectively, versus the lowest category (p for linear trend: 0.006). Conversely, DSD consumption was not associated with GDM incidence (adjusted OR: 0.82; 95% Cl: 0.52-1.31) for the highest versus the lowest category (p for linear trend: 0.258). Additional sensitivity analyses did not change the results. Conclusion: Higher consumption of SSSDs before pregnancy was an independent risk factor for GDM, however, no association was observed between DSD consumption and GDM risk. (c) 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Authors: Herranz, Gonzalo; León Sanz, Pilar; Pardo, José María; et al.
ISSN 1120-2874  Vol. 34  2018  pp. 39 - 62
No one who has taken an interest in the ethical aspects of contraception can ignore the important paper on the subject by the Pontifical Commission for the Study of Population, Family and Births, created by Pope John XXIII and augmented by Paul VI. This article will primarily focus on the medical-biological discussions of the sessions of the papal Commission, and their conclusions.
Authors: Lopez-del Burgo, C; Martínez, Miguel Ángel; et al.
ISSN 0007-1145  Vol. 118  Nº 9  2017  pp. 715 - 721
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the adherence to empirically derived dietary patterns and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk and of healthy lifestyles with the prevention of GDM defining an overall healthy score. The Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra project is a Mediterranean cohort of university graduates started in 1999. We included 3455 pregnant women. During a mean follow-up of 10·3 (sd 3·3) years, we identified 173 incident GDM cases. Two major dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis: the Western dietary pattern (WDP) (characterised by a high consumption of meat-based products and processed foods) and the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) (characterised by a high consumption of vegetables, fruits, fish and non-processed foods). A low-risk score for GDM was defined taking into account important risk factors (age, BMI and unhealthy dietary pattern) for GDM. Positive association was found in the multivariable model between the highest quartile of adherence to WDP and GDM incidence compared with the lowest quartile (OR 1·56; 95 % CI 1·00, 2·43). No association was found between adherence to the MDP and GDM incidence (OR 1·08; 95 % CI 0·68, 1·70 for the highest quartile compared with the lowest). Women who adhered to all three low-risk factors had a 76 % lower risk of GDM (OR 0·24; 95 % CI 0·10, 0·55) compared with women who did not adhere to any factor before pregnancy. In conclusion, our results reinforce the importance of dietary recommendations and other two factors (low BMI and young age at pregnancy) in pre-gravid women.
Authors: Carlos, Silvia; Lopez-del Burgo, C; Burgueño, E.; et al.
ISSN 0954-0121  Vol. 29  Nº 6  2017  pp. 772 - 781
In the Democratic Republic of Congo no previous studies have assessed the factors associated with different patterns of condom use and with multiple sexual partners, and the association between condom use simultaneously taking into account multiple sexual partnerships, and HIV infection. We carried out a prospective case¿control study. From December 2010 until June 2012, 1630 participants aged 15¿49 getting HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing in a hospital in Kinshasa were selected. Cases were new HIV diagnosis and controls were HIV-negative participants detected along the study period. We recruited 274 cases and 1340 controls that were interviewed about HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. Among cases there was a high prevalence of multiple lifetime and concurrent sexual partnerships (89.8% and 20.4%, respectively) and most cases never used condoms with only 1.5% using them consistently. Condom use and multiple partnerships were associated with male, single and high-educated participants. An association was found between multiple lifetime partners and `any condom use¿ (OR¿=¿2.99; 95%CI: 2.14¿4.19) but not with consistent use. Both having two or more multiple concurrent sexual partners or not using condoms were variables similarly and highly associated to HIV risk. The association found between having two or more concurrent sexual partners and HIV was slightly higher (OR¿=¿3.58, 95%CI:2.31¿5.56) than the association found between never condom use and HIV (OR¿=¿3.38, 95%CI:1.15¿9.93). We found a high prevalence of multiple lifetime sexual partners and an extremely high prevalence of inconsistent condom use, both strongly associated with HIV seropositivity. Local programmes would benefit from comprehensive interventions targeting all behavioural and sociocultural determinants.
Authors: Burgueño, E.; Carlos, Silvia, (Autor de correspondencia); Lopez-del Burgo, C; et al.
Journal: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 12  Nº 12  2017  pp. e0189632
Introduction Sexual violence, an HIV determinant, is an integrated behavior in the D.R.Congo. We aimed to analyze the prevalence of forced sexual intercourse (FSI) among people receiving HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing in a hospital in Kinshasa, and its association with socio-demographics, behaviors and HIV status. Methodology Case-control study (2010¿2012). Two-hundred and seventy-four cases with a new HIV+ test and 1,340 controls with an HIV- test were interviewed about HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, including FSI. Results Thirty-four percent of the participants declared having had FSI (38% of women and 32% of men). Being a woman, aged 25¿49 and reporting multiple sexual partners were associated with reporting FSI. For men, being single was protective against FSI; and cohabiting, having a high socioeconomic status, and alcohol consumption increased the odds. For women, being single, divorced/separated and widow was associated with reporting FSI. A significant positive association was found between FSI and an HIV positive test. Conclusion Among our Congolese population, FSI was strongly associated with HIV infection and it was also associated with alcohol consumption and multiple sexual partnerships, other key HIV determinants. These behaviors need to be identified as potential risk factors of FSI during counseling interventions. Researchers, practitioners and decision-makers should work together to get violence prevention integrated into health, social and educational policies.
Authors: Osorio, A; Lopez-del Burgo, C; Carlos, Silvia; et al.
ISSN 1664-1078  Vol. 8  Nº 1298  2017  pp. 1-8
This cross-sectional study assesses the association between age of sexual initiation during adolescence and a selection of well-being outcomes regarding that first relationship. High-school adolescents from El Salvador (2,686) and from Peru (3,399) replied to a paper-pencil questionnaire. Those who were sexually initiated replied to several questions regarding their age at sexual initiation, condom use, satisfaction and reasons/circumstances for that sexual relationship. Approximately 19% of participants were sexually initiated (n=1,179). After retaining participants with valid responses and with sexual initiation ages between 13 and 17, the final sample for this paper consisted of 996 sexually initiated participants (526 Salvadorians and 470 Peruvians). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that those who initiated sex at earlier ages had worse outcomes compared to those who initiated at older ages. Specifically, they had lower odds of having used a condom, of having good memories of that experience and of having had that first relationship because they were in love. Conversely, they had higher odds of having had that first sexual relationship as a result of peer pressure, because of partner pressure, or as a consequence of different forms of impaired autonomy. Results show that sex at earlier ages is associated with worse adolescent health and well-being outcomes.
Authors: Lopez-del Burgo, C; de Irala, J;
ISSN 1944-0391  Vol. 43  Nº 3  2017  pp. 142
Authors: de Irala, J;
ISSN 8756-8160  Vol. 31  Nº 2  2016  pp. 185 - 190
The article discusses the Project YOURLIFE international study which examines the safe sex beliefs and sexual risk behaviors of adolescents, and it mentions the efforts to improve the lifestyles and health of school-attending teenagers in relation to their sexuality and affectivity. Evidence-based public health decisions are examined, along with attitudes about condom use, relationships, and love. Youth in places such as the Philippines, El Salvador, Spain, and Peru are assessed.
Authors: Lopez-del Burgo, C; Osorio, A; Carlos, Silvia; et al.
ISSN 0188-5022  Vol. 27  Nº 3  2016  pp. 375-388
Authors: Carlos, S.; Nzakimuena, F.; Reina, G; et al.
ISSN 1471-2458  Vol. 16  Nº 1  2016  pp. 606
BACKGROUND: Considering the high percentage of couples in which one or both members are HIV negative, the frequency of transmission among non-regular partners and the probabilities of non-disclosure, attention should be paid to people getting a negative HIV test at the Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT). Research has shown that a negative HIV test may be followed by a change in sexual behaviours. In Sub-Saharan Africa, where most HIV infections occur, there are few studies that have analysed the factors associated with changes in sexual risk behaviours after a negative HIV test at the VCT clinic. The aim of this project is to evaluate the specific factors associated with changes in sexual behaviours, three months after a negative result in an HIV test, and to analyse the effect of counseling and testing on HIV-related knowledge of participants in an outpatient centre of Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo). METHODS AND DESIGN: Prospective cohort study from December 2014 until March 2016. People 15-60 year old that received VCT at Monkole Hospital (Kinshasa) were followed three months after they got a negative HIV test. In a face-to-face interview, participants replied to a baseline and a follow-up research questionnaire on HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. At follow-up respondents were also offered a new HIV test and additional HIV counseling. Four hundred and fifteen participants completed the baseline questionnaire and 363 (87 %) came back for their 3-month follow up. DISCUSSION: This is the first longitudinal study in the DRC that evaluates the factors associated with changes in sexual behaviours after a negative HIV test at the VCT. Participants attending the VCT services within a clinical setting are a good study population as they can be good transmitters of preventive information for other people with no access to health facilities.
Authors: López del Burgo, C.; Osorio, A.; Carlos, S.; et al.
ISSN 0188-5022  Vol. 27  Nº 3  2016  pp. 375 - 388
Objective: To evaluate whether parents-adolescents relationship was associated with early sexual debut and having multiple partners in a low socioeconomic suburb in Mexico City. Methods: An anonymous questionnaire about sexual activity and relationships with parents during adolescence was responded by 936 participants, aged 20-30. Logistic regression was conducted. Results: The majority of participants reported being sexually active (78.3%). Among them, 70% of males and 55% of females had first sex before age 18. Good communication with parents during adolescence was inversely associated with sexual debut <18 (OR=0.40; CI95% 0.30-0.53) and having >2 sexual partners (OR=0.47; IC95% 0.33-0.68). Sexual debut <18 was associated with having had multiple partners (OR=3.86; IC95% 2.60-5.73). Conclusion: Good parental communication during adolescence may help prevent adolescents from choosing early sexual debut and having multiple partners and, consequently, from acquiring sexually transmitted diseases. Efforts are necessary to support parents in their relationship with their adolescent children.
Authors: Carlos, Silvia; Osorio, A; Calatrava, María; et al.
ISSN 2296-2565  Vol. 4  2016  pp. 28
Introduction: Sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancies affect adolescent sexual health and are serious public health concerns. They result from sexual intercourse in adolescence, which is usually associated with multiple partners, unprotected sex, and condom misuse. This behavior is related to socio-ecological factors that influence lifestyles. The YOURLIFE project aims to find out what young people think and feel about relationships, love, and sexuality, and to assess the associations between these thoughts and attitudes, adolescents' social factors, and sexual health. Materials and Equipment: An international school-based study with a cross-sectional and optional subsequent longitudinal design. Three online questionnaires designed for adolescents aged 13/14, 15/16, and 17/18, respectively, will be used. A matching coding system will allow longitudinal follow-up when adolescents reply to follow-up surveys. Questionnaires will include questions related to sociodemographic data; information/communication technologies; leisure time; parental supervision; influences of parents/friends; information sources; messages perceived; and sexuality-related knowledge, attitudes, and opinions. The second and third questionnaires for participants aged 15/16 and 17/18 will also contain variables concerning sexual behavior. Schools will be able to use their results to tailor educational approaches targeting the needs of their students. Multivariate analyses will be performed using the larger international dataset. Expected Impact Of the Study On Public Health: The YOURLIFE project will collect comprehensive information about the socio-ecological determinants of the sexual risk-taking of schooled adolescents worldwide. Effective preventive programs could be subsequently designed and tailored to the specific determinants of adolescents from different schools and settings, and also, when analyzed globally, to public health professionals.
Authors: Lopez-del Burgo, C; de Irala, J;
ISSN 0010-7824  Vol. 93  Nº 6  2016  pp. 565 - 566
Authors: Carlos, Silvia; Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Burgueño, E.; et al.
ISSN 1368-4973  Vol. 91  Nº 5  2015  pp. 334 - 337
Objectives To evaluate the prevalence of HIV-related misconceptions in an outpatient centre of Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo) and analyse the association between these beliefs and HIV infection. Methods A case-control study was carried out from December 2010 until June 2012. We assessed 1630 participants aged 15-49 attending a primary outpatient centre in Kinshasa: 762 HIV Voluntary Counselling and Testing attendees and 868 blood donors. A 59-item questionnaire about knowledge, attitudes and practice was administered during a face-to-face interview, followed by an HIV test. Cases and controls were respondents with a newly diagnosed HIV-positive or HIV-negative test, respectively. Unconditional logistic regression was used to analyse the association between misconceptions and HIV seropositivity. Results 274 cases and 1340 controls were recruited. Cases were more likely than controls to have a low socioeconomic status, no education, to be divorced/separated or widowed. An association was found between the following variables and HIV seropositivity: having a poor HIV knowledge (adjusted OR=2.79; 95% CI 1.43 to 5.45), not knowing a virus is the cause of AIDS (adjusted OR=2.03; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.98) and reporting more than three HIV-transmission-related misconceptions (adjusted OR=3.30; 95% CI 1.64 to 6.64), such as thinking an HIV-positive person cannot look healthy and that HIV is transmitted by sorcery, God's punishment, a kiss on the mouth, mosquitoes, coughs/sneezes or undercooked food. Conclusions Despite having access to healthcare services, there are still many people in Kinshasa that have HIV-related misconceptions that increase their HIV risk. Our findings underscore the need for a culturally adapted and gender-orientated basic HIV information into Congolese HIV prevention programmes.
Authors: Osorio, A; Lopez-del Burgo, C; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; et al.
Journal: BMJ OPEN
ISSN 2044-6055  Vol. 5  Nº 4  2015  pp. e007826
OBJECTIVES: This study intends to evaluate whether the belief that condoms are 100% effective in protecting against HIV infection is associated with sexual risk behaviours among youth. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in representative samples of high-school students in the Philippines, El Salvador and Peru. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Students were asked about the risk of HIV transmission if one has sex using condoms. They were also asked to indicate whether they had ever had sexual relations and whether they used a condom in their first sexual relation. The sample was composed of 8994 students, aged 13-18. RESULTS: One out of seven adolescents believed condoms are 100% effective (safe-sex believers). Those adolescents were 82% more likely to have had sex than those without such belief, after adjusting for confounders (OR=1.82; 95% CI 1.51 to 2.21). On the contrary, no association was found between risk perception and condom use. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses produced similar results. CONCLUSIONS: This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first study conducted specifically to evaluate this phenomenon and that has used the same questionnaire and the same data collection protocol in three different developing countries from Asia, Central and South America. These results reasonably suggest that there could be an association between safe sex beliefs and sexual initiation. Longitudinal studies are needed to better understand this possible association as it could influence how to better promote sexual health.
Authors: Lopez-del Burgo, C; Gea, Alfredo; de Irala, J; et al.
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 7  Nº 8  2015  pp. 6167 - 6178
The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the cohort. Cases were women reporting difficulty getting pregnant. Controls did not consult due to difficulty conceiving and had at least one child during follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found no association between self-reported difficulty getting pregnant and the number of alcoholic beverages consumed per week, (Odds Ratio [OR] > 5 drinks/week vs. none = 1.04, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72-1.51). No association between types of alcoholic beverage and difficulty conceiving (OR > 5 drinks of wine/week vs. none = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.72-1.88; OR > 5 drinks of beer/week vs. none = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.82-1.37; OR > 5 drinks of spirits/week vs. none = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.84-1.64) was observed. In conclusion, we found no association between alcohol intake and risk of consulting a physician due to difficulty conceiving. More studies are needed to clearly elucidate the effects of alcohol intake on women's fertility. In the meantime, recommendations about alcohol intake to couples trying to conceive have to be given cautiously.
Authors: Lopez-del Burgo, C; Osorio, A; de Irala, J;
ISSN 0010-7824  Vol. 91  Nº 3  2015  pp. 265
Authors: Carlos, Silvia; de Irala, J; Hanley, M.; et al.
ISSN 0143-005X  Vol. 68  Nº 9  2014  pp. 897 - 904
A dangerous distortion of priorities seems to be currently apparent in the dominant approaches to major public health problems, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, cancer and some infectious diseases. Relevant examples suggest an apparently inappropriate tendency to prioritise technocratic, partial solutions rather than confronting their true behavioural and structural determinants. Technically oriented preventive medicine often takes excessive precedence over simpler, more sensible approaches to modify lifestyles, the environment and the social structure. Structural factors (social, cultural, financial, familiar, educational, political or ideological factors) that act as determinants of individual behaviours should be effectively addressed to confront the essential causes of the most prevalent and important health problems. Some consumer-directed commercial forces seem to be increasingly driving many aspects of the current sociocultural environment, and may eventually compromise the main pursuits of public health. Population-wide strategies are needed to create a healthy sociocultural environment and to empower individuals and make themselves resistant to these adverse environmental and structural pressures. Otherwise most public health interventions will most likely end in failures.
Authors: de Irala, J; Osorio, A; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; et al.
ISSN 1041-0236  Vol. 29  Nº 6  2014  pp. 629 - 633
The common statistical indicator "mean age of first sex" can be misinterpreted by youth to indicate that most of their peers of the same age are sexually initiated, when this is not usually the case. This can jeopardize efforts to delay sexual initiation. University students were randomly assigned to one of two versions of an anonymous survey. They were asked to estimate how common sexual initiation was at a given age upon being presented with statements with different wordings, such as the "mean age of first sex" or "proportions of youth at different ages having had sex." Their interpretations were compared using logistic regression. Students who were assigned surveys using the indicator "mean age" of sexual initiation had higher odds of overestimating the extent of sexual initiation compared to those assigned surveys using percentages as the indicator, even after adjusting for student's sex and degree. We encourage the use of the "percentage" of youth, at different ages, who are sexually initiated as a more reliable indicator.
Authors: Mujika, Agurtzane; Forbes, A.; Canga, N; et al.
ISSN 0020-7489  Vol. 51  Nº 8  2014  pp. 1074 - 1082
Background: Despite the important role that health professionals have in reducing tobacco use, many have a smoking habit themselves. The prevalence of smoking is particularly high among nurses. Objective: To test the efficacy, acceptability and feasibility of a motivational interviewing (MI) based smoking cessation intervention with nurses. Design: Two group parallel experimental design with random allocation to groups. Setting: A large teaching hospital in the North of Spain. Participants: Nurses who smoked (n = 30) were randomised into two groups: motivational interviewing based intervention (n = 15) and usual care (n = 15). Methods: Motivational interviewing based intervention consisted of four individual MI sessions. Usual care consisted of brief advice. Variables considered to assess efficacy were biochemically verified smoking cessation, mean cigarettes smoked, stages of change, self-efficacy and depression score. Variables to assess acceptability and feasibility included participant satisfaction, adherence to MI, and duration of sessions. Data were collected at: baseline, end of intervention and three months after the end of the intervention. Results: At three month follow up, compared with the control group, more nurses in the intervention group had quit (absolute difference 33.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.6¿58.2). In the nurses who did not quit, there was no significant difference between the intervention and control groups in the number of cigarettes smoked per day, although progress in the stages of change was greater in the intervention group compared to the control group. Measures of acceptability and feasibility indicated good satisfaction with the intervention, with high levels of attendance and completion. Conclusion This study found a beneficial effect of motivational interviewing on nurses¿ smoking cessation. The intervention was acceptable for nurses and a number of aspects were identified that need to be considered prior to conducting a larger scale in order to optimise the intervention. Using MI might be a novel approach to the problem of health professionals who smoke.
Authors: Lopez-del Burgo, C; Mikolajczyk, R. T.; Osorio, A; et al.
ISSN 0962-1067  Vol. 22  Nº 21-22  2013  pp. 3006 - 3015
Aims and Objectives: To assess women's attitudes towards the mechanisms of action of birth control methods. Background: When addressing women's knowledge of and attitudes towards birth control methods, researchers frequently focus on side effects, effectiveness or correct use. Women's opinions about mechanisms of action have been much less investigated, and research is usually concentrated on the EC pill. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Women, aged 18-49, from Germany, France, the UK, Sweden and Romania were randomly selected (n = 1137). They were asked whether they would use a method that may work after fertilisation or after implantation and whether they would continue using it after learning it may have such effects. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the influence of certain characteristics on women's attitudes. Results: Almost half of women in Romania and Germany would not use methods with postfertilisation effects, while the lowest percentages were found in Sweden and in France. Regarding methods with postimplantation effects, higher percentages were found in all the countries. Highly educated women and those using a highly effective method were more likely to use methods with postfertilisation effects. On the contrary, married women, those who stated that human life begins at fertilisation and women with middle/high religiosity were less likely to consider using methods that may act after fertilisation. Conclusions: One-third of European women reported that they would not consider using a method that may have postfertilisation effects. Relevance To Clinical Practice: Given that postfertilisation effects may not be acceptable to some women, informing them of which methods may have these effects is essential to obtaining complete informed consent and to promoting women's autonomy.
Authors: Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Lopez-del Burgo, C; Carlos, Silvia; et al.
ISSN 1472-6939  Vol. 14  Nº 2  2013 
Authors: Osorio, A; Lopez-del Burgo, C; Carlos, Silvia; et al.
ISSN 1054-139X  Vol. 50  Nº 3  2012  pp. 271 - 278
ICS Purpose Adolescents who engage in sex can be affected by a range of negative physical and psychological consequences. We intend to analyze the reasons behind first sex, regret, and the association between reasons and regret. Methods A questionnaire was implemented to 8,495 high schools students aged 14¿18 years residing in the Philippines, El Salvador, and Peru. Sexually active participants responded whether several circumstances were reasons involved in their first sexual relationship. They also responded whether they regretted having already had sexual relationships. Results More than one-third of respondents reported at least one external pressure leading to first sex, and about one-half reported at least one reason implying getting carried away by sexual arousal. More females affirmed they regret having already had sex. Logistic regression shows that reasons for first sex associated with regret were partner insistence, ¿uncontrolled situations,¿ and seeing sexual images. These reasons were associated with regret even when love was also reported as related to first sex. Conclusions Adolescent sexual experience is often motivated by pressure (such as external pressure [because most friends already had sex or because of partner insistence]) and circumstances (such as getting carried away by sexual arousal [through an ¿uncontrolled situation¿ or viewing sexual images]) that lower the control over their decisions concerning sex, rather than by mature decisions, and this ma
Authors: Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Guillén-Grima, F; de Irala, J; et al.
ISSN 0022-3166  Vol. 142  Nº 9  2012  pp. 1672-8
The available large prospective studies supporting an inverse association between better adherence to the Mediterranean diet and lower mortality have mainly included older adults. It is not clear whether this inverse association is also present among younger individuals at lower mortality risk. Our aim was to assess the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and total mortality in middle-aged adults from the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Project. We followed 15,535 Spanish university graduates for a mean of 6.8 y. Their mean age was 38 ± 12 y, 59.6% were females, and all were initially free of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes. A validated FFQ was used to assess dietary habits. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was categorized into 3 groups according to the Mediterranean Diet Score (low, 0-2 points; moderate, 3-5 points; and high, 6-9 points). The outcome variable was total mortality. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate HR and 95% CI. We adjusted the estimates for sex, age, years of university education, BMI, smoking, physical activity, television watching, history of depression and baseline hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. We observed 125 deaths during 105,980 person-years of follow-up. The fully adjusted HR for moderate and high adherence were 0.58 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.99; P = 0.05) and 0.38 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.70; P = 0.002), respectively. For each 2-point increment in the Mediterranean Diet Score, the HR of death
Authors: Sánchez-Villegas, A.; Toledo, Estefanía Ainhoa; de Irala, J; et al.
ISSN 1368-9800  Vol. 15  Nº 3  2012  pp. 424-432
Fast-food and commercial baked goods consumption may have a detrimental effect on depression risk
Authors: Lopez-del Burgo, C; T., Rafael; Osorio, A; et al.
ISSN 0010-7824  Vol. 85  Nº 1  2012  pp. 69 - 77
ICS Background: Adequate knowledge is essential for making informed decisions. We attempted to determine the level of knowledge about mechanisms of action of birth control methods in five representative samples of European women. Study Design: Randomly selected women, aged 18-49 years, completed an anonymous survey in Germany, France, the UK, Sweden and Romania (N=1137). Participants were asked about how contraceptive methods work and if providers should inform them about this issue. Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate women's characteristics associated with their knowledge of mechanisms of action. Results: The majority of women identified the unequivocal mode of action of condoms, sterilization and abortion. Fewer than 2% identified all possible mechanisms of action of hormonal contraceptives and intrauterine devices. Highly educated women correctly identified the mechanism or mechanisms of action of more methods than less educated women (beta=0.22, 95% confidence interval 0.01-0.43). Regardless of their sociodemographic characteristics and their belief about when human life begins, most women (75%) stated that the provider should inform them about possible postfertilization effects. Conclusions: European women have low knowledge about mechanisms of action of several contraceptive methods. The majority want to be informed about possible postfertilization effects. Since adequate knowledge is essential for making informed decisions, providers are encouraged to info
Authors: Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Lopez-del Burgo, C; Carlos, Silvia; et al.
ISSN 1020-4989  Vol. 31  Nº 1  2012  pp. 54 - 61
ICS Objetivo. El objetivo de este estudio es comprobar cómo influyen en el inicio de la actividad sexual de los jóvenes salvadoreños los mensajes que reciben sobre cuestiones de sexualidad, afectividad y ocio a través de la familia, los amigos y los medios de comunicación. Métodos. Estudio transversal a partir de una muestra representativa de 2 615 estudiantes (de 13 a 19 años) de El Salvador. Se utilizó un muestreo sistemático aleatorio para seleccionar 30 colegios. Se recogieron aspectos sociodemográficos, estilos de vida y fuentes de información sobre sexualidad y amor utilizadas por los jóvenes. Resultados. La edad media de los jóvenes fue de 15 años (DE = 1,8). En total 638 (24,4%) jóvenes afirmaron haber tenido relaciones sexuales. Los siguientes factores se asociaron con una mayor probabilidad de haber tenido relaciones sexuales: percibir que los hermanos (OR = 1,8, IC 95%: 1,2¿2,7) o los amigos (OR = 1,7, IC 95%: 1,3¿2,2) apoyan que se tengan relaciones sexuales. Como factores protectores se encontraron la supervisión de los padres (OR = 0,5, IC 95%: 0,4¿0,7); recibir mensajes que apoyan la abstinencia por parte de amigos (OR = 0,7, IC 95%: 0,6¿1,0) o hermanos (OR = 0,7, IC 95%: 0,5¿0,8) y recibir mensajes favorables al matrimonio por parte de los padres (OR = 0,4, IC 95%: 0,3¿0,6). Conclusiones. Los mensajes de la familia y amigos son factores que parecen influir en el inicio de las relaciones sexuales de los jóvenes. Los programas de promoción de la salud sexual en
Authors: Calatrava, María; Lopez-del Burgo, C; de Irala, J;
ISSN 0025-7753  Vol. 138  Nº 12  2012  pp. 534 - 540
ICS En Europa, seguimos asistiendo a un aumento de la transmisión sexual del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y otras infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS). Para priorizar estrategias de salud sexual, resulta importante identificar los factores sexuales de riesgo presentes en los jóvenes europeos. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de artículos científicos y estudios de instituciones oficiales europeas. En total, fueron identificados 21 artículos y 10 estudios. Los datos sugieren un aumento de la iniciación sexual juvenil y del número de parejas sexuales. El 15-20% de los jóvenes usan de forma inconstante el preservativo. Entre los conocimientos y actitudes de riesgo detectadas encontramos: desconocer otras ITS distintas al VIH, tener una actitud favorable a las relaciones sexuales casuales, creer erróneamente que algunas medidas son eficaces para prevenir el VIH, desconocer los riesgos de tener múltiples parejas sexuales y desconocer la transmisión sexual del VIH. Los datos subrayan la necesidad de mejorar los mensajes transmitidos a los jóvenes.
Authors: Canga, N; Mujika, Agurtzane; de Irala, J; et al.
ISSN 1137-6627  Vol. 35  Nº 2  2012  pp. 344 - 345
Authors: Mujika, Agurtzane; Canga, N; Edwards, M.; et al.
ISSN 1101-1262  Vol. 22  Nº Supl. 2  2012  pp. 163
Authors: Guillén-Grima, F; et al.
ISSN 0272-4332  Vol. 31  Nº 3  2011  pp. 466 - 474
Authors: Toledo, Estefanía Ainhoa; Lopez-del Burgo, C; Ruiz-Zambrana, A; et al.
ISSN 0015-0282  Vol. 96  Nº 5  2011  pp. 1149 - 1153
Authors: Verberne, L.; de Irala, J; et al.
Journal: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 6  Nº 1  2011  pp. e16268
Emerging evidence relates some nutritional factors to depression risk. However, there is a scarcity of longitudinal assessments on this relationship. Objective: To evaluate the association between fatty acid intake or the use of culinary fats and depression incidence in a Mediterranean population. Material and Methods: Prospective cohort study (1999-2010) of 12,059 Spanish university graduates (mean age: 37.5 years) initially free of depression with permanently open enrolment. At baseline, a 136-item validated food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate the intake of fatty acids (saturated fatty acids (SFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), trans unsaturated fatty acids (TFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and culinary fats (olive oil, seed oils, butter and margarine) During follow-up participants were classified as incident cases of depression if they reported a new clinical diagnosis of depression by a physician and/or initiated the use of antidepressant drugs. Cox regression models were used to calculate Hazard Ratios (HR) of incident depression and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for successive quintiles of fats. Results: During follow-up (median: 6.1 years), 657 new cases of depression were identified. Multivariable-adjusted HR (95% CI) for depression incidence across successive quintiles of TFA intake were: 1 (ref), 1.08 (0.82-1.43), 1.17 (0.88-1.53), 1.28 (0.97-1.68), 1.42 (1.09-1.84) with a significant dose-response relationship (p for trend = 0.003). Results did not substantially change after adjusting for potential lifestyle or dietary confounders, including adherence to a Mediterranean Dietary Pattern. On the other hand, an inverse and significant dose-response relationship was obtained for MUFA (p for trend = 0.05) and PUFA (p for trend = 0.03) intake. Conclusions: A detrimental relationship was found between TFA intake and depression risk, whereas weak inverse associations were found for MUFA, PUFA and olive oil. These findings suggest that cardiovascular disease and depression may share some common nutritional determinants related to subtypes of fat intake.
Authors: Henríquez, P.; Ruano, C.; de Irala, J; et al.
ISSN 0954-3007  Vol. 66  Nº 3  2011  pp. 360- 368
Mediterranean diet has been related with reduced morbidity and better well-being. The aim of this study was to assess whether the adherence to the Mediterranean diet were associated with mental and physical health related to quality of life.
Authors: de Irala, J; Osorio, A; Carlos, Silvia; et al.
ISSN 0010-7824  Vol. 84  Nº 6  2011  pp. 558 - 564
Background: The choice of a birth control method is influenced by sociocultural and personal factors. We explored the perceived influences in women's choice of a birth control method in five European countries (Germany, France, the UK, Romania and Sweden), where contraception is widely used. Study Design: This is a cross-sectional study of 1137 randomly selected women aged 18-49 years. An anonymous, 31-item questionnaire related to birth control methods was used. Logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with partner participation in choice of a contraceptive. Results: Oral contraceptives were mainly used in Germany (54.3%), France (50.5%) and Sweden (34.6%) and condoms in the UK (29.6%) and Romania (22.9%). Sweden showed the highest use of intrauterine devices (IUD, 19%). Romania had the lowest use of contraception. Oral contraceptives and IUDs use were frequently suggested by providers instead of by women. Choosing the method with the partner was associated with age [odds ratio (OR)=0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94-0.99], being a university graduate (OR=1.59, 95% CI 1.01-2.29), married (OR=1.52, 95% CI 1.01-2.29) and with using a method that requires partner's cooperation (OR=8.18, 95% CI 5.46-12.27). Conclusions: Hormonal contraceptives and lUDs are commonly recommended by providers rather than requested by women. Partner preferences are taken into account when his cooperation in the use of the method is needed. As fertility care is a male and female issue, there is still more room for actively involving both women and men in their choice of a birth control method.
Authors: Lopez-del Burgo, C; Osorio, A; de Irala, J;
ISSN 1470-2045  Vol. 12  Nº 13  2011  pp. 1185 - 1186
Authors: de Irala, J; Osorio, A; Carlos, Silvia; et al.
ISSN 0004-0002  Vol. 40  Nº 5  2011  pp. 853 - 855
Authors: Lopez-del Burgo, C; López, Carmen Marina; Osorio, A; et al.
Journal: European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology
ISSN 0301-2115  Vol. 151  Nº 1  2010  pp. 56 - 61
Objective: Some methods of family planning, such as oral contraceptives, emergency pill or intrauterine device, may occasionally work after fertilization. These effects may be important to some women. We explored Spanish women's attitudes towards contraceptive choices that may have occasional post-fertilization mechanisms of action. Study design: Cross-sectional study in a Spanish representative sample of 848 potentially fertile women, aged 18¿49. Data were collected using a 30-item questionnaire about family planning. Logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with women's attitudes towards post-fertilization effects. Results: The majority of women were married, had completed high school and had at least one child. Forty-five percent of women would not consider using a method that may work after fertilization and 57% would not consider using one that may work after implantation. Forty-eight percent of the sample would stop using a method if they learned that it sometimes works after fertilization, increasing to 63% when referring to a method that sometimes works after implantation. Women who believe that human life begins at fertilization, those who believe it is important to distinguish between spontaneous and induced embryo losses and women who report having a religion were less likely to consider the use of a method with some post-fertilization effects.Conclusion:The possibility of post-fertilization effects may influence Spanish women's choice of a family planning method. Information about mechanisms of action of birth control methods should be disclosed to women so that they can make informed choices.
Authors: Gómara, Ignacio Máximo; Reparaz, Ch.; Osorio, A; et al.
ISSN 1578-7001  Vol. 2010  Nº 18  2010  pp. 139 - 163
Junto al aumento de la utilización de preservativos, asistimos también al aumento de la transmisión de infecciones de transmisión sexual, al adelanto en la edad de inicio de relaciones sexuales y al aumento de embarazos en adolescentes. En este sentido cobra especial importancia la educación sexual recibida en el último tramo de la educación obligatoria. Es importante, desde el punto de vista de la Salud Pública, desarrollar contenidos que permitan al alumno adquirir habilidades sociales que le ayuden a tomar decisiones más libres e informadas encaminadas a retrasar el inicio de las relaciones sexuales. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de la evaluación comparativa sobre los contenidos de los libros escolares del área de Biología de 3º de la ESO en su capítulo sobre sexualidad y reproducción humana con un texto escolar alternativo. Se evalúa si posibilitan la consecución de los objetivos educativos señalados en el currículo y si promocionan estilos de vida saludables que lleguen a prevenir conductas de riesgo.
Authors: Lopez-del Burgo, C; de Irala, J;
Book title:  Conceptos de salud pública y estrategias preventivas
2018  pp. 301 - 306
Authors: de Irala, J; Carlos, Silvia; Lopez-del Burgo, C;
Book title:  Piédrola Gil. Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública
2016  pp. 601 - 609
Authors: de Irala, J; Osorio, A; Beltramo, Carlos;
Book title:  La formación de la voluntad matrimonial: anomalías, patologías y normalidad
2014  pp. 129 - 144
Authors: Moreno-Galarraga, L.; Guillén-Grima, F; de Irala, J;
Book title:  Conceptos de salud pública y estrategias preventivas: un manual para ciencias de la salud
2013  pp. 373 - 377
Authors: de Irala, J; Martínez, Miguel Ángel;
Book title:  Conceptos de salud pública y estrategias preventivas: un manual para ciencias de la salud
2013  pp. 23 - 31
Authors: Lopez-del Burgo, C; de Irala, J; Martínez, Miguel Ángel;
Book title:  Conceptos de salud pública y estrategias preventivas: un manual para ciencias de la salud
2013  pp. 367 - 372
Authors: Toledo, Estefanía Ainhoa; de Irala, J; Martínez, Miguel Ángel;
Title: Tabaco
Book title:  Conceptos de salud pública y estrategias preventivas: un manual para ciencias de la salud
2013  pp. 303 - 309
Authors: Lopez-del Burgo, C; Vaquero-Cruzado, Jesús Antonio; de Irala, J;
Book title:  Conceptos de salud pública y estrategias preventivas: un manual para ciencias de la salud
2013  pp. 359 - 365
Authors: Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Zozaya-Nieto, C.; de Irala, J;
Book title:  Conceptos de salud pública y estrategias preventivas: un manual para ciencias de la salud
2013  pp. 271 - 276
Authors: Martínez, Miguel Ángel; de Irala, J; Delgado-Rodríguez, M.;
Book title:  Conceptos de salud pública y estrategias preventivas: un manual para ciencias de la salud
2013  pp. 1 - 7
Authors: Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Hanley, M.; de Irala, J;
Book title:  Conceptos de salud pública y estrategias preventivas: un manual para ciencias de la salud
2013  pp. 475 - 482
Authors: Toledo, Estefanía Ainhoa; de Irala, J; Martínez, Miguel Ángel;
Title: Tabaco
Book title:  Compendio de salud pública
2011  pp. 377 - 384
Authors: Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; de Irala, J;
Book title:  Compendio de salud pública
2011  pp. 63 - 88
Authors: Lopez-del Burgo, C; Martínez, Miguel Ángel; de Irala, J;
Book title:  Compendio de salud pública
2011  pp. 459 - 471
Authors: Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Carlos, Silvia; de Irala, J;
Book title:  Compendio de salud pública
2011  pp. 5 - 16
Authors: Lopez-del Burgo, C; de Irala, J; Martínez, Miguel Ángel;
Title: Aborto
Book title:  Compendio de salud pública
2011  pp. 473 - 481
Authors: Moreno-Galarraga, L.; Echebarría, A.; de Irala, J;
Book title:  Compendio de salud pública
2011  pp. 483 - 492
Authors: Herranz, Gonzalo; León Sanz, Pilar; Pardo, José María; et al.
Authors: Herranz, Gonzalo; León Sanz, Pilar; Pardo, José María; et al.
Authors: Beltramo, Carlos, (Editor); de Irala, J, (Editor); de la Garza, Ana Laura Isabel; et al.
Authors: de Irala, J; Beltramo, Carlos; Ballón Espejo, M.;
Authors: de Irala, J; Beltramo, Carlos; Ballón-Espejo, M.;
Authors: de Irala, J; Beltramo, Carlos; Ballón-Espejo, M.;
Authors: de Irala, J; Beltramo, Carlos; Ballón Espejo, M.;
Authors: de Irala, J; Beltramo, Carlos; Ballón-Espejo, M.;
Authors: de Irala, J; Beltramo, Carlos; Ballón-Espejo, M.;
Authors: Bes-Rastrollo, Maira, (Coordinador); Carlos, Silvia, (Coordinador); et al.
Authors: de Irala, J, (Editor); Beltramo, Carlos, (Editor); Osorio, A; et al.
Authors: de Irala, J; Beltramo, Carlos; Ballón Espejo, M.;
Authors: de Irala, J; Gómara, Ignacio Máximo;
Authors: de Irala, J;
Authors: Hanley, Matthew; de Irala, J;
Depuis bientôt trente ans, nous luttons coutre le sida. Malgré les efforts et les milliards engloutis, la maladie ne cesse pourtant de progresser sur tous les continents, mais surtout en Afrique où des dizaines de millions de personnes sont porteuses du virus. Pour les États-Unis et l'Union européenne, grands argentiers des programmes antisida, le combat se limite essentiellement à la distribution de préservatifs, présentés comme un remède efficace et universel. Pourtant, la terrible maladie gagne chaque jour un peu plus de terrain. Spécialistes du virus VIH/sida, Matthew Hanley et Jokin de Irala osent, pour la première fois, confronter les faits aux discours lénifiants des programmes de santé publique mis en place par les organismes internationaux. Pour eux, les politiques de prévention du sida sont elles-mêmes contaminées par une idéologie qui ne dit pas son nom. C'est pour cela qu'elles ne tiennent compte ni des statistiques ni des réalités du terrain. Avec force et conviction, les auteurs déplorent qu'en matière de sida, les a priori politiques voire idéologiques prévalent sur les priorités objectives de l'urgence médicale. L'amour face au sida est un ouvrage pionnier qui ouvre de nouvelles perspectives dans la lutte contre un fléau de notre temps.
Authors: de Irala, J; Corcuera, Paúl; Rivera, Reynaldo; et al.
Authors: Hanley, Matthew; de Irala, J;

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Principal Investigator Education of Human Sexuality and Affectivity Institute of Culture and Social Studies University of Navarre