Our researchers

Alfredo Martínez Hernández

Department
Ciencias de la Alimentación y Fisiología
Facultad de Farmacia y Nutrición. Universidad de Navarra
Research lines
Evaluación estado nutricional, Epidemiología nutricional, Obesidad en modelos celulares, animales y en el hombre, Regulación hormonal y nutritiva del metabolismo: nutrigenómica
H-Index
74, (WoS, 07/05/2019)

Most recent scientific publications (since 2010)

Authors: San Cristóbal Blanco, Rodrigo; Navas Carretero, Santiago (Autor de correspondencia); Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
Journal: NATURE REVIEWS ENDOCRINOLOGY
ISSN 1759-5029  Vol. 16  Nº 6  2020  pp. 305 - 320
The specific metabolic contribution of consuming different energy-yielding macronutrients (namely, carbohydrates, protein and lipids) to obesity is a matter of active debate. In this Review, we summarize the current research concerning associations between the intake of different macronutrients and weight gain and adiposity. We discuss insights into possible differential mechanistic pathways where macronutrients might act on either appetite or adipogenesis to cause weight gain. We also explore the role of dietary macronutrient distribution on thermogenesis or energy expenditure for weight loss and maintenance. On the basis of the data discussed, we describe a novel way to manage excessive body weight; namely, prescribing personalized diets with different macronutrient compositions according to the individual's genotype and/or enterotype. In this context, the interplay of macronutrient consumption with obesity incidence involves mechanisms that affect appetite, thermogenesis and metabolism, and the outcomes of these mechanisms are altered by an individual's genotype and microbiota. Indeed, the interactions of the genetic make-up and/or microbiota features of a person with specific macronutrient intakes or dietary pattern consumption help to explain individualized responses to macronutrients and food patterns, which might represent key factors for comprehensive precision nutrition recommendations and personalized obesity management.
Authors: Becerra-Tomas, N. ; Mena-Sanchez, G. ; Diaz-Lopez, A. ; et al.
Journal: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 1436-6207  Vol. 59  Nº 5  2020  pp. 2195 - 2206
Purpose: To assess the association between the consumption of non-soy legumes and different subtypes of non-soy legumes and serum uric acid (SUA) or hyperuricemia in elderly individuals with overweight or obesity and metabolic syndrome. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in the framework of the PREDIMED-Plus study. We included 6329 participants with information on non-soy legume consumption and SUA levels. Non-soy legume consumption was estimated using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Linear regression models and Cox regression models were used to assess the associations between tertiles of non-soy legume consumption, different subtypes of non-soy legume consumption and SUA levels or hyperuricemia prevalence, respectively. Results: Individuals in the highest tertile (T3) of total non-soy legume, lentil and pea consumption, had 0.14 mg/dL, 0.19 mg/dL and 0.12 mg/dL lower SUA levels, respectively, compared to those in the lowest tertile (T1), which was considered the reference one. Chickpea and dry bean consumption showed no association. In multivariable models, participants located in the top tertile of total non-soy legumes [prevalence ratio (PR): 0.89; 95% CI 0.82-0.97; p trend = 0.01, lentils (PR: 0.89; 95% CI 0.82-0.97; p trend = 0.01), dry beans (PR: 0.91; 95% C: 0.84-0.99; p trend = 0.03) and peas (PR: 0.89; 95% CI 0.82-0.97; p trend = 0.01)] presented a lower prevalence of hyperuricemia (vs. the bottom tertile). Chickpea consumption was not associated with hyperuricemia prevalence. Conclusions: In this study of elderly subjects with metabolic syndrome, we observed that despite being a purine-rich food, non-soy legumes were inversely associated with SUA levels and hyperuricemia prevalence.
Authors: Gallardo-Alfaro, L.; Bibiloni, M. D. M. ; Mascaró, C. M.; et al.
Journal: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 12  Nº 4  2020  pp. 1013
Healthy lifestyle factors, such as physical activity (PA) and Mediterranean diet (MD), decrease the likelihood of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to report main lifestyle components and related factors according to the MetS severity. Cross-sectional analysis was done of baseline lifestyle factors from 5739 participants with overweight/obesity and MetS features (aged 55-75 years) included in the PREDIMED-PLUS primary cardiovascular prevention randomized trial. Participants were categorized in tertiles according to a validated MetS severity score (MetSSS). Anthropometrics, visceral adiposity index, dietary nutrient intake, biochemical marker levels, as well as a Dietary Inflammatory Index and depression symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II) were measured. Diet quality was assessed using a 17-item energy-restricted MD questionnaire. Duration and intensity of PA was self-reported using the Minnesota-REGICOR Short Physical Activity Questionnaire. Sedentary behaviours were measured using the Spanish version of the Nurses' Health Study questionnaire. The 30 s chair stand test was also assessed. Participants with highest MetSSS showed higher values of cardiovascular risk factors (except for total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol), depression risk, sedentary and TV viewing time, and lower moderate and vigorous leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). Highest MetSSS participants tended to a pro-inflammatory dietary pattern and tended to lower MD adherence. In addition, they showed lower carbohydrate and nut intake and higher intake of protein, saturated and trans fatty acids, cholesterol, iodine, sodium, red and processed meat products, other oils different from olive oil and spirit alcoholic drinks. The highest MetS severity score was associated with lower moderate and vigorous LTPA and higher sedentary time and depression risk, as they tended to a pro-inflammatory dietary pattern and lower MD adherence.
Authors: Papandreou, C. , (Autor de correspondencia); Bullo, M.; Diaz-Lopez, A.; et al.
Journal: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY
ISSN 0307-0565  Vol. 44  Nº 2  2020  pp. 330 - 339
Background Whether short sleep duration or high sleep variability may predict less weight loss and reduction in measures of adiposity in response to lifestyle interventions is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the 12-month changes in weight and adiposity measures between those participants with short or adequate sleep duration and those with low or high sleep variability (intra-subject standard deviation of the sleep duration) in PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea (PREDIMED)-Plus, a primary prevention trial based on lifestyle intervention programs. Methods Prospective analysis of 1986 community-dwelling subjects (mean age 65 years, 47% females) with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome from the PREDIMED-Plus trial was conducted. Accelerometry-derived sleep duration and sleep variability and changes in average weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) attained after 12-month interventions were analyzed. Results The adjusted difference in 12-month changes in weight and BMI in participants in the third tertile of sleep variability was 0.5 kg (95% CI 0.1 to 0.9; p = 0.021) and 0.2 kg/m(2) (0.04 to 0.4; p = 0.015), respectively, as compared with participants in the first tertile. The adjusted difference in 12-month changes from baseline in WC was -0.8 cm (-1.5 to -0.01; p = 0.048) in participants sleeping <6 h, compared with those sleeping between 7 and 9 h. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the less variability in sleep duration or an adequate sleep duration the greater the success of the lifestyle interventions in adiposity.
Authors: Ferreira Todendi, P.; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; Reuter, C. P.; et al.
Journal: NUTRITION
ISSN 0899-9007  Vol. 71  2020  pp. UNSP 110645
Objectives: Lifestyle, obesity, and eating habits are emerging as determinants for the instability of telomeres. The increase in childhood and adolescent obesity and the association of biochemical profiles and dietary components with telomere length (TL) makes it an important issue in nutritional research. The aim of the present study was to investigate TL and its association with ethnic background, adiposity, clinical and biochemical parameters, and dietary patterns among Brazilian children and adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study encompassing 981 children and adolescents between 7 and 17 y of age was performed. Dietary intake habits, anthropometry, and clinical data were collected. TL analysis was performed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: Children presented significantly longer TL than adolescents (P = 0.046). Participants who self-declared as black, mulatto, or brown (P < 0.001) also showed longer TL than those who were white. Regarding biochemical parameters, individuals with altered glucose levels had shorter TL than normoglycemic participants in the total sample (P = 0.014). Such difference remained statistically significant in adolescents (P = 0.019). Participants who reported eating fruits and vegetables regularly had longer TL than those who did not (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The results suggested that both biochemical parameters and the intake of antioxidant-rich food, such as fruits and vegetables, are associated with the stability of telomere biology among young Brazilians.
Authors: Cano-Ibáñez, N. ; Gea Sánchez, Alfredo; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; et al.
Journal: CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0261-5614  Vol. 39  Nº 4  2020  pp. 1161 - 1173
Background: Socioeconomic disparities and lifestyle factors are likely to determine the overall quality of the diet. In addition, overeating is compatible with inadequate micronutrient intake and it can lead to adverse health outcomes. Objective: To assess adequacy of dietary nutrient intake and to investigate the influence of socioeconomic and lifestyle factors on nutrient density in a large primary cardiovascular prevention trial conducted in healthy participants with metabolic syndrome (MetS) to assess the cardiovascular effects of an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet (PREDIMED-Plus). Methods: Baseline cross-sectional analysis of the PREDIMED-Plus trial with 6646 Spanish participants (aged 55-75 years in men and 60-75 years in women) with overweight/obesity and MetS. Energy and nutrient intake (for 10 nutrients) were calculated using a validated 143-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and nutrient density was estimated dividing the absolute nutrient intake by total energy intake. The prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated according to dietary reference intakes. Multivariable linear regression models were fitted to examine associations between socioeconomic status or lifestyle factors and nutrient density. Results: A considerable proportion of the screened participants showed a deficient intake of vitamins A, D, E, B9, calcium, magnesium and dietary fibre. Inadequate intake of four or more of the ten nutrients considered was present in 17% of participants. A higher nutrient density was directly and significantly associated with female sex, higher educational level and a better adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Lifestyle factors such as non-smoking and avoidance of sedentary lifestyles were also independently associated with better nutrient density. Conclusions: Patients with MetS, despite being overweight, exhibited suboptimal nutrient intake, especially among men. Low nutrient density diet can be largely explained by differences in socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. These results highlight the importance of focussing on nutritional education in vulnerable populations, taking into account nutrient requirements.
Authors: Cano-Ibanez, N. , (Autor de correspondencia); Bueno-Cavanillas, A. ; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
Journal: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 1436-6207  Vol. 59  Nº 6  2020  pp. 2395 - 2409
Background The prevalence of overweight/obesity and related manifestations such as metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing worldwide. High energy density diets, usually with low nutrient density, are among the main causes. Some high-quality dietary patterns like the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) have been linked to the prevention and better control of MetS. However, it is needed to show that nutritional interventions promoting the MedDiet are able to improve nutrient intake. Objective To assess the effect of improving MedDiet adherence on nutrient density after 1 year of follow-up at the PREDIMED-Plus trial. Methods We assessed 5777 men (55-75 years) and women (60-75 years) with overweight or obesity and MetS at baseline from the PREDIMED-Plus trial. Dietary changes and MedDiet adherence were evaluated at baseline and after 1 year. The primary outcome was the change in nutrient density (measured as nutrient intake per 1000 kcal). Multivariable-adjusted linear regression models were fitted to analyse longitudinal changes in adherence to the MedDiet and concurrent changes in nutrient density. Results During 1-year follow-up, participants showed improvements in nutrient density for all micronutrients assessed. The density of carbohydrates (- 9.0%), saturated fatty acids (- 10.4%) and total energy intake (- 6.3%) decreased. These changes were more pronounced in the subset of participants with higher improvements in MedDiet adherence. Conclusions The PREDIMED-Plus dietary intervention, based on MedDiet recommendations for older adults, maybe a feasible strategy to improve nutrient density in Spanish population at high risk of cardiovascular disease with overweight or obesity.
Authors: Paz-Graniel, I.; Babio, N., (Autor de correspondencia); Serra-Majem, L.; et al.
Journal: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 1436-6207  Vol. 59  Nº 4  2020  pp. 1595 - 1606
Purpose We aimed to evaluate associations between compliance with recommendations for total water intake (TWI) and total water intake from fluids (TWIF), and some socio-demographic and lifestyle factors of a senior Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Methods Cross-sectional analysis with data of 1902 participants from the PREDIMED-Plus study. A validated 32-item Spanish fluid-intake questionnaire was used to assess beverage consumption and water intake. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) for complying with European Food Safety Agency recommendations for TWI and TWIF according to various socio-demographic and lifestyle factors, and for the joint associations of Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) adherence and moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Results The mean total volume of fluid intake in the population studied was 1934 +/- 617 mL/day. Water was the most frequently consumed beverage. Significant differences between sex were only observed in alcoholic and hot beverage consumption. Compliance with TWIF was associated with being women (OR 3.02; 2.40, 3.80), high adherence to MedDiet (OR 1.07; 1.02, 1.12), and participants who were more engaged in physical activity (PA) (OR 1.07; 1.02, 1.13). Age was inversely associated (OR 0.96; 0.94, 0.98). Similar results for TWI recommendations compliance were observed in relation to being women (OR 5.34; 3.85, 7.42), adherence to MedDiet (OR 1.16; 1.02, 1.31) and PA (OR 1.07; 1.00, 1.15). The joint association of PA and MedDiet, showed that participants with higher adherence to MedDiet and meeting WHO recommendations for MVPA complied better with the TWI recommendations (OR 1.66; 1.19, 2.32). Conclusions High compliance with recommendations for TWI was associated with being a woman, and a healthy lifestyle characterized by high adherence to the MedDiet and PA.
Authors: Martínez González, Miguel Ángel (Autor de correspondencia); Fernández Lázaro, Cesar Ignacio; Toledo Atucha, Estefanía; et al.
Journal: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0002-9165  Vol. 111  Nº 2  2020  pp. 291 - 306
Background: Overall quality of dietary carbohydrate intake rather than total carbohydrate intake may determine the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Objective: We examined 6- and 12-mo changes in carbohydrate quality index (CQI) and concurrent changes in several CVD risk factors in a multicenter, randomized, primary-prevention trial (PREDIMED-Plus) based on an intensive weight-loss lifestyle intervention program. Methods: Prospective analysis of 5373 overweight/obese Spanish adults (aged 55-75 y) with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Dietary intake information obtained from a validated 143-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire was used to calculate 6- and 12-mo changes in CQI (categorized in quintiles), based on 4 criteria (total dietary fiber intake, glycemic index, whole grain/total grain ratio, and solid carbohydrate/total carbohydrate ratio). The outcomes were changes in intermediate markers of CVD. Results: During the 12-mo follow-up, the majority of participants improved their CQI by increasing their consumption of fruits, vegetables, legumes, fish, and nuts and decreasing their consumption of refined cereals, added sugars, and sugar-sweetened beverages. After 6 mo, body weight, waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglyceride levels, triglycerides and glucose (TyG) index, and TyG-WC decreased across successive quintiles of improvement in the CQI. After 12 mo, improvements were additionally observed for HDL cholesterol and for the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol. Favorable improvements (expressed in common units of SD and 95% CI) for quintile 5 compared with quintile 1 of CQI change were observed for most risk factors, including TyG-WC (SD -0.20; 95% CI -0.26, -0.15), HbA1c (SD -0.16; 95% CI -0.23, -0.10), weight (SD -0.12; 95% CI -0.14, -0.09), systolic BP (SD -0.11; 95% CI -0.19, -0.02) and diastolic BP (SD -0.11; 95% CI -0.19, -0.04). Conclusions: Improvements in CQI were strongly associated with concurrent favorable CVD risk factor changes maintained over time in overweight/obese adults with MetS. This trial was registered as ISRCTN 89898870.
Authors: Alvarez Alvarez, Ismael; Toledo Atucha, Estefanía; Lecea, O. ; et al.
Journal: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 1436-6207  Vol. 59  Nº 3  2020  pp. 1219 - 1232
Purpose Cardiovascular disease remains the global leading cause of death. We evaluated at baseline the association between the adherence to eight a priori high-quality dietary scores and the prevalence of individual and clustered cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in the PREDIMED-Plus cohort. Methods All PREDIMED-Plus participants (6874 men and women aged 55-75 years, with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome) were assessed. The prevalence of 4 CVRF (hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidaemia), using standard diagnoses criteria, were considered as outcomes. The adherence to eight a priori-defined dietary indexes was calculated. Multivariable models were fitted to estimate differences in mean values of factors and prevalence ratios for individual and clustered CVRF. Results Highest conformity to any dietary pattern did not show inverse associations with hypertension. The modified Mediterranean Diet Score (PR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.90-0.99), Mediterranean Diet Adherence Score (MEDAS) (PR = 0.94; 95% CI 0.89-0.98), the pro-vegetarian dietary pattern (PR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.90-0.99) and the Alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010 (PR = 0.92; 95% CI 0.87-0.96) were inversely associated with prevalence of obesity. We identified significant inverse trend among participants who better adhered to the MEDAS and the Prime Diet Quality Score (PDQS) in the mean number of CVRF across categories of adherence. Better adherence to several high-quality dietary indexes was associated with better blood lipid profiles and anthropometric measures. Conclusions Highest adherence to dietary quality indexes, especially Mediterranean-style and PDQS scores, showed marginal associations with lower prevalence of individual and clustered CVRF among elderly adults with metabolic syndrome at high risk of cardiovascular disease
Authors: Fernandez-Garcia, J. C. ; Munoz-Garach, A. ; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
Journal: OBESITY
ISSN 1930-7381  Vol. 28  Nº 3  2020  pp. 537 - 543
Objective The hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW) phenotype is characterized by abdominal obesity and high levels of triglycerides. In a cross-sectional assessment of PREDIMED-Plus trial participants at baseline, HTGW phenotype prevalence was evaluated, associated risk factors were analyzed, and the lifestyle of individuals with metabolic syndrome and HTGW was examined. Methods A total of 6,874 individuals aged 55 to 75 with BMI >= 27 and < 40 kg/m(2) were included and classified by presence (HTGW(+)) or absence (HTGW(-)) of HTGW (waist circumference: men >= 102 cm, women >= 88 cm; fasting plasma triglycerides >= 150 mg/dL). Analytical parameters and lifestyle (energy intake and expenditure) were analyzed. Results A total of 38.2% of the sample met HTGW(+) criteria. HTGW(+) individuals tended to be younger, have a greater degree of obesity, be sedentary, and be tobacco users. They had higher peripheral glucose, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels; had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels; and had increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) adherence and physical activity were greater in HTGW(-) patients. Age, BMI, tobacco use, total energy expenditure, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and MedDiet adherence were associated with HTGW(+). Conclusions HTGW is a highly prevalent phenotype in this population associated with younger age, higher BMI, tobacco use, and decreased MedDiet adherence. HTGW(-) individuals were more physically active with greater total physical activity, and fewer had hypertension.
Authors: Bullon Vela, Maria Vanessa; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Tur, J. A.; et al.
Journal: NUTRITION
ISSN 0899-9007  Vol. 71  2020  pp. 110620
Objective: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver morbidity. This condition often is accompanied by obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the connection between lifestyle factors and NAFLD in individuals with MetS. Methods: A cross-sectional study with 328 participants (55-75 y of age) diagnosed with MetS participating in the PREDIMED-Plus trial was conducted. NAFLD status was evaluated using the non-invasive hepatic steatosis index (HSI). Sociodemographic, clinical, and dietary data were collected. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet (mainly assessed by the consumption of olive oil, nuts, legumes, whole grain foods, fish, vegetables, fruits, and red wine) and physical activity were assessed using validated questionnaires. Results: Linear regression analyses revealed that HSI values tended to be lower with increasing physical activity tertiles (T2, ß = -1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.73 to -0.20; T3, ß = -1.93; 95% CI, -3.22 to -0.65 versus T1, Ptrend = 0.001) and adherence to the Mediterranean diet was inversely associated with HSI values: (moderate adherence ß = -0.70; 95% CI, -1.92 to 0.53; high adherence ß = -1.57; 95% CI, -3.01 to -0.13 versus lower, Ptrend = 0.041). Higher tertiles of legume consumption were inversely associated with the highest tertile of HSI (T2, relative risk ratio [RRR], 0.45; 95% CI, 0.22-0.92; P = 0.028; T3, RRR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.24-0.97; P = 0.
Authors: Aranaz Oroz, Paula; Zabala Navó, María; Romo Hualde, Ana; et al.
Journal: FOOD & FUNCTION
ISSN 2042-6496  Vol. 11  Nº 5  2020  pp. 4512 - 4524
The metabolic properties of omega-6 fatty acid consumption are being increasingly accepted. We had previously observed that supplementation with a borage seed oil (BSO), as a source of linoleic (18:2n-6; LA) and gamma-linolenic (18:3n-6; GLA) acids, reduces body weight and visceral adiposity and improves insulin sensitivity in a diet-induced obesity model of Wistar rats. Here, it was investigated whether the anti-obesogenic properties of BSO could be maintained in a pre-obese model of rats, and if these effects are enhanced by a combination with low doses of quercetin, together with its potential role in the regulation of the adipocyte biology. The combination of BSO and quercetin during 8 weeks was able to ameliorate glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, and to improve liver steatosis. Although no effects were observed on body weight, animals supplemented with this combination exhibited a lower proportion of visceral adiposity. In addition, in vitro differentiation of epididymal adipose-precursor cells of the BSO-treated animals exhibited a down-regulation of Fasn, Glut4, Pparg and Srebp1 genes, in comparison with the control group. Finally, in vitro evaluation of the components of BSO demonstrated that the anti-adipogenic activity of quercetin was significantly potentiated by the combination with both LA and GLA through the down-regulation of different adipogenesis-key genes in 3T3-L1 cells. All these data suggest that omega-6 fatty acids LA and GLA, and their natural sources such as BSO, could be combined with quercetin to potentiate their effects in the prevention of the excess of adiposity and the insulin resistance.
Authors: Guasch-Ferré, M.; Santos, J. L.; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
Journal: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0002-9165  Vol. 111  Nº 4  2020  pp. 835 - 844
Background: Glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites have been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the associations of these metabolites with T2D incidence and the potential effect of dietary interventions remain unclear. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the association of baseline and 1-y changes in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and TCA cycle metabolites with insulin resistance and T2D incidence, and the potential modifying effect of Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) interventions. Methods: We included 251 incident T2D cases and 638 noncases in a nested case-cohort study within the PREDIMED Study during median follow-up of 3.8 y. Participants were allocated to MedDiet + extra-virgin olive oil. MedDiet + nuts, or control diet. Plasma metabolites were measured using a targeted approach by LC-tandem MS. We tested the associations of baseline and 1-y changes in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and TCA cycle metabolites with subsequent T2D risk using weighted Cox regression models and adjusting for potential confounders. We designed a weighted score combining all these metabolites and applying the leave-oneout cross-validation approach. Results: Baseline circulating concentrations of hexose monophosphate. pyruvate, lactate, alanine, glycerol-3 phosphate, and isocitrate were significantly associated with higher T21) risk (17-44% higher risk for each 1-SD increment). The weighted score including all metabolites was associated with a 30% (95% CI: 1.12, 1.51) higher relative risk of T2D for each 1-SD increment. Baseline lactate and alanine were associated with baseline and 1-y changes of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. One-year increases in most metabolites and in the weighted score were associated with higher relative risk of T2D after 1-y of follow-up. Lower risks were observed in the MedDiet groups than in the control group although no significant interactions were found after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Conclusions: We identified a panel of glycolysis/gluconeogenesisrelated metabolites that was significantly associated with T2D risk in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular disease risk. A MedDiet could counteract the detrimental effects of these metabolites.
Authors: Pérez Díaz Del Campo, Nuria; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Cantero González, Irene; et al.
Journal: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 12  Nº 5  2020  pp. 1260
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of liver disease worldwide. Some genetic variants might be involved in the progression of this disease. The study hypothesized that individuals with the rs7359397 T allele have a higher risk of developing severe stages of NAFLD compared with non-carriers where dietary intake according to genotypes could have a key role on the pathogenesis of the disease. SH2B1 genetic variant was genotyped in 110 overweight/obese subjects with NAFLD. Imaging techniques, lipidomic analysis and blood liver biomarkers were performed. Body composition, general biochemical and dietary variables were also determined. The SH2B1 risk genotype was associated with higher HOMA-IR p = 0.001; and Fatty Liver Index (FLI) p = 0.032. Higher protein consumption (p = 0.028), less mono-unsaturated fatty acid and fiber intake (p = 0.045 and p = 0.049, respectively), was also referred to in risk allele genotype. Lipidomic analysis showed that T allele carriers presented a higher frequency of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (69.1% vs. 44.4%; p = 0.006). In the genotype risk group, adjusted logistic regression models indicated a higher risk of developing an advanced stage of NAFLD measured by FLI (OR 2.91) and ultrasonography (OR 4.15). Multinomial logistic regression models showed that risk allele carriers had higher liver fat accumulation risk (RRR 3.93) and an increased risk of NASH (RRR 7.88). Consequently, subjects carrying the T allele were associated with a higher risk of developing a severe stage of NAFLD. These results support the importance of considering genetic predisposition in combination with a healthy dietary pattern in the personalized evaluation and management of NAFLD.
Authors: Bibiloni, M. D. M.; Bouzas, C.; Abbate, M.; et al.
Journal: CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0261-5614  Vol. 39  Nº 3  2020  pp. 853 - 861
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Few studies have compared micronutrient intake and fulfilment of average requirements (EAR) in non-diabetic, pre-diabetic and diabetic adults at high cardiovascular risk. We assessed these variables in a large sample of participants in the PREDIMED-PLUS randomized trial of primary cardiovascular prevention with diet and physical activity. DESIGN: Baseline assessment of nutritional adequacy in n = 5792 men and women, aged 55-75 years, with overweight/obesity and some metabolic syndrome features. METHODS: Participants were categorised as non-diabetic (n = 2390), pre-diabetic (n = 1322) or diabetic (n = 2080) by standard criteria. Food and nutrient intake were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Micronutrients examined were vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, A, C, D, E and folic acid; Ca, K, P, Mg, Fe, Se, Cr, Zn, and iodine. The proportion of micronutrient inadequacy was evaluated using the EAR or adequate intake (AI) cut-offs. Diet quality was also determined using a 17-item energy-restricted Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) questionnaire. RESULTS: Compared to non-diabetic participants, those with pre-diabetes had lower intakes of total carbohydrates (CHO) and higher intakes of total fat and saturated fatty acids (SFA) and were more likely to be below EAR for folic, while diabetic participants had lower intakes of total CHO and higher intakes of protein, total fat, monounsaturated fatty acids, SFA and cholesterol and were less likely to be below EAR for vitamins B2, and B6, Ca, Zn and iodine. Diabetic participants disclosed higher adherence to the MedDiet than the other two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Older Mediterranean individuals with metabolic syndrome and diabetes had better nutrient adequacy and adherence to the MedDiet than those with pre-diabetes or no diabetes.
Authors: Castro-Barquero, S.; Tresserra-Rimbau, A.; Vitelli-Storelli, F. ; et al.
Journal: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 12  Nº 3  2020  pp. 689
Dietary polyphenol intake is associated with improvement of metabolic disturbances. The aims of the present study are to describe dietary polyphenol intake in a population with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and to examine the association between polyphenol intake and the components of MetS. This cross-sectional analysis involved 6633 men and women included in the PREDIMED (PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea-Plus) study. The polyphenol content of foods was estimated from the Phenol-Explorer 3.6 database. The mean of total polyphenol intake was 846 +/- 318 mg/day. Except for stilbenes, women had higher polyphenol intake than men. Total polyphenol intake was higher in older participants (>70 years of age) compared to their younger counterparts. Participants with body mass index (BMI) >35 kg/m(2) reported lower total polyphenol, flavonoid, and stilbene intake than those with lower BMI. Total polyphenol intake was not associated with a better profile concerning MetS components, except for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), although stilbenes, lignans, and other polyphenols showed an inverse association with blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and triglycerides. A direct association with HDL-c was found for all subclasses except lignans and phenolic acids. To conclude, in participants with MetS, higher intake of several polyphenol subclasses was associated with a better profile of MetS components, especially HDL-c.
Authors: Daimiel, L., (Autor de correspondencia); Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Corella, D.; et al.
Journal: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS
ISSN 2045-2322  Vol. 10  Nº 1  2020  pp. 3472
Physical activity (PA) has been hypothesized to be effective to maintaining cognitive function and delay cognitive decline in the elderly, but physical fitness (PF) could be a better predictor of cognitive function. We aimed to study the association between PA and PF with cognitive function and quality of life using cross-sectional data from 6874 participants of the PREDIMED-Plus trial (64.9 +/- 4.9 years, 48.5% female). PF and PA were measured with a Chair Stand Test, the REGICOR and Rapid Assessment Physical Activity questionnaires. Cognitive function was measured with Mini-mental State Examination, Control Oral Word Association Test, Trail Making Test and Digit Span tests; whereas health-related quality of life was assessed with the SF36-HRQL test. Cognitive and quality of life scores were compared among PF quartiles and PA levels (low, moderate and high) with ANCOVA and with Chair Stand repetitions and energy expenditure from total PA with multivariable linear regression adjusted for confounding factors. PF associated with higher scores in phonemic and semantic verbal fluency tests and with lower TMT A time. However, PA was not associated with the neurocognitive parameters evaluated. Both PF and PA levels were strongly associated with a better quality of life. We concluded that PF, but not PA, is associated with a better cognitive function.
Authors: Galarregui Miquelarena, Cristina; Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles; Marin-Alejandre, B. A.; et al.
Journal: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY
ISSN 0029-6651  Vol. 79  Nº OCE2  2020  pp. E96
Authors: Marin-Alejandre, B. A.; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Cantero González, Irene; et al.
Journal: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY
ISSN 0029-6651  Vol. 79  Nº OCE2  2020  pp. E373
Authors: Livingstone, K. M., (Autor de correspondencia); Celis-Morales, C.; Lara, J.; et al.
Journal: PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION
ISSN 1368-9800  Vol. 22  Nº 11  2019  pp. 2141 - 2146
Authors: Barron-Cabrera, E. ; Ramos-Lopez, O.; Gonzalez-Becerra, K.; et al.
Journal: LIFESTYLE GENOMICS
ISSN 2504-3161  Vol. 12  Nº 1  2019  pp. 25 - 44
Background: Chronic diseases arise as a consequence of an unhealthy lifestyle primarily characterized by physical inactivity and unbalanced diets. Regular physical activity can improve health, and there is consistent evidence that these improvements may be the result of epigenetic modifications. Objective: To identify epigenetic modificationsas outcomes of exercise interventions related to specific metabolic alterations. Methods: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P) methodology for manuscript research and preparation was followed using PubMed and EBSCO databases for literature review. Out of 2,638 articles identified, only 34 articles met the inclusion criteria. Results: The sections of the review were organized by metabolic alterations in which studies were grouped according to healthy, diseased, and trained individuals. Resistance exercise in humans induced epigenetic changes in pathways associated with energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity, contributing to healthy skeletal muscle. Endurance exercise also caused modifications in biomarkers associated to metabolic alterations through changes in DNA methylation and the expression of specific miRNAs. However, both resistance and endurance exercise are necessary to obtain a better physiological adaptation and a combination of both seems to be needed to properly tackle the increasing prevalence of non-communicable pathologies. Conclusion: Given the heterogeneity and complexity of the existing literature, it is currently not possible to propose a specific recommendation about the type, intensity, or duration of exercise that could be beneficial for different subsets of the population (healthy, diseased, and/or trained). Nevertheless, this review highlights the importance of exercise for health and shows the need to perform more research in this emerging area to identify epigenetic biomarkers that could serve as indicators of exercise adaptations.
Authors: Taberna Huesa, Daniel José; Navas Carretero, Santiago (Autor de correspondencia); Martínez Hernández, Alfredo
Journal: CURRENT OPINION IN CLINICAL NUTRITION AND METABOLIC CARE
ISSN 1363-1950  Vol. 22  Nº 5  2019  pp. 323 - 328
A variety of questionnaires, equations and tools were found with ability to assess nutritional status for metabolic care or clinical nutrition purposes, but apparently there is no optimal, universal and reliable nutritional status screening system for all metabolic conditions. Novel assessment instruments should provide high sensibility and specificity, be precise and reliable as well as inexpensive and simple, in order to avoid the additional burden of excessive loads of costs, work and time while dynamically overcoming the influence of disease diversity.
Authors: Valer-Martinez, A. ; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; Sayon Orea, María del Carmen; et al.
Journal: CURRENT PHARMACEUTICAL DESIGN
ISSN 1381-6128  Vol. 25  Nº 22  2019  pp. 2407 - 2420
Background: Several studies have suggested a potential association between low vitamin D serum levels and several pathological conditions apart from the well-known bone disorders. Thus, vitamin D insufficiency has been linked to cardiometabolic risk factors including obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, as well as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Objective: This review intends to provide an overview of recent evidence from clinical studies on vitamin D [25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)] and cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight adults. Furthermore, we also discussed potential mechanisms and limits of the retrieved results. Methods: The search process was based on the selection of publications (RCT) listed in PubMed and Cochrane Library databases Results: Vitamin D status evidenced an inversely strong association with subcutaneous adipose tissue and visceral adiposity, but not significantly related to other bodyweight measures (i.e., body mass index). Studies have shown a potential inverse association of hypovitaminosis D with insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion: The mechanisms by which vitamin D deficiency enhances adiposity, as well as putative association with metabolic syndrome features, remain still unclear. Further investigation would be required to conclude whether vitamin D has an independent role in preventing cardiometabolic disorders.
Authors: Gonzalez-Becerra, K.; Ramos-Lopez, O.; Barron-Cabrera, E. ; et al.
Journal: LIPIDS IN HEALTH AND DISEASE
ISSN 1476-511X  Vol. 18  Nº 1  2019 
Background Chronic illnesses like obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular diseases, are worldwide major causes of morbidity and mortality. These pathological conditions involve interactions between environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors. Recent advances in nutriepigenomics are contributing to clarify the role of some nutritional factors, including dietary fatty acids in gene expression regulation. This systematic review assesses currently available information concerning the role of the different fatty acids on epigenetic mechanisms that affect the development of chronic diseases or induce protective effects on metabolic alterations. Methods A targeted search was conducted in the PubMed/Medline databases using the keywords "fatty acids and epigenetic". The data were analyzed according to the PRISMA-P guidelines. Results Consumption fatty acids like n-3 PUFA: EPA and DHA, and MUFA: oleic and palmitoleic acid was associated with an improvement of metabolic alterations. On the other hand, fatty acids that have been associated with the presence or development of obesity, T2D, pro-inflammatory profile, atherosclerosis and IR were n-6 PUFA, saturated fatty acids (stearic and palmitic), and trans fatty acids (elaidic), have been also linked with epigenetic changes. Conclusions Fatty acids can regulate gene expression by modifying epigenetic mechanisms and consequently result in positive or negative impacts on metabolic outcomes.
Authors: Yang, J. C. Z.; Fernández Galilea, Marta; Martínez Fernández, Leyre; et al.
Journal: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 11  Nº 4  2019 
Aging is a complex phenomenon characterized by the progressive loss of tissue and organ function. The oxidative-stress theory of aging postulates that age-associated functional losses are due to the accumulation of ROS-induced damage. Liver function impairment and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are common among the elderly. NAFLD can progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and evolve to hepatic cirrhosis or hepatic carcinoma. Oxidative stress, lipotoxicity, and inflammation play a key role in the progression of NAFLD. A growing body of evidence supports the therapeutic potential of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), mainly docosahaexenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), on metabolic diseases based on their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we performed a systematic review of clinical trials analyzing the efficacy of n-3 PUFA on both systemic oxidative stress and on NAFLD/NASH features in adults. As a matter of fact, it remains controversial whether n-3 PUFA are effective to counteract oxidative stress. On the other hand, data suggest that n-3 PUFA supplementation may be effective in the early stages of NAFLD, but not in patients with more severe NAFLD or NASH. Future perspectives and relevant aspects that should be considered when planning new randomized controlled trials are also discussed.
Authors: Lorente Cebrián, Silvia (Autor de correspondencia); González Muniesa, Pedro; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
Journal: CLINICAL SCIENCE
ISSN 0143-5221  Vol. 133  Nº 1  2019  pp. 23 - 40
Obesity is a metabolic condition usually accompanied by insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes (T2D), and dyslipidaemia, which is characterised by excessive fat accumulation and related to white adipose tissue (WAT) dysfunction. Enlargement of WAT is associated with a transcriptional alteration of coding and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). For many years, big efforts have focused on understanding protein-coding RNAs and their involvement in the regulation of adipocyte physiology and subsequent role in obesity. However, diverse findings have suggested that a dysfunctional adipocyte phenotype in obesity might be also dependent on specific alterations in the expression pattern of ncRNAs, such as miRNAs. The aim of this review is to update current knowledge on the physiological roles of miRNAs and other ncRNAs in adipose tissue function and their potential impact on obesity. Therefore, we examined their regulatory role on specific WAT features: adipogenesis, adipokine secretion, inflammation, glucose metabolism, lipolysis, lipogenesis, hypoxia and WAT browning. MiRNAs can be released to body fluids and can be transported (free or inside microvesicles) to other organs, where they might trigger metabolic effects in distant tissues, thus opening new possibilities to a potential use of miRNAs as biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and personalisation of obesity treatment. Understanding the role of miRNAs also opens the possibility of using these molecules on individualised dietary strategies for precision weight management. MiRNAs should be envisaged as a future therapeutic approach given that miRNA levels could be modulated by synthetic molecules (f.i. miRNA mimics and inhibitors) and/or specific nutrients or bioactive compounds.
Authors: Ramos-Lopez, O.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
Journal: FRONTIERS IN GENETICS
ISSN 1664-8021  Vol. 10  2019 
Aim: To analyze the influence of genetics and interactions with environmental factors on adiposity outcomes [waist circumference reduction (WCR) and total body fat loss (TFATL)] in response to energy-restricted diets in subjects with excessive body weight. Materials and Methods: Two hypocaloric diets (30% energy restriction) were prescribed to overweight/obese subjects during 16 weeks, which had different targeted macronutrient distribution: a low-fat (LF) diet (22% energy from lipids) and a moderately high-protein (MHP) diet (30% energy from proteins). At the end of the trial, a total of 201 participants (LF diet = 105; MHP diet = 96) who presented good/regular dietary adherence were genotyped for 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with weight loss through next-generation sequencing from oral samples. Four unweighted (uGRS) and four weighted (wGRS) genetic risk scores were computed using statistically relevant SNPs for each outcome by diet. Predictions of WCR and TFATL by diet were modeled through recognized multiple linear regression models including genetic (single SNPs, uGRS, and wGRS), phenotypic (age, sex, and WC, or TFAT at baseline), and environment variables (physical activity level and energy intake at baselines) as well as eventual interactions between genes and environmental factors. Results: Overall, 26 different SNPs were associated with differential adiposity outcomes, 9 with WCR and 17 with TFATL, most of which were specific for each dietary intervention. In addition to conventional predictors (age, sex, lifestyle, and adiposity status at baseline), the calculated uGRS/wGRS and interactions with environmental factors were major contributors of adiposity responses. Thus, variances in TFATL-LF diet, TFATL-MHP diet, WCR-LF diet, and WCR-MHP diet were predicted by approximately 38% (optimism-corrected adj. R-2 = 0.3792), 32% (optimism-corrected adj. R-2 = 0.3208), 22% (optimism-corrected adj. R-2 = 0.2208), and 21% (optimism-corrected adj. R-2 = 0.2081), respectively. Conclusions: Different genetic variants and interactions with environmental factors modulate the differential individual responses to MHP and LF dietary interventions. These insights and models may help to optimize personalized nutritional strategies for modeling the prevention and management of excessive adiposity through precision nutrition approaches taking into account not only genetic information but also the lifestyle/clinical factors that interplay in addition to age and sex.
Authors: Hazas, M. C. L.; Martin-Hernandez, R.; Crespo, M. C.; et al.
Journal: FOOD & FUNCTION
ISSN 2042-6496  Vol. 10  Nº 8  2019  pp. 4897 - 4910
Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is involved in healthful activities and is beneficial to lipid metabolism. Many investigations focused on finding tissue-specific targets of HT through the use of different omics approaches such as transcriptomics and proteomics. However, it is not clear which (if any) of the potential molecular targets of HT reported in different studies are concurrently affected in various tissues. Following the bioinformatic analyses of publicly available data from a selection of in vivo studies involving HT-supplementation, we selected differentially expressed lipid metabolism-related genes and proteins common to more than one study, for validation in rodent liver samples from the entire selection. Four miRNAs (miR-802-5p, miR-423-3p, miR-30a-5p, and miR-146b-5p) responded to HT supplementation. Of note, miR-802-5p was commonly regulated in the liver and intestine. Our premise was that, in an organ crucial for lipid metabolism such as the liver, consistent modulation should be found for a specific target of HT even if different doses and duration of HT supplementation were used in vivo. Even though our results show inconsistency regarding differentially expressed lipid metabolism-related genes and proteins across studies, we found Fgf21 and Rora as potential novel targets of HT. Omics approaches should be fine-tuned to better exploit the available databases.
Authors: Salas-Salvado, J. , (Autor de correspondencia); Diaz-Lopez, A.; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; et al.
Journal: DIABETES CARE
ISSN 0149-5992  Vol. 42  Nº 5  2019  pp. 777 - 788
OBJECTIVE The long-term impact of intentional weight loss on cardiovascular events remains unknown. We describe 12-month changes in body weight and cardiovascular risk factors in PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea (PREDIMED)-Plus, a trial designed to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of an intensive weight loss lifestyle intervention on primary cardiovascular prevention. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Overweight/obese adults with metabolic syndrome aged 55-75 years (n = 626) were randomized to an intensive weight loss lifestyle intervention based on an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet, physical activity promotion, and behavioral support (IG) or a control group (CG). The primary and secondary outcomes were changes in weight and cardiovascular risk markers, respectively. RESULTS Diet and physical activity changes were in the expected direction, with significant improvements in IG versus CG. After 12 months, IG participants lost an average of 3.2 kg vs. 0.7 kg in the CG (P < 0.001), a mean difference of -2.5 kg (95% CI -3.1 to -1.9). Weight loss >= 5% occurred in 33.7% of IG participants compared with 11.9% in the CG (P < 0.001). Compared with the CG, cardiovascular risk factors, including waist circumference, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol, significantly improved in IG participants (P < 0.002). Reductions in insulin resistance, HbA(1c), and circulating levels of leptin, interleukin-18, and MCP-1 were greater in IG than CG participants (P < 0.05). IG participants with prediabetes/diabetes significantly improved glycemic control and insulin sensitivity, along with triglycerides and HDL cholesterol levels compared with their CG counterparts. CONCLUSIONS PREDIMED-Plus intensive lifestyle intervention for 12 months was effective in decreasing adiposity and improving cardiovascular risk factors in overweight/obese older adults with metabolic syndrome, as well as in individuals with or at risk for diabetes.
Authors: Recaredo, G.; Marin-Alejandre, B. A. ; Cantero González, Irene; et al.
Journal: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 11  Nº 10  2019  pp. 2359
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Obesity and unhealthy dietary habits are described as risk factors for NAFLD. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the consumption of different animal protein sources and hepatic status in NAFLD adults. A total of 112 overweight/obese participants with NAFLD from Fatty Liver in Obesity (FLiO) study were evaluated at baseline. Diet, body composition, and biochemical variables were evaluated. Hepatic status was also assessed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging, ultrasonography, and elastography. Red meat consumption showed a positive relationship with liver iron content (r = 0.224; p = 0.021) and ferritin concentration (r = 0.196; p = 0.037). Processed meat consumption exhibited a positive association with liver iron content (r = 0.308; p = 0.001), which was also found in the quantile regression (beta = 0.079; p = 0.028). Fish consumption was related with lower concentration of ferritin (r = -0.200; p = 0.034). This association was further evidenced in the regression model (beta = -0.720; p = 0.033). These findings suggest that the consumption of different animal protein sources differentially impact on liver status in obese subjects with NAFLD, showing fish consumption as a healthier alternative for towards NAFLD features.
Authors: Navas Carretero, Santiago (Autor de correspondencia); San Cristóbal Blanco, Rodrigo; Livingstone, K. M. ; et al.
Journal: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCES AND NUTRITION
ISSN 0963-7486  Vol. 70  Nº 2  2019  pp. 240 - 253
The objective was to evaluate differences in macronutrient intake and to investigate the possible association between consumption of vegetable protein and the risk of overweight/obesity, within the Food4Me randomised, online intervention. Differences in macronutrient consumption among the participating countries grouped by EU Regions (Western Europe, British Isles, Eastern Europe and Southern Europe) were assessed. Relation of protein intake, within isoenergetic exchange patterns, from vegetable or animal sources with risk of overweight/obesity was assessed through the multivariate nutrient density model and a multivariate-adjusted logistic regression. A total of 2413 subjects who completed the Food4Me screening were included, with self-reported data on age, weight, height, physical activity and dietary intake. As success rates on reducing overweight/obesity are very low, form a public health perspective, the elaboration of policies for increasing intakes of vegetable protein and reducing animal protein and sugars, may be a method of combating overweight/obesity at a population level.
Authors: Arpon Miranda, Ana; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Ramos-Lopez, O.; et al.
Journal: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS
ISSN 2045-2322  Vol. 9  Nº 1  2019 
Insulin resistance (IR) is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic risk. An epigenetic phenomena such as DNA methylation might be involved in the onset and development of systemic IR. The aim of this study was to explore the genetic DNA methylation levels in peripheral white blood cells with the objective of identifying epigenetic signatures associated with IR measured by the Homeostatic Model Assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) following an epigenome-wide association study approach. DNA methylation levels were assessed using Infinium Methylation Assay (Illumina), and were associated with HOMA-IR values of participants from the Methyl Epigenome Network Association (MENA) project, finding statistical associations for at least 798 CpGs. A stringent statistical analysis revealed that 478 of them showed a differential methylation pattern between individuals with HOMA-IR <= 3 and > 3. ROC curves of top four CpGs out of 478 allowed differentiating individuals between both groups (AUC approximate to 0.88). This study demonstrated the association between DNA methylation in some specific CpGs and HOMA-IR values that will help to the understanding and in the development of new strategies for personalized approaches to predict and prevent IR-associated diseases.
Authors: Almirón Roig, Eva (Autor de correspondencia); Pastor, María A.; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; et al.
Journal: BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
ISSN 1469-1825  Vol. 42  2019  pp. e37
Poverty-related food insecurity can be viewed as a form of economic and nutritional uncertainty that can lead, in some situations, to a desire for more filling and satisfying food. Given the current obesogenic food environment and the nature of the food supply, those food choices could engage a combination of sensory, neurophysiological, and genetic factors as potential determinants of obesity.
Authors: Bibiloni, M. D. M.; Julibert, A.; Bouzas, C.; et al.
Journal: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 11  Nº 4  2019  pp. 754
BACKGROUND: Nut consumption has been associated with improved nutrient adequacy and diet quality in healthy adult populations but this association has never been explored in individuals at high cardiovascular risk. OBJECTIVE: to assess the associations between consumption of nuts and nutrient adequacy and diet quality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. DESIGN: baseline assessment of nutritional adequacy in participants (n = 6060, men and women, with ages 55¿75 years old, with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome) in the PREDIMED-PLUS primary cardiovascular prevention randomized trial. METHODS: nut intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Participants who reported consuming zero quantity of nuts were classified as 'non-nut consumers'. 'Nut consumers' were participants who reported consuming any quantity of nuts. Nineteen micronutrients were examined (vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, A, C, D, E and folic acid; Ca, K, P, Mg, Fe, Se, Cr, Zn, and iodine). The proportion of micronutrient inadequacy was estimated using the estimated average requirements (EAR) or adequate intake (AI) cut-points. Diet quality was also assessed using a 17-item Mediterranean dietary questionnaire (Mediterranean diet score, MDS), a carbohydrate quality index (CQI) and a fat quality index (FQI). RESULTS: eighty-two percent of participants were nut consumers (median of nut consumption 12.6 g/day; interquartile range: 6.0¿25.2). Nut consumers were less likely to be below the EAR for vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, C, D, E, folic acid, and Ca, Mg, Se and Zn than non-nut consumers. Nut consumers were also more likely to be above the AI for K and Cr than non-nut consumers. Nut consumers had lower prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes, but also higher CQI, higher FQI, and better scores of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (Mediterranean diet score, MDS). CONCLUSIONS: nut consumers had better nutrient adequacy, diet quality, and adherence to the MedDiet than those non-nut consumers.
Authors: Valdecantos, M. P.; Pérez-Matute, P., (Autor de correspondencia); Prieto-Hontoria, P.; et al.
Journal: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCES AND NUTRITION
ISSN 0963-7486  Vol. 70  Nº 7  2019  pp. 834 - 844
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of ¿-lipoic acid (¿-LA) on liver mitochondrial bioenergetics and oxidative status for 8¿weeks in normal-healthy animals. A pair-fed group was included to differentiate between ¿-LA direct effects and those changes due to reduced food intake. ¿-LA decreased body weight gain, liver weight and insulin levels with no differences compared to its pair-fed group. ¿-LA significantly reduced energy efficiency, the activity of the electron transport chain complexes and induced a lower efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation with reduced ATP production. ¿-LA supplementation directly decreased plasma triglycerides (TGs), free fatty acids and ketone bodies levels. A significant reduction in hepatic TG content was also observed. A significant up-regulation of Cpt1a, Acadl and Sirt3, all ß-oxidation genes, along with a significant deacetylation of the forkhead transcription factor 3a (FOXO3A) was found in ¿-LA-treated animals. Thus, ¿-LA along with a standard chow diet has direct actions on lipid metabolism and liver by modulating mitochondrial function in normal-weight rats. These results should be taken into account when ¿-LA is administered or recommended to a healthy population.
Authors: Marín-Alejandre, B. A.; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Cantero González, Irene; et al.
Journal: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 11  Nº 2  2019  pp. 322
The relevance of sleep patterns in the onset or evolution of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is still poorly understood. Our aim was to investigate the association between sleep characteristics and hepatic status indicators in obese people with NAFLD compared to normal weight non-NAFLD controls. Ninety-four overweight or obese patients with NAFLD and 40 non-NAFLD normal weight controls assessed by abdominal ultrasonography were enrolled. Hepatic status evaluation considered liver stiffness determined by Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse elastography (ARFI) and transaminases. Additionally, anthropometric measurements, clinical characteristics, and biochemical profiles were determined. Sleep features were evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Hepatic status parameters, anthropometric measurements, and clinical and biochemical markers differed significantly in NAFLD subjects compared to controls, as well as sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance score, and sleep quality score. In the NAFLD group, a higher prevalence of short sleep duration (p = 0.005) and poor sleep quality (p = 0.041) were found. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for NAFLD considering sleep disturbance was 1.59 (1.11¿2.28). Regression models that included either sleep disturbance or sleep quality predicted up to 20.3% and 20.4% of the variability of liver stiffness, respectively, and after adjusting for potential confounders. Current findings suggest that sleep disruption may be contributing to the pathogenesis of NAFLD as well as the alteration of the liver may be affecting sleep patterns. Consequently, sleep characteristics may be added to the list of modifiable behaviors to consider in health promotion strategies and in the prevention and management of NAFLD.
Authors: Salas-Perez, F. ; Ramos-Lopez, O.; Mansego Talavera, María Luisa; et al.
Journal: AGING-US
ISSN 1945-4589  Vol. 11  Nº 6  2019  pp. 1874 - 1899
Aging is the main risk factor for most chronic diseases. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation (DNAm) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of physiological responses that can vary along lifespan. The aim of this research was to analyze the association between leukocyte DNAm in genes involved in longevity and the occurrence of obesity and related metabolic alterations in an adult population. Subjects from the MENA cohort (n=474) were categorized according to age (<45 vs 45>) and the presence of metabolic alterations: increased waist circumference, hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. The methylation levels of 58 CpG sites located at genes involved in longevity-regulating pathways were strongly correlated (FDRadjusted< 0.0001) with BMI. Fifteen of them were differentially methylated (p<0.05) between younger and older subjects that exhibited at least one metabolic alteration. Six of these CpG sites, located at MTOR (cg08862778), ULK1 (cg07199894), ADCY6 (cg11658986), IGF1R (cg01284192), CREB5 (cg11301281), and RELA (cg08128650), were common to the metabolic traits, and CREB5, RELA, and ULK1 were statistically associated with age. In summary, leukocyte DNAm levels of several CpG sites located at genes involved in longevity-regulating pathways were associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome traits, suggesting a role of DNAm in aging-related metabolic alterations.
Authors: Konieczna, J.; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Galmes, A. M. ; et al.
Journal: CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0261-5614  Vol. 38  Nº 4  2019  pp. 1883 - 1891
Background & aims: Excess adiposity is associated with poor cardiometabolic (CM) health. To date, several techniques and indicators have been developed to determine adiposity. We aimed to compare the ability of traditional anthropometric, as well as standard and novel DXA-derived parameters related to overall and regional adiposity, to evaluate CM risk. Methods: Using the cross-sectional design in the context of the PREDIMED-Plus trial, 1207 Caucasian senior men and women with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) were assessed. At baseline, anthropometry- and DXA-measured parameters of central, visceral, peripheral and central-to peripheral adiposity together with comprehensive set of CM risk factors were obtained. Partial correlations and areas under the ROC curve (AUC) were estimated to compare each adiposity measure with CM risk parameters, separately for men and women, and in the overall sample. Results: DXA-derived indicators, other than percentage of total body fat, showed stronger correlations (rho 0.172 to 0.206, p < 0.001) with CM risk than anthropometric indicators, after controlling for age, diabetes and medication use. In both sexes, DXA-derived visceral adipose tissue measures (VAT, VAT/Total fat, visceral-to-subcutaneous fat) together with lipodystrophy indicators (Trunk/Legs fat and Android/Gynoid fat) were strongly and positively correlated (p < 0.001) with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), the triglyceride and glucose index (TyG), triglycerides (TG), the ratio TG/HDL-cholesterol (TG/HDL-C), and were inversely related to HDL-C levels (p < 0.001). Furthermore, in AUC analyses for both sexes, VAT/Total fat showed the highest predictive ability for abnormal HbAl c levels (AUC = 0.629), VAT for TyG (AUC = 0.626), both lipodystrophy indicators for TG (AUCs = 0.556), and Trunk/Legs fat for HDL-C (AUC = 0.556) and TG/HDL-C (AUC = 0.581). Conclusions: DXA regional adiposity measures offer advantages beyond traditional anthropometric and DXA overall adiposity indicators for CM risk assessment in senior overweight/obese subjects with MetS. In particular, in both sexes, visceral adiposity better stratifies individuals at risk for glucose abnormalities, and indicators of lipodystrophy better predict markers of dyslipidemia. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Authors: Papandreou, C.; Diaz-Lopez, A.; Babio, N.; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE
ISSN 2077-0383  Vol. 8  Nº 7  2019 
Research examining associations between objectively-measured napping time and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is lacking. This study aimed to evaluate daytime napping in relation to T2D and adiposity measures in elderly individuals from the Mediterranean region. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 2190 elderly participants with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome, in the PREDIMED-Plus trial, was carried out. Accelerometer-derived napping was measured. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for T2D were obtained using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression with constant time. Linear regression models were fitted to examine associations of napping with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Participants napping >= 90 min had a higher prevalence of T2D (PR 1.37 (1.06, 1.78)) compared with those napping 5 to <30 min per day. Significant positive associations with BMI and WC were found in those participants napping >= 30 min as compared to those napping 5 to <30 min per day. The findings of this study suggest that longer daytime napping is associated with higher T2D prevalence and greater adiposity measures in an elderly Spanish population at high cardiovascular risk.
Authors: de Cuevillas, B.; Alvarez Alvarez, Ismael; Cuervo Zapatel, Marta; et al.
Journal: NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA
ISSN 0212-1611  Vol. 36  Nº 4  2019  pp. 862 - 874
Background: there are numerous approaches to assess nutritional status, which are putatively applied to nutritionally classify diseased people, but less information is available to study the role of environmental factors on nutritional well-being. A qualitative (nutritypes) and quantitative (nutrimeter) nutritional categorization based on dietary, lifestyle and disease criteria can be a useful nutritional approach to personalize health interventions and identify at risk individuals. Methods: cross-sectional study conducted on 102 patients (60 women), evaluating quality of life using the Short-Form 36 questionnaire (SF-36) and lifestyle factors with a general questionnaire, the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) and the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). A nutrimeter based on physical activity, fat mass, diet and diseases (hypertension, prediabetes, obesity and dyslipidemia) data was defined with an equation to quantitatively score the nutritive well-being of the participants, and classify them into two (proto)nutritypes. Results: participants were categorized into two groups (lower/higher global health) according to quality of life. Significant or marginal statistical differences in physical activity, fat mass, diet and disease were found (all p < 0.1). Two (proto)nutritypes were identified based on participant's age, sex, fat mass, physical activity, diet and diseases. Participants classified as high nutritional well-being nutritype showed higher value
Authors: Assmann, T. S.; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo (Autor de correspondencia)
Journal: MOLECULAR MEDICINE REPORTS
ISSN 1791-2997  Vol. 20  Nº 4  2019  pp. 3543 - 3554
MicroRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) are small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that regulate gene expression. Emerging knowledge has suggested that miRNAs have a role in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, supporting the hypothesis that miRNAs may represent potential biomarkers or targets for this set of diseases. However, the current evidence is often controversial. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the associations between miRNAs-target genes, miRNA-long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), and miRNAs-small molecules in human metabolic diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The metabolic disease-related miRNAs were obtained from the Human MicroRNA Disease Database (HMDD) and miR2Disease database. A search on the databases Matrix Decomposition and Heterogeneous Graph Inference (MDHGI) and DisGeNET were also performed. miRNAs target genes were obtained from three independent sources: Microcosm, TargetScan and miRTarBase. The interactions between miRNAs-lncRNA and miRNA-small molecules were performed using the miRNet web tool. The network analyses were performed using Cytoscape software. As a result, a total of 20 miRNAs were revealed to be associated with metabolic disorders in the present study. Notably, 6 miRNAs (miR-17-5p, miR-29c-3p, miR-34a-5p, miR-103a-3p, miR-107 and miR-132-3p) were found in the four resources (HMDD, miR2Disease, MDHGI, and DisGeNET) used for these analyses, presenting a stronger association with the diseases. Furthermore, the target genes of these miRNAs participate in several pathways previously associated with metabolic diseases. In addition, interactions between miRNA-lncRNA and miRNA-small molecules were also found, suggesting that some molecules can modulate gene expression via such an indirect way. Thus, the results of this data mining and integration analysis provide further information on the possible molecular basis of the metabolic disease pathogenesis as well as provide a path to search for potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets concerning metabolic diseases.
Authors: Cano-Ibáñez, N.; Gea Sánchez, Alfredo; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
Journal: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 11  Nº 5  2019  pp. E958
Dietary guidelines emphasize the importance of a varied diet to provide an adequate nutrient intake. However, an older age is often associated with consumption of monotonous diets that can be nutritionally inadequate, increasing the risk for the development or progression of diet-related chronic diseases, such as metabolic syndrome (MetS). To assess the association between dietary diversity (DD) and nutrient intake adequacy and to identify demographic variables associated with DD, we cross-sectionally analyzed baseline data from the PREDIMED-Plus trial: 6587 Spanish adults aged 55-75 years, with overweight/obesity who also had MetS. An energy-adjusted dietary diversity score (DDS) was calculated using a 143-item validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Nutrient inadequacy was defined as an intake below 2/3 of the dietary reference intake (DRI) forat least four of 17 nutrients proposed by the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between DDS and the risk of nutritionally inadequate intakes. In the higher DDS quartile there were more women and less current smokers. Compared with subjects in the highest DDS quartile, those in the lowest DDS quartile had a higher risk of inadequate nutrient intake: odds ratio (OR) = 28.56 (95% confidence interval (CI) 20.80-39.21). When we estimated food varietyfor each of the food groups, participants in the lowest quartile had a higher risk of inadequate nutrient intake for the groups of vegetables, OR = 14.03 (95% CI 10.55-18.65), fruits OR = 11.62 (95% CI 6.81-19.81), dairy products OR = 6.54 (95% CI 4.64-9.22) and protein foods OR = 6.60 (95% CI 1.96-22.24). As DDS decreased, the risk of inadequate nutrients intake rose. Given the impact of nutrient intake adequacy on the prevention of non-communicable diseases, health policies should focus on the promotion of a healthy varied diet, specifically promoting the intake of vegetables and fruit among population groups with lower DDS such as men, smokers or widow(er)s.
Authors: Cuevas-Sierra, A.; Ramos-López, O.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; et al.
Journal: ADVANCES IN NUTRITION
ISSN 2161-8313  Vol. 10  Nº Suppl.1   2019  pp. S17 - S30
Diverse evidence suggests that the gut microbiota is involved in the development of obesity and associated comorbidities. It has been reported that the composition of the gut microbiota differs in obese and lean subjects, suggesting that microbiota dysbiosis can contribute to changes in body weight. However, the mechanisms by which the gut microbiota participates in energy homeostasis are unclear. Gut microbiota can be modulated positively or negatively by different lifestyle and dietary factors. Interestingly, complex interactions between genetic background, gut microbiota, and diet have also been reported concerning the risk of developing obesity and metabolic syndrome features. Moreover, microbial metabolites can induce epigenetic modifications (i.e., changes in DNA methylation and micro-RNA expression), with potential implications for health status and susceptibility to obesity. Also, microbial products, such as short-chain fatty acids or membrane proteins, may affect host metabolism by regulating appetite, lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, inflammation, and other functions. Metabolomic approaches are being used to identify new postbiotics with biological activity in the host, allowing discovery of new targets and tools for incorporation into personalized therapies. This review summarizes the current understanding of the relations between the human gut microbiota and the onset and development of obesity. These scientific insights are paving the way to understanding the complex relation between obesity and microbiota. Among novel approaches, prebiotics, probiotics, postbiotics, and fecal microbiome transplantation could be useful to restore gut dysbiosis.
Authors: Ferreira Todendi, P.; de Moura Valim, A. R.; Klinger, E.; et al.
Journal: OBESITY RESEARCH AND CLINICAL PRACTICE
ISSN 1871-403X  Vol. 13  Nº 2  2019  pp. 137 - 142
We investigated the association of IRX3 SNP rs3751723 with anthropometric characteristics related to adiposity and potential relationships with FTO SNP rs9939609 in a population of Brazilian children and adolescents. METHODS: A total of 871 children and adolescents between 7 and 17 years of age were recruited. Adiposity measurements and biochemical parameters were assessed. The variants were genotyped by real-time PCR. Analysis of multiple linear regression, multiple logistic regression, and generalised multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity were applied to test the polymorphisms association with obesity-related phenotypes and the interaction between them. RESULTS: The analyses showed that IRX3 was associated with obesity and fat percentage (BF%). An association of FTO rs9939609 with body mass index (BMI) Z-Score and with waist circumference (WC) was detected. The odds ratios (OR) showed that IRX3 rs3751723 was associated with risk of obesity in additive model (p=0.017), recessive model (p=0.016) and with high BF% in all models. FTO rs9939609 was associated with risk of obesity in additive model (p=0.031), recessive (p=0.033) and with altered WC in all models. GMDR-based predictive models for the risk of obesity, altered WC and high BF% adjusted by age, ethnicity and sex suggested no interaction of the two loci. CONCLUSIONS: The genetic variants rs3751723 and rs9939609 have an influence on the characteristics of adiposity; however, the effects of IRX3 and FTO investigated polymorphisms are independent in relation to adiposity parameters.
Authors: Aranaz Oroz, Paula; Navarro-Herrera, D.; Romo Hualde, Ana; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF FUNCTIONAL FOODS
ISSN 1756-4646  Vol. 59  2019  pp. 319 - 328
Brassicaceae contain bioactive compounds with potential positive effects on metabolic syndrome. Here, we evaluated the eventual anti-obesity properties of an ethanolic broccoli extract (BE), selected by a tested ability to reduce Caenorhabditis elegans fat content. Two doses (14 and 140 mg/kg animal) of BE were evaluated in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) Wistar rat model. After 10 weeks of BE supplementation, animals exhibited reduced body weight gain and food efficiency, decreased atherogenic index of plasma and improved glucose tolerance in comparison with non-supplemented rats. BE also reduced the retroperitoneal fat mass and adipocyte size, all associated to down-regulation of Cebpa, Srebp1, Fasn and Adipoq expression in adipocytes. Finally, BE significantly decreased liver steatosis, accompanied by the up-regulation of Acot8 and Acox1, and the down-regulation of Fasn, Fatp4 and Srebf1 expression in hepatocytes. Our data provides new knowledge about the potential role of broccoli components in the prevention of metabolic syndrome.
Authors: Rosique-Esteban, N. ; Babio, N.; Diaz-Lopez, A.; et al.
Journal: CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0261-5614  Vol. 38  Nº 3  2019  pp. 1324 - 1331
Aims: We aimed to examine the associations of leisure-time physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with the prevalence of sarcopenia, body composition and muscle strength among older adults having overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome, from the PREDIMED-Plus trial. Methods: Cross-sectional baseline analysis including 1539 men and women (65 +/- 5 y). Sarcopenia was defined as low muscle mass (according to FNIH cut-offs) plus low muscle strength (lowest sex-specific tertile for 30-s chair-stand test). We applied multivariable-adjusted Cox regression with robust variance and constant time (given the cross-sectional design) for the associations of self-reported leisure time PA and SB with sarcopenia; and multivariable-linear regression for the associations with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived bone mass, fat mass, lean mass and lower-limb muscle strength. Results: Inverse associations were observed between sarcopenia and each hourly increment in total [prevalence ratio 0.81 (95% confidence interval, 0.70, 0.93)], moderate [0.80 (0.66, 0.97)], vigorous [0.51 (0.32, 0.84)], and moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) [0.74 (0.62, 0.89)]. Incrementing 1-h/day total-PA and MVPA was inversely associated with body-mass-index, waist circumference (WC), fat mass, and positively associated with bone mass and lower-limb muscle strength (all P<.05). One h/day increase in total SB, screen-based SB and TV-viewing was positively associated with body-mass-index, WC and fat mass. Light-PA was not significantly associated with any outcome. Conclusions: Total-PA and PA at moderate and high intensities may protect against the prevalence of sarcopenia, have a beneficial role on body composition and prevent loss of muscle strength. SB, particularly TV-viewing, may have detrimental effects on body composition in older adults at high cardiovascular risk. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Authors: Papandreou, C.; Babio, N. ; Diaz-Lopez, A.; et al.
Journal: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 11  Nº 4  2019  pp. 761
The aim of the study was to evaluate sleep duration and sleep variability in relation to serum uric acid (SUA) concentrations and SUA to creatinine ratio. This is a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 1842 elderly participants with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome in the (Prevencion con Dieta Mediterranea) PREDIMED-Plus trial. Accelerometry-derived sleep duration and sleep variability were measured. Linear regression models were fitted to examine the aforementioned associations. A 1 hour/night increment in sleep duration was inversely associated with SUA concentrations ( = -0.07, p = 0.047). Further adjustment for leukocytes attenuated this association (p = 0.050). Each 1-hour increment in sleep duration was inversely associated with SUA to creatinine ratio ( = -0.15, p = 0.001). The findings of this study suggest that longer sleep duration is associated with lower SUA concentrations and lower SUA to creatinine ratio.
Authors: Arpon Miranda, Ana; Santos, J. L., (Autor de correspondencia); Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
Journal: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
ISSN 1422-0067  Vol. 20  Nº 12  2019 
Hyperglycaemia and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are associated with impaired insulin secretion and/or insulin action. Since few studies have addressed the relation between DNA methylation patterns with elaborated surrogates of insulin secretion/sensitivity based on the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between DNA methylation and an insulin sensitivity index based on IVGTT (calculated insulin sensitivity index (CSi)) in peripheral white blood cells from 57 non-diabetic female volunteers. The CSi and acute insulin response (AIR) indexes, as well as the disposition index (DI = CSi x AIR), were estimated from abbreviated IVGTT in 49 apparently healthy Chilean women. Methylation levels were assessed using the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation 450k BeadChip. After a statistical probe filtering, the two top CpGs whose methylation was associated with CSi were cg04615668 and cg07263235, located in the catenin delta 2 (CTNND2) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) genes, respectively. Both CpGs conjointly predicted insulin sensitivity status with an area under the curve of 0.90. Additionally, cg04615668 correlated with homeostasis model assessment insulin-sensitivity (HOMA-S) and AIR, whereas cg07263235 was associated with plasma creatinine and DI. These results add further insights into the epigenetic regulation of insulin sensitivity and associated complications, pointing the CTNND2 and LPL genes as potential underlying epigenetic biomarkers for future risk of insulin-related diseases.
Authors: Ek, A., (Autor de correspondencia); Delisle Nystrom, C.; Chirita-Emandi, A.; et al.
Journal: BMC PUBLIC HEALTH
ISSN 1471-2458  Vol. 19  2019 
BackgroundChildhood overweight and obesity is a serious public health issue with an increase being observed in preschool-aged children. Treating childhood obesity is difficult and few countries use standardized treatments. Therefore, there is a need to find effective approaches that are feasible for both health care providers and families. Thus, the overall aim of this study is to assess the acceptance and effectiveness of a parent support program (the More and Less, ML) for the management of overweight and obesity followed by a mobile health (mHealth) program (the MINISTOP application) in a socially diverse population of families.Methods/designA two-arm, parallel design randomized controlled trial in 300 2-to 6-year-old children with overweight and obesity from Romania, Spain and Sweden (n=100 from each). Following baseline assessments children are randomized into the intervention or control group in a 1:1 ratio. The intervention, the ML program, consists of 10-weekly group sessions which focus on evidence-based parenting practices, followed by the previously validated MINISTOP application for 6-months to support healthy eating and physical activity behaviors. The primary outcome is change in body mass index (BMI) z-score after 9-months and secondary outcomes include: waist circumference, eating behavior (Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire), parenting behavior (Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire), physical activity (ActiGraph wGT3x-BT), dietary patterns (based onmetabolic markers from urine and 24h dietary recalls), epigenetic and gut hormones (fasting blood samples), and the overall acceptance of the overweight and obesity management in young children (semi-structured interviews). Outcomes are measured at baseline and after: 10-weeks (only BMI z-score, waist circumference), 9-months (all outcomes), 15- and 21-months (all outcomes except physical activity, dietary patterns, epigenetics and gut hormones) post-baseline.DiscussionThis study will evaluate a parent support program for weight management in young children in three European countries. To boost the effect of the ML program the families will be supported by an app for 6-months. If the program is found to be effective, it has the potential to be implemented into routine care to reduce overweight and obesity in young children and the app could prove to be a viable option for sustained effects of the care provided.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT03800823; 11 Jan 2019.
Authors: Abete Goñi, Itziar; Konieczna, J.; Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF CACHEXIA, SARCOPENIA AND MUSCLE
ISSN 2190-5991  Vol. 10  Nº 5  2019  pp. 974 - 984
Background Sarcopenia is a progressive age-related skeletal muscle disorder associated with increased likelihood of adverse outcomes. Muscle wasting is often accompanied by an increase in body fat, leading to 'sarcopenic obesity'. The aim of the present study was to analyse the association of lifestyle variables such as diet, dietary components, physical activity (PA), body composition, and inflammatory markers, with the risk of sarcopenic obesity. Methods A cross-sectional analysis based on baseline data from the PREDIMED-Plus study was performed. A total of 1535 participants (48% women) with overweight/obesity (body mass index: 32.5 +/- 3.3 kg/m(2); age: 65.2 +/- 4.9 years old) and metabolic syndrome were categorized according to sex-specific tertiles (T) of the sarcopenic index (SI) as assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. Anthropometrical measurements, biochemical markers, dietary intake, and PA information were collected. Linear regression analyses were carried out to evaluate the association between variables. Results Subjects in the first SI tertile were older, less physically active, showed higher frequency of abdominal obesity and diabetes, and consumed higher saturated fat and less vitamin C than subjects from the other two tertiles (all P < 0.05). Multiple adjusted linear regression models evidenced significant positive associations across tertiles of SI with adherence to the Mediterranean dietary score (P-trend < 0.05), PA (P-trend < 0.0001), and the 30 s chair stand test (P-trend < 0.0001), whereas significant negative associations were found with an inadequate vitamin C consumption (P-trend < 0.05), visceral fat and leucocyte count (all P-trend < 0.0001), and some white cell subtypes (neutrophils and monocytes), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, and platelet count (all P-trend < 0.05). When models were additionally adjusted by potential mediators (inflammatory markers, diabetes, and waist circumference), no relevant changes were observed, only dietary variables lost significance. Conclusions Diet and PA are important regulatory mediators of systemic inflammation, which is directly involved in the sarcopenic process. A healthy dietary pattern combined with exercise is a promising strategy to limit age-related sarcopenia.
Authors: Tresserra-Rimbau, A. , (Autor de correspondencia); Castro-Barquero, S. ; Vitelli-Storelli, F.; et al.
Journal: ANTIOXIDANTS
ISSN 2076-3921  Vol. 8  Nº 11  2019  pp. 537
Overweight and obesity are important risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Moving towards healthier diets, namely, diets rich in bioactive compounds, could decrease the odds of suffering T2D. However, those individuals with high body mass index (BMI) may have altered absorption or metabolism of some nutrients and dietary components, including polyphenols. Therefore, we aimed to assess whether high intakes of some classes of polyphenols are associated with T2D in a population with metabolic syndrome and how these associations depend on BMI and sex. This baseline cross-sectional analysis includes 6633 participants from the PREDIMED-Plus trial. Polyphenol intakes were calculated from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ). Cox regression models with constant time at risk and robust variance estimators were used to estimate the prevalence ratios (PRs) for polyphenol intake and T2D prevalence using the lowest quartile as the reference group. Analyses were stratified by sex and BMI groups (overweight and obese) to evaluate potential effect modification. Catechins, proanthocyanidins, hydroxybenzoic acids, and lignans were inversely associated with T2D. Hydroxycinnamic acids were directly related in men. These associations were different depending on sex and BMI, that is, women and overweight obtained stronger inverse associations.
Authors: Navas Carretero, Santiago (Autor de correspondencia); San Cristóbal Blanco, Rodrigo; Livingstone, K. M.; et al.
Journal: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCES AND NUTRITION
ISSN 0963-7486  Vol. 70  Nº 2  2019  pp. 240 - 253
The objective was to evaluate differences in macronutrient intake and to investigate the possible association between consumption of vegetable protein and the risk of overweight/obesity, within the Food4Me randomised, online intervention. Differences in macronutrient consumption among the participating countries grouped by EU Regions (Western Europe, British Isles, Eastern Europe and Southern Europe) were assessed. Relation of protein intake, within isoenergetic exchange patterns, from vegetable or animal sources with risk of overweight/obesity was assessed through the multivariate nutrient density model and a multivariate-adjusted logistic regression. A total of 2413 subjects who completed the Food4Me screening were included, with self-reported data on age, weight, height, physical activity and dietary intake. As success rates on reducing overweight/obesity are very low, form a public health perspective, the elaboration of policies for increasing intakes of vegetable protein and reducing animal protein and sugars, may be a method of combating overweight/obesity at a population level.
Authors: Gibney, M. J. , (Autor de correspondencia); O'Sullivan, A. ; Flynn, A.; et al.
Journal: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 11  Nº 1  2019 
The present study set out to explore the option of developing food portion size for nutritional labelling purposes using two European Union (EU) dietary surveys. The surveys were selected as they differed in (a) methodologies (food diary versus food frequency questionnaire), (b) populations (Irish National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) versus a seven-country survey based on the pan EU study Food4Me), (c) food quantification (multiple options versus solely photographic album) and (d) duration (4 consecutive days versus recent month). Using data from these studies, portion size was determined for 15 test foods, where portion size was defined as the median intake of a target food when consumed. The median values of the portion sizes derived from both the NANS and Food4Me surveys were correlated (r = 0.823; p < 0.00) and the mean of the two survey data sets were compared to US values from the Recognized as Customarily Consumed (RACC) database. There was very strong agreement across all food categories between the averaged EU and the US portion size (r = 0.947; p < 0.00). It is concluded that notwithstanding the variety of approaches used for dietary survey data in the EU, the present data supports using a standardized approach to food portion size quantification for food labelling in the EU.
Authors: Cataldo, L. R.; Suazo, J. ; Olmos, P. ; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF DIABETES RESEARCH
ISSN 2314-6745  2019 
Most peripheral serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT)) is synthetized in the gut with platelets being its main circulating reservoir. 5HT is acting as a hormone in key organs to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the relation between platelet 5HT levels and traits related to glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism in humans remains poorly explored. The objectives of this study were (a) to assess the association between platelet 5HT levels and plasma concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and some adipokines including leptin and its soluble leptin receptor (sOb-R), (b) to assess the association between platelet 5HT levels and anthropometric traits and indexes of insulin secretion/sensitivity derived from oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and (c) to evaluate changes in platelet 5HT levels in response to OGTT. In a cross-sectional study, 59 normoglycemic women underwent a standard 2-hour OGTT. Plasma leptin, sOb-R, total and high molecular weight adiponectin, TNF, and MCP1 were determined by immunoassays. Platelet 5HT levels and NEFAs were measured before and after OGTT. The free leptin index was calculated from leptin and sOb-R measurements. Insulin sensitivity indexes derived from OGTT (HOMA-S and Matsuda ISICOMP) and plasma NEFAs (Adipose-IR, Revised QUICKI) were also calculated. Our data show that among metabolic traits, platelet 5HT levels were associated with plasma sOb-R (r=0.39, p=0.003, corrected p=0.018). Platelet 5HT levels were reduced in response to OGTT (779 +/- 237 vs.731 +/- 217ng/109 platelets, p=0.005). In conclusion, platelet 5HT levels are positively associated with plasma sOb-R concentrations and reduced in response to glucose intake possibly indicating a role of peripheral 5HT in leptin-mediated appetite regulation.
Authors: Samblas García, Mirian; Carraro, J. C.; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
ISSN 1138-7548  Vol. 75  Nº 3  2019  pp. 341 - 349
Fatty acids (FAs) are known to participate in body inflammatory responses. In particular, saturated FAs such as palmitic acid (PA) induce inflammatory signals in macrophages, whereas polyunsaturated FAs, including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been related to anti-inflammatory effects. Several studies have suggested a role of fatty acids on DNA methylation, epigenetically regulating gene expression in inflammation processes. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of PA and DHA on the inflammation-related genes on human macrophages. In addition, a second aim was to study the epigenetic mechanism underlying the effect of FAs on the inflammatory response. For these purposes, human acute monocytic leukaemia cells (THP-1) were differentiated into macrophages with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), followed by an incubation with PA or DHA. At the end of the experiment, mRNA expression, protein secretion, and CpG methylation of the following inflammatory genes were analysed: interleukin 1 beta (IL1B), tumour necrosis factor (TNF), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (SERPINE1) and interleukin 18 (IL18). The results showed that the treatment with PA increased IL-18 and TNF-alpha production. Contrariwise, the supplementation with DHA reduced IL-18, TNF-alpha and PAI-1 secretion by macrophages. However, the incubation with these fatty acids did not apparently modify the DNA methylation status of the investigated genes in the screened CpG sites. This research reveals that PA induces important pro-inflammatory markers in human macrophages, whereas DHA decreases the inflammatory response. Apparently, DNA methylation is not directly involved in the fatty acid-mediated regulation of the expression of these inflammation-related genes.
Authors: Goñi Mateos, Leticia; Sun, D. J. Y.; Heianza, Y. ; et al.
Journal: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 1436-6207  Vol. 58  Nº 4  2019  pp. 1381 - 1389
PurposeA common variant of the melatonin receptor 1B (MTNR1B) gene has been related to increased signaling of melatonin, a hormone previously associated with body fatness mainly through effects on energy metabolism. We examined whether the MTNR1B variant affects changes of body fatness and composition in response to a dietary weight loss intervention.MethodsThe MTNR1B rs10830963 variant was genotyped for 722 overweight and obese individuals, who were randomly assigned to one of four diets varying in macronutrient composition. Anthropometric and body composition measurements (DXA scan) were collected at baseline and at 6 and 24 months of follow-up.ResultsStatistically significant interactions were observed between the MTNR1B genotype and low-/high-fat diet on changes in weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and total body fat (p interaction=0.01, 0.02, 0.002 and 0.04, respectively), at 6months of dietary intervention. In the low-fat diet group, increasing number of the sleep disruption-related G allele was significantly associated with a decrease in weight (p=0.004), BMI (p=0.005) and WC (p=0.001). In the high-fat diet group, carrying the G allele was positively associated with changes in body fat (p=0.03). At 2years, the associations remained statistically significant for changes in body weight (p=0.02), BMI (p=0.02) and WC (p=0.048) in the low-fat diet group, although the gene-diet interaction became less significant.ConclusionsThe results suggest that carriers of the G allele of the MTNR1B rs10830963 may have a greater improvement in body adiposity and fat distribution when eating a low-fat diet.
Authors: Santos, J. L., (Autor de correspondencia); Cataldo, L. R.; Cortés-Rivera, C.; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
ISSN 1138-7548  Vol. 75  Nº 3  2019  pp. 285 - 297
High plasma lactate levels have been associated with reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity and increased type 2 diabetes risk, while mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number has been proposed as a biomarker of mitochondrial function linked to glucose homeostasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between circulating lactate levels and leukocyte mtDNA copy numbers with insulin secretion/sensitivity indexes in 65 Chilean non-diabetic women. mtDNA copy numbers were measured in leukocytes using qPCR and digital-droplet PCR. A 75-g Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) was performed to calculate systemic and tissue-specific insulin sensitivity indexes, as well as insulin secretion surrogates based on plasma c-peptide. An intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT; 0.3 g/kg) was also carried out. Disposition indexes were calculated as the product of insulin secretion × sensitivity. Plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin, TNF-¿, MCP-1, and non-esterified fatty acids were also determined. Fasting plasma lactate shows a significant association with a wide range of insulin sensitivity/resistance indexes based on fasting plasma samples (HOMA-S, adipose IR index, Revised-QUICKI, leptin-adiponectin ratio, TyG index, McAuley index and TG-to-HDL-C ratio), as well as OGTT-based measures such as the Matsuda index, the hepatic insulin resistance index, and the disposition index. Fasting plasma lactate was also positively associated with the circulating adipokines TNF-¿ and MCP-1. We also detected a direct association between fasting plasma lactate with leukocyte mtDNA copy numbers. The above results support the use of fasting plasma lactate, and possibly leukocyte mtDNA copy numbers, as biomarkers of reduced oxidative mitochondrial capacity, decreased hepatic insulin sensitivity, and future diabetes risk.
Authors: Arpon Miranda, Ana; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Santos, J. L.; et al.
Journal: FRONTIERS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY
ISSN 1664-2392  Vol. 10  2019 
The distribution of adipose tissue is influenced by gender and by age, shifting from subcutaneous to visceral depots with longevity, increasing the development of several aging-related diseases and manifestations such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance. Epigenetics might have an important role in aging processes. The aim of this research was to investigate the interactions between aging and epigenetic processes and the role of visceral adipose tissue, insulin resistance, and dyslipidaemia. Two different study samples of 366 and 269 adult participants were analyzed. Anthropometric, biochemical (including the triglycerides-glucose (TyG) index), and blood pressure measurements were assessed following standardized methods. Body composition measurements by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were also performed for the second sample. Methylation data were assessed by Infinium Human Methylation BeadChip (Illumina) in peripheral white blood cells. Epigenetic age acceleration was calculated using the methods DNAmAge (AgeAcc) and GrimAge (AgeAccGrim). Age acceleration (AgeAccGrim) showed better correlations than AgeAcc with most of the measured variables (waist circumference, glucose, HOMA-IR, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and TyG index) for the first sample. In the second sample, all the previous correlations were confirmed, except for HOMA-IR. In addition, many of the anthropometricalmeasurements assessed by DXA and C-reactive protein (CRP) were also statistically associated with AgeAccGrim. Associations separated by sex showed statistically significant correlations between AgeAccGrim and HDL-cholesterol or CRP in women, whereas, in men, the association was with visceral adipose tissue mass DXA, triglycerides and TyG index. Linear regression models (model 1 included visceral adipose tissuemass DXA and TyGindex andmodel 2 included HDL-cholesterol and CRP) showed a significant association for men concerning visceral adipose tissue mass DXA and TyG index, while HDL-cholesterol and CRP were associated in women. Moreover, structural equation modeling showed that the TyG index was mediating the majority of the visceral adipose tissue mass action on age acceleration. Collectively, these findings showed that there are different mechanisms affecting epigenetic age acceleration depending on sex. The identified relationships between epigenetic age acceleration and disease markers will contribute to the understanding of the development of age-related diseases.
Authors: Martínez Fernández, Leyre; González Muniesa, Pedro; Sáinz Amillo, Neira; et al.
Journal: MOLECULAR NUTRITION & FOOD RESEARCH (ONLINE)
ISSN 1613-4133  Vol. 63  Nº 24  2019  pp. 1 - 9
SCOPE: To study the effects of Maresin 1 (MaR1), a docosahexaenoic-acid-derived lipid mediator, on fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) production and to characterize the tissue-specific regulation of Fgf21 and its signaling pathway in liver, skeletal muscle, and white adipose tissue (WAT). METHODS AND RESULTS: Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice are treated with MaR1 (50g kg-1 , 10 days, oral gavage) and serum FGF21 levels and liver, muscle and WAT Fgf21, beta-Klotho, Fgfr1, Egr1, and cFos mRNA expression are evaluated. Additionally, MaR1 effects are tested in mouse primary hepatocytes, HepG2 human hepatocytes, C2C12 myotubes, and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In DIO mice, MaR1 decreases circulating FGF21 levels and HFD-induced hepatic Fgf21 mRNA expression. MaR1 increases hepatic beta-Klotho, Egr1, and cFos in DIO mice. In WAT, MaR1 counteracts the HFD-induced downregulation of Fgf21, Fgfr1, and beta-Klotho. In muscle, MaR1 does not modify Fgf21 but promoted Fgfr1 expression. In mouse primary hepatocytes, MaR1 decreases Fgf21 expression and downregulated Pparalpha mRNA levels. In HepG2 cells, MaR1 reverses the increased production of FGF21 and the downregulation of FGFR1, Beta-KLOTHO, EGR1, and cFOS induced by palmitate. Preincubation with a PPARalpha antagonist prevents MaR1 effects on FGF21 secretion. CONCLUSION: The ability of MaR1 to modulate FGF21 can contribute to its beneficial metabolic effects.
Authors: Galmes-Panades, A. M. ; Varela-Mato, V. ; Konieczna, J.; et al.
Journal: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
ISSN 1479-5868  Vol. 16  Nº 1  2019  pp. 137
Background: This study explored the association between inactive time and measures of adiposity, clinical parameters, obesity, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome components. It further examined the impact of reallocating inactive time to time in bed, light physical activity (LPA) or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on cardio-metabolic risk factors, including measures of adiposity and body composition, biochemical parameters and blood pressure in older adults. Methods: This is a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 2189 Caucasian men and women (age 55-75 years, BMI 27-40 Kg/m(2)) from the PREDIMED-Plus study (http://www.predimedplus.com/). All participants had >= 3 components of the metabolic syndrome. Inactive time, physical activity and time in bed were objectively determined using triaxial accelerometers GENEActiv during 7 days (ActivInsights Ltd., Kimbolton, United Kingdom). Multiple adjusted linear and logistic regression models were used. Isotemporal substitution regression modelling was performed to assess the relationship of replacing the amount of time spent in one activity for another, on each outcome, including measures of adiposity and body composition, biochemical parameters and blood pressure in older adults. Results: Inactive time was associated with indicators of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Reallocating 30min per day of inactive time to 30 min per day of time in bed was associated with lower BMI, waist circumference and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (all p-values < 0.05). Reallocating 30 min per day of inactive time with 30 min per day of LPA or MVPA was associated with lower BMI, waist circumference, total fat, visceral adipose tissue, HbA1c, glucose, triglycerides, and higher body muscle mass and HDL cholesterol (all p-values < 0.05). Conclusions: Inactive time was associated with a poor cardio-metabolic profile. Isotemporal substitution of inactive time with MVPA and LPA or time in bed could have beneficial impact on cardio-metabolic health.
Authors: Ramos-Lopez, O.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
Journal: THERAPEUTIC ADVANCES IN ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM
ISSN 2042-0188  Vol. 10  2019  pp. 1 - 12
Authors: Gomez Donoso, Clara; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; et al.
Journal: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 14  Nº 12  2019  pp. e0226565
Dietary guidelines play a key role in setting standards for nutrition policies and promoting healthy eating. Like other public health guidelines, they are often influenced by political and economic factors that could place other concerns ahead of the population's health. In order to determine their effectiveness on obesity prevention, we prospectively examined the association between adherence to the latest available national dietary guidelines and the incidence of overweight/obesity in a Spanish cohort study. A sample of 11,554 participants of the "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" (SUN) cohort, initially free of overweight or obesity, was included in the study. The Spanish Society of Community Nutrition (SENC) food pyramid (FP) score was computed based on the ratio of consumed to recommended daily servings of grains, fruits, vegetables, dairy, protein-rich foods, olive oil, red and processed meat, sweets, salty snacks and spreadable fats, fermented alcoholic beverages and water. The same approach was followed to calculate the SENC hydration pyramid (HP) score, considering the intake of water and different kind of beverages. Adherence was calculated at baseline and after 10 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the incidence of overweight/obesity (BMI >= 25 kg/m(2)). During a median follow-up of 10.3 years, 2320 incident cases were identified. The highest level of adherence to the SENC FP score was modestly associated with a reduced risk of overweight/obesity (multi variable-adjusted HR for the fifth quintile vs. the first quintile = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.67-0.91; p-trend: 0.007). No consistent trends were found for the SENC HP. In a large prospective cohort of Spanish university graduates, we found an inverse linear association between adherence to the SENC FP and overweight/obesity risk, whereas this was not the case for the HP.
Authors: Lopez-Pascual, A. ; Urrutia-Sarratea, A. ; Lorente Cebrián, Silvia; et al.
Journal: OXIDATIVE MEDICINE AND CELLULAR LONGEVITY
ISSN 1942-0900  Vol. 2019  2019  pp. 2695289
Insulin resistance is associated with oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and a chronic low-grade inflammatory status. In this sense, cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) are promising nanomaterials with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the effect of CeO, NPs in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes, RAW 264.7 macrophages, and C2C12 myotubes under control or proinflammatory conditions. Macrophages were treated with LPS, and both adipocytes and myotubes with conditioned medium (25% LPS-activated macrophages medium) to promote inflammation. CeO2 NPs showed a mean size of <= 25.3 nm (96.7%) and a zeta potential of 30.57 +/- 0.58 mV, suitable for cell internalization. CeO, NPs reduced extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in adipocytes with inflammation while increased in myotubes with control medium. The CeO2 NPs increased mitochondrial content was observed in adipocytes under proinflammatory conditions. Furthermore, the expression of Adipoq and Il10 increased in adipocytes treated with CeO, NPs. In myotubes, both Il1b and Adipoq were downregulated while Irs1 was upregulated. Overall, our results suggest that CeO2 NPs could potentially have an insulin-sensitizing effect specifically on adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. However, further research is needed to confirm these findings.
Authors: Ramos-Lopez, O.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
Journal: NUTRITION AND CANCER-AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL
ISSN 0163-5581  Vol. 71  Nº 5  2019  pp. 840 - 851
Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are independent risk factors for the onset and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to analyze the association of DNA methylation signatures at HCC pathway genes with obesity and related metabolic disturbances. A population of 474 adults within the Methyl Epigenome Network Association (MENA) project was included. DNA methylation levels were measured in white blood cells by microarray. The identification and discrimination of HCC pathway genes were performed using KEGG and PathDIP databases. Anthropometry measurements, the blood metabolic profile, and clinical data were analyzed. The methylation patterns of 20 CpG sites at HCC pathway genes strongly correlated with BMI (FDR <0.0001). These genes encompassed GADD45A, MTOR, FRAT2, E2F3, WNT7B, FRAT1, LRP5, DPF3, GSTA2, APC, MYC, WNT10B, ARID1B, AKT1, GSTA1, WNT5A, CDK4, GAB1, TCF7, which statistically contributed to the regulation of the HCC pathway (P = 2.10e-07). The main biological process where these genes were implicated included uncontrolled cell proliferation, DNA damage, increased survival, and altered oncogenic expression. Interestingly, 9 out of 20 BMI-associated CpGs also correlated with waist circumference and HOMA-IR index. In conclusion, pathway analysis revealed potential associations of DNA methylation signatures at HCC pathway genes with adiposity and insulin resistance phenotypes.
Authors: Rodriguez-Lozada, C.; Cuervo Zapatel, Marta (Autor de correspondencia); Cuevas Sierra, Amanda; et al.
Journal: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 11  Nº 6  2019  pp. E1206
Current evidence proposes diet quality as a modifiable risk factor for mental or emotional impairments. However, additional studies are required to investigate the effect of dietary patterns and weight loss on improving psychological symptoms. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of energy-restriction, prescribed to overweight and obese participants, on anxiety and depression symptoms, as well as the potential predictive value of some baseline psychological features on weight loss. Overweight and obese participants (n = 305) were randomly assigned for 16 weeks to two hypocaloric diets with different macronutrient distribution: a moderately high-protein (MHP) diet and a low-fat (LF) diet. Anthropometrical, clinical, psychological, and lifestyle characteristics were assessed at baseline and at the end of the intervention. The nutritional intervention evidenced that weight loss has a beneficial effect on trait anxiety score in women (beta = 0.24, p = 0.03), depression score in all population (beta = 0.15, p = 0.02), particularly in women (beta = 0.22, p = 0.03) and in subjects who followed the LF diet (beta = 0.22, p = 0.04). Moreover, weight loss could be predicted by anxiety status at baseline, mainly in women and in those who were prescribed a LF diet. This trial suggests that weight loss triggers an improvement in psychological traits, and that anxiety symptoms could predict those volunteers that benefit most from a balanced calorie-restricted intervention, which will contribute to individualized precision nutrition.
Authors: Samblas García, Mirian; Mansego Talavera, María Luisa; Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Journal: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 1436-6207  Vol. 58  Nº 5  2019  pp. 1971 - 1980
Purpose The interindividual variable response to weight-loss treatments requires the search for new predictive biomarkers for improving the success of weight-loss programs. The aim of this study is to identify novel genes that distinguish individual responses to a weight-loss dietary treatment by using the integrative analysis of mRNA expression and DNA methylation arrays. Methods Subjects from Metabolic Syndrome Reduction in Navarra (RESMENA) project were classified as low (LR) or high (HR) responders depending on their weight loss. Transcriptomic (n=24) and epigenomic (n=47) patterns were determined by array-based genome-wide technologies in human white blood cells at the baseline of the treatment period. CD44 expression was validated by qRT-PCR and methylation degree of CpGs of the gene was validated by MassARRAY((R)) EpiTYPER (TM) in a subsample of 47 subjects. CD44 protein levels were measured by ELISA in human plasma. Results Different expression and DNA methylation profiles were identified in LR in comparison to HR. The integrative analysis of both array data identified four genes: CD44, ITPR1, MTSS1 and FBXW5 that were differently methylated and expressed between groups. CD44 showed higher expression and lower DNA methylation levels in LR than in HR. Although differences in CD44 protein levels between LR and HR were not statistically significant, a positive association was observed between CD44 mRNA expression and protein levels. Conclusions In summary, the combination of a genome-wide methylation and expression array dataset can be a useful strategy to identify novel genes that might be considered as predictors of the dietary response. CD44 gene transcription and methylation may be a possible candidate biomarker for weight-loss prediction.
Authors: Gomez Donoso, Clara; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; et al.
Journal: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 11  Nº 7  2019 
Provegetarian diets (i.e., preference for plant-derived foods but not exclusion of animal foods) have been associated with a reduced risk of long-term weight gain and could be more easily embraced than strict vegetarian diets. However, not all plant-derived foods are equally healthy. In the "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" (SUN) cohort, we prospectively evaluated the association between different provegetarian food patterns and the incidence of overweight/obesity in 11,554 participants with initial body mass index <25 kg/m(2). A provegetarian food pattern (FP) was built by assigning positive scores to plant foods and reverse scores to animal foods. A healthful and an unhealthful provegetarian FP, which distinguished between healthy (fruits/vegetables/whole grains/nuts/legumes/olive oil/coffee) and less-healthy plant foods (fruit juices/potatoes/refined grains/pastries/sugary beverages), were also built. A total of 2320 new cases of overweight or obesity were identified after a median follow-up of 10.3 years. Higher baseline conformity with the overall provegetarian FP was inversely associated with overweight/obesity (HR comparing extreme quintiles: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.75 to 0.96; p-trend: 0.014). This association was stronger for the healthful FP (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.67 to 0.90; p-trend: <0.001) and was not apparent for the unhealthful FP (HR: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.92 to 1.23; p-trend: 0.551). In a large prospective cohort of relatively young adults, better conformity with a healthy provegetarian diet was associated with a reduced long-term risk of overweight/obesity, whereas no consistent trend was found for a FP that emphasized less-healthy plant foods.
Authors: Julibert, A.; Bibiloni, M. D.; Bouzas, C.; et al.
Journal: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 11  Nº 7  2019  pp. 1493
Background: The effect of dietary fat intake on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and in turn on cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains unclear in individuals at high CVD risk. Objective: To assess the association between fat intake and MetS components in an adult Mediterranean population at high CVD risk. Design: Baseline assessment of nutritional adequacy in participants (n = 6560, men and women, 55-75 years old, with overweight/obesity and MetS) in the PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea (PREDIMED)-Plus randomized trial. Methods: Assessment of fat intake (total fat, monounsatured fatty acids: MUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids: PUFA, saturated fatty acids: SFA, trans-fatty acids: trans-FA, linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, and omega-3 FA) using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and diet quality using 17-item Mediterranean dietary questionnaire and fat quality index (FQI). Results: Participants in the highest quintile of total dietary fat intake showed lower intake of energy, carbohydrates, protein and fiber, but higher intake of PUFA, MUFA, SFA, TFA, LA, ALA and omega-3 FA. Differences in MetS components were found according to fat intake. Odds (5th vs. 1st quintile): hyperglycemia: 1.3-1.6 times higher for total fat, MUFA, SFA and omega-3 FA intake; low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c): 1.2 higher for LA; hypertriglyceridemia: 0.7 lower for SFA and omega-3 FA intake. Conclusions: Dietary fats played different role on MetS components of high CVD risk patients. Dietary fat intake was associated with higher risk of hyperglycemia.
Authors: Cantero González, Irene; Elorz Carlón, Mariana; Abete Goñi, Itziar; et al.
Journal: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES
ISSN 1449-1907  Vol. 16  Nº 1  2019  pp. 75 - 83
Introduction: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) may progress to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and complicated hepatocellular carcinoma with defined differential symptoms and manifestations. Objective: To evaluate the fatty liver status by several validated approaches and to compare imaging techniques, lipidomic and routine blood markers with magnetic resonance imaging in adults subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Materials and methods: A total of 127 overweight/obese with NAFLD, were parallelly assessed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), ultrasonography, transient elastography and a validated metabolomic designed test to diagnose NAFLD in this cross-sectional study. Body composition (DXA), hepatic related biochemical measurements as well as the Fatty Liver Index (FLI) were evaluated. This study was registered as FLiO: Fatty Liver in Obesity study; NCT03183193. Results: The subjects with more severe liver disease were found to have worse metabolic parameters. Positive associations between MRI with inflammatory and insulin biomarkers were found. A linear regression model including ALT, RBP4 and HOMA-IR was able to explain 40.9% of the variability in fat content by MRI. In ROC analyses a combination panel formed of ALT, HOMA-IR and RBP4 followed by ultrasonography, ALT and metabolomic test showed the major predictive ability (77.3%, 74.6%, 74.3% and 71.1%, respectively) for liver fat content. Conclusions: A panel combination including routine blood markers linked to insulin resistance showed highest associations with MRI considered as a gold standard for determining liver fat content. This combination of tests can facilitate the diagnosis of early stages of non-alcoholic liver disease thereby avoiding other invasive and expensive methods.
Authors: Greenway, F. L.; Aronne, L. J.; Raben, A.; et al.
Journal: OBESITY
ISSN 1930-7381  Vol. 27  Nº 2  2019  pp. 205-216
Authors: Aranaz Oroz, Paula; Navarro Herrera, D.; Zabala Navó, María; et al.
Journal: MOLECULES
ISSN 1420-3049  Vol. 24  Nº 6  2019  pp. 1 - 21
Phenolic compounds might modulate adiposity. Here, we report our observation that polyphenols and phenolic acids inhibit adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 with different intensity depending on the family and the stage of differentiation. While quercetin and resveratrol inhibited lipid accumulation along the whole process of differentiation, apigenin and myricetin were active during the early and latest stages, but not intermediate, contrary to hesperidin. The activity of phenolic acids was limited to the early stages of the differentiation process, except p-coumaric and ellagic acids. This anti-adipogenic effect was accompanied by down-regulation of Scd1 and Lpl. Molecular docking analysis revealed that the inhibitory activity of these phenolic compounds over the early stages of adipogenesis exhibits a significant correlation (r = 0.7034; p = 0.005) with their binding affinity to the ligand-binding domain of PPAR¿. Results show that polyphenols and phenolic acids would interact with specific residues of the receptor, which could determine their potential anti-adipogenic activity during the early stages of the differentiation. Residues Phe264, His266, Ile281, Cys285 and Met348 are the most frequently involved in these interactions, which might suggest a crucial role for these amino acids modulating the activity of the receptor. These data contribute to elucidate the possible mechanisms of phenolic compounds in the control of adipogenesis.
Authors: Gil, A., (Autor de correspondencia); Martínez Hernández, Alfredo
Journal: ADVANCES IN NUTRITION
ISSN 2161-8313  Vol. 10  Nº Supl. 1  2019  pp. S1 - S3
The proposal to form the International Union of Nutritional Sciences (IUNS) was first discussed in July 1946 in London at a meeting that was attended by 22 investigators from 13 countries. Statutes and bylaws were discussed, and the principal objectives of the Union were defined as 1) the exchange of information, 2) the organization of international congresses, and 3) the publication of the results of scientific investigation. Since then, the Union has grown steadily. At first the holding of the congresses was its main task, but, over the course of the years, other equally important activities have been developed, which required long-term planning and efficient administration.
Authors: Ramos-Lopez, O.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
Journal: GENES AND NUTRITION
ISSN 1555-8932  Vol. 14  2019  pp. 11
BACKGROUND: Olfaction is an important sense influencing food preferences, appetite, and eating behaviors. This hypothesis-driven study aimed to assess associations between olfactory pathway gene methylation signatures, obesity features, and dietary intakes. METHODS: A nutriepigenomic analysis was conducted in 474 adults from the Methyl Epigenome Network Association (MENA) project. Anthropometric measurements, clinical data, and serum metabolic profiles of the study population were obtained from structured databases of the MENA cohorts. Habitual dietary intake was assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. DNA methylation was measured in circulating white blood cells by microarray (Infinium Human Methylation 450¿K BeadChips). FDR values (p <¿0.0001) were used to select those CpGs that showed the best correlation with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Pathway analyses involving the characterization of genes involved in the olfactory transduction system were performed using KEGG and pathDIP reference databases. RESULTS: Overall, 15 CpG sites at olfactory pathway genes were associated with BMI (p <¿0.0001) and WC (p <¿0.0001) after adjustments for potential confounding factors. Together, methylation levels at the15 CpG sites accounted for 22% and 20% of the variability in BMI and WC (r 2 =¿0.219, p <¿0.001, and r 2 =¿0.204, p <¿0.001, respectively). These genes encompassed olfactory receptors (OR4D2, OR51A7, OR2T34, and OR2Y1) and several downstream signaling molecules (SLC8A1, ANO2, PDE2A, CALML3, GNG7, CALML6, PRKG1, and CAMK2D), which significantly regulated odor detection and signal transduction processes within the complete olfactory cascade, as revealed by pathway enrichment analyses (p =¿1.94¿×¿10-10). Moreover, OR4D2 and OR2Y1 gene methylation patterns strongly correlated with daily intakes of total energy (p <¿0.0001), carbohydrates (p <¿0.0001), protein (p <¿0.0001), and fat (p <¿0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest novel relationships between olfactory pathway gene methylation signatures, obesity indices, and dietary intakes.
Authors: Aranaz Oroz, Paula; Romo Hualde, Ana; Navarro-Herrera, D.; et al.
Journal: FOOD & FUNCTION
ISSN 2042-6496  Vol. 10  Nº 8  2019  pp. 4811 - 4822
Cocoa polyphenols exhibit high antioxidant activity and have been proposed as a potential adjuvant for the treatment of metabolic disturbances. Here, we demonstrate that supplementation with low doses (14 and 140 mg per kg per rat) of a complete cocoa extract induces metabolic benefits in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) model of Wistar rats. After 10 weeks, cocoa extract-supplemented animals exhibited significantly lower body weight gain and food efficiency, with no differences in energy intake. Cocoa significantly reduced visceral (epididymal and retroperitoneal) and subcutaneous fat accumulation accompanied by a significant reduction in the adipocyte size, which was mediated by downregulation of the adipocyte-specific genes Cebpa, Fasn and Adipoq. Additionally, cocoa extract supplementation reduced the triacylglycerol/high density lipoprotein (TAG/HDL) ratio, decreased hepatic triglyceride accumulation, improved insulin sensitivity by reducing HOMA-IR, and significantly ameliorated glucose tolerance after an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. Finally, no adverse effect was observed in an in vivo toxicity evaluation of our cocoa extract at doses up to 500 mg kg -1 day -1. Our data demonstrate that low doses of cocoa extract supplementation (14 and 140 mg kg -1 day -1) are safe and sufficient to counteract obesity and type-2 diabetes in rats and provide new insights into the potential application of cocoa supplements in the management of the metabolic syndrome.
Authors: Arpon Miranda, Ana; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Ramos-Lopez, O.; et al.
Journal: GENES
ISSN 2073-4425  Vol. 10  Nº 6  2019 
Epigenetic signatures such as DNA methylation may be associated with specific obesity traits in different tissues. The onset and development of some obesity-related complications are often linked to visceral fat accumulation. The aim of this study was to explore DNA methylation levels in peripheral white blood cells to identify epigenetic methylation marks associated with waist circumference (WC). DNA methylation levels were assessed using Infinium Human Methylation 450K and MethylationEPIC beadchip (Illumina) to search for putative associations with WC values of 473 participants from the Methyl Epigenome Network Association (MENA) project. Statistical analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) were employed for assessing the relationship between methylation and WC. A total of 669 CpGs were statistically associated with WC (FDR < 0.05, slope >= |0.1|). From these CpGs, 375 CpGs evidenced a differential methylation pattern between females with WC <= 88 and > 88 cm, and 95 CpGs between males with WC <= 102 and > 102 cm. These differentially methylated CpGs are located in genes related to inflammation and obesity according to IPA. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of the top four significant differentially methylated CpGs separated by sex discriminated individuals with presence or absence of abdominal fat. ROC curves of all the CpGs from females and one CpG from males were validated in an independent sample (n = 161). These methylation results add further insights about the relationships between obesity, adiposity-associated comorbidities, and DNA methylation where inflammation processes may be involved.
Authors: Celis-Morales, C.; Livingstone, K. M.; Petermann-Rocha, F. ; et al.
Journal: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
ISSN 0749-3797  Vol. 57  Nº 2  2019  pp. 209 - 219
Introduction: This study tested the hypothesis that providing personalized nutritional advice and feedback more frequently would promote larger, more appropriate, and sustained changes in dietary behavior as well as greater reduction in adiposity. Study design: A 6-month RCT (Food4Me) was conducted in seven European countries between 2012 and 2013. Setting/participants: A total of 1,125 participants were randomized to Lower- (n=562) or Higher- (n=563) Frequency Feedback groups. Intervention: Participants in the Lower-Frequency group received personalized nutritional advice at baseline and at Months 3 and 6 of the intervention, whereas the Higher-Frequency group received personalized nutritional advice at baseline and at Months 1, 2, 3 and 6. Main outcome measures: The primary outcomes were change in dietary intake (at food and nutrient levels) and obesity-related traits (body weight, BMI, and waist circumference). Participants completed an online Food Frequency Questionnaire to estimate usual dietary intake at baseline and at Months 3 and 6 of the intervention. Overall diet quality was evaluated using the 2010 Healthy Eating Index. Obesity-related traits were self-measured and reported by participants via the Internet. Statistical analyses were performed during the first quarter of 2018. Results: At 3 months, participants in the Lower- and Higher-Frequency Feedback groups showed improvements in Healthy Eating Index score; this improvement was larger in the Higher-Frequency group than the Lower-Frequency group (Delta=1.84 points, 95% CI=0.79, 2.89,p=0.0001). Similarly, there were greater improvements for the Higher- versus Lower-Frequency group for body weight (Delta= -0.73 kg, 95% CI= -1.07, -0.38, p<0.0001), BMI (Delta= -0.24 kg/m(2), 95% CI= -0.36, -0.13, p<0.0001), and waist circumference (Delta= -1.20 cm, 95% CI= 2.36, -0.04, p=0.039). However, only body weight and BMI remained significant at 6 months. Conclusions: At 3 months, higher-frequency feedback produced larger improvements in overall diet quality as well as in body weight and waist circumference than lower-frequency feedback. However, only body weight and BMI remained significant at 6 months. (C) 2019 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Authors: Alvarez Alvarez, Ismael; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel (Autor de correspondencia); Sánchez Tainta, Ana; et al.
Journal: REVISTA ESPAÑOLA DE CARDIOLOGIA
ISSN 0300-8932  Vol. 72  Nº 11  2019  pp. 925 - 934
Introduction and objectives: The cardiovascular benefits of the Mediterranean diet have usually been assessed under assumptions of ad libitum total energy intake (ie, no energy restriction). In the recently launched PREDIMED-Plus, we conducted exploratory analyses to study the baseline associations between adherence to an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF). Methods: Cross-sectional assessment of all PREDIMED-Plus participants (6874 older adults with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome) at baseline. The participants were assessed by their usual primary care physicians to ascertain the prevalence of 4 CVRF (hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia). A 17-point PREDIMED-Plus score was used to measure adherence to the MedDiet. Multivariable models were fitted to estimate differences in means and prevalence ratios for individual and clustered CVRF. Results: Better adherence to a MedDiet pattern was significantly associated with lower average triglyceride levels, body mass index, and waist circumference. Compared with low adherence (<= 7 points in the 17-point score), better adherence to the MedDiet (11-17 points) showed inverse associations with hypertension (prevalence ratio = 0.97; 95%CI, 0.94-1.00) and obesity (prevalence ratio = 0.96; 95%CI, 0.92-1.00), but positive associations with diabetes (prevalence ratio = 1.19; 95%CI, 1.07-1.32). Compared with the lowest third of adherence, women in the upper third showed a significantly lower prevalence of the clustering of 3 or more CVRF (prevalence ratio = 0.91; 95%CI, 0.83-0.98). Conclusions: Among participants at high cardiovascular risk, better adherence to a MedDiet showed significant inverse associations with CVRF among women, and improved lipid profiles and adiposity measures. (C) 2018 Sociedad Espanola de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier Espana, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Authors: Marin-Alejandre, B. A. ; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Cantero González, Irene; et al.
Journal: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 11  Nº 10  2019  pp. 2543
The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing worldwide. NAFLD management is mainly focused on weight loss, but the optimal characteristics of the diet demand further investigation. This study aims to evaluate the effects of two personalized energy-restricted diets on the liver status in overweight or obese subjects with NAFLD after a 6 months follow-up. Ninety-eight individuals from the Fatty Liver in Obesity (FLiO) study were randomized into two groups and followed different energy-restricted diets. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and after 6 months. Diet, anthropometry, body composition, and biochemical parameters were evaluated. Liver assessment included ultrasonography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, elastography, and determination of transaminases. Both dietary groups significantly improved their metabolic and hepatic markers after the intervention, with no significant differences between them. Multivariate regression models evidenced a relationship between weight loss, adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet), and a decrease in liver fat content, predicting up to 40.9% of its variability after 6 months. Moreover, the antioxidant capacity of the diet was inversely associated with liver fat content. Participants in the group with a higher adherence to the MedDiet showed a greater reduction in body weight, total fat mass, and hepatic fat. These results support the benefit of energy-restricted diets, high adherence to the MedDiet, and high antioxidant capacity of the diet for the management of NAFLD in individuals with overweight or obesity.
Authors: Aranaz Oroz, Paula; Navarro-Herrera, D.; Romo Hualde, Ana; et al.
Journal: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 75  2019  pp. 49 - 49
Authors: Martínez Hernández, Alfredo
Journal: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 75  Nº Supl. 3  2019  pp. 1
Authors: Assmann, T. S.; Cuevas Sierra, Amanda; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
Journal: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 75  2019  pp. 43 - 44
Authors: Salas-Perez, F.; Assmann, TS; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; et al.
Journal: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 75  Nº Supl. 2  2019  pp. 53 - 54
Authors: Martinez-Hernandez, L.; González Muniesa, Pedro; Sáinz Amillo, Neira; et al.
Journal: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 75  2019  pp. 23
Authors: Fernández Lázaro, Cesar Ignacio; Toledo Atucha, Estefanía; Salas-Salvado, J.; et al.
Journal: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 75  Nº Supl, 2  2019  pp. 20 - 21
Authors: Cuevas Sierra, Amanda; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Guruceaga Martínez, Elisabet; et al.
Journal: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 75  Nº Supl. 2  2019  pp. 18 - 18
Authors: Janeiro Arenas, Manuel Humberto; Ramírez Gil, María Javier; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
Journal: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 10  Nº 10  2018 
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a molecule generated from choline, betaine, and carnitine via gut microbial metabolism. The plasma level of TMAO is determined by several factors including diet, gut microbial flora, drug administration and liver flavin monooxygenase activity. In humans, recent clinical studies evidence a positive correlation between elevated plasma levels of TMAO and an increased risk for major adverse cardiovascular events. A direct correlation between increased TMAO levels and neurological disorders has been also hypothesized. Several therapeutic strategies are being explored to reduce TMAO levels, including use of oral broad spectrum antibiotics, promoting the growth of bacteria that use TMAO as substrate and the development of target-specific molecules. Despite the accumulating evidence, it is questioned whether TMAO is the mediator of a bystander in the disease process. Thus, it is important to undertake studies to establish the role of TMAO in human health and disease. In this article, we reviewed dietary sources and metabolic pathways of TMAO, as well as screened the studies suggesting possible involvement of TMAO in the etiology of cardiovascular and neurological disorders, underlying the importance of TMAO mediating inflammatory processes. Finally, the potential utility of TMAO as therapeutic target is also analyzed.
Authors: Galarregui, C.; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Navas Carretero, Santiago; et al.
Journal: ANALES DEL SISTEMA SANITARIO DE NAVARRA
ISSN 1137-6627  Vol. 41  Nº 2  2018  pp. 227 - 243
El envejecimiento de la población supone un importante reto, económico y cualitativo, para el sistema de salud orientándolo hacia una atención de tipo preventivo, en la que la nutrición de precisión (NP) y la prescripción de hábitos saludables adquieren relevancia capital. El fin de la NP es procurar una nutrición adaptada a cada individuo, entendiendo que la prevención o el tratamiento de trastornos crónicos (obesidad, diabetes, enfermedad cardiovascular, etc.) deben abordarse de un modo integral, considerando información personal y clínica relevante, edad y características feno- y genotípicas. La elaboración de la presente guía surge de la necesidad de desarrollar modelos nutricionales de precisión que permitan la individualización del tratamiento nutricional, con énfasis en el adulto mayor. Las necesidades nutricionales, las recomendaciones dietéticas y los ingredientes para una NP en las personas pre-sénior y sénior quedan resumidas en realizar al menos 3 comidas diarias, reducir las calorías totales, optar por una alimentación variada y equilibrada con alimentos frescos y de alta densidad nutricional, incorporar verduras, legumbres y pescado, consumir productos lácteos y fibra, preferir carnes blancas en lugar de rojas, evitar frituras, embutidos y alimentos procesados, moderar el consumo de sal, café y alcohol, e hidratarse adecuadamente. The aging of the population underlines an important challenge for the health system not only from sanitary and economic reasons but
Authors: Hernández Ruiz de Eguilaz, María; Martínez de Morentin Aldabe, Blanca Esther; Almirón Roig, Eva; et al.
Journal: ENDOCRINOLOGIA DIABETES Y NUTRICION
ISSN 2530-0180  Vol. 65  Nº 2  2018  pp. 114 - 125
Research in obesity has traditionally focused on prevention strategies and treatments aimed at changing lifestyle habits. However, recent research suggests that eating behavior is a habit regulated not only by homeostatic mechanisms, but also by the hedonic pathway that controls appetite and satiety processes. Cognitive, emotional, social, economic, and cultural factors, as welt as organoleptic properties of food, are basic aspects to consider in order to understand eating behavior and its impact on health. This review presents a multisensory integrative view of food at both the homeostatic and non-homeostatic levels. This information will be of scientific interest to determine behavior drivers leading to overeating and, thus, to propose effective measures, at both the individual and population levels, for the prevention of obesity and associated metabolic diseases. (C) 2017 SEEN y SED. Published by Elsevier Espana, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Authors: Almirón Roig, Eva (Autor de correspondencia); Navas Carretero, Santiago; Emery, P.; et al.
Journal: FOOD & FUNCTION
ISSN 2042-6496  Vol. 9  Nº 2  2018  pp. 715 - 739
Portion sizes for certain foods have been increasing dramatically in recent years alongside obesity rates, concurring with the phenomenon of the portion size effect (more is consumed when more is offered). Portion size may be defined based on different purposes such as for dietary assessment, or therapeutic advice or food labelling, resulting in a variety of measurement methods and specifications. This situation has resulted in disagreements on establishing portion size recommendations by manufacturers, food distributors, restaurants, health professionals and policy makers, contributing to confusion amongst consumers on the amounts of food to be consumed, and potentially increasing the likelihood of overeating and other obesity-related behaviours. Such variability is also reflected in the research field making comparison across studies on portion size difficult. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of definitions and methods used in research to evaluate portion-size related outcomes, including methods to estimate amounts consumed by individuals as part of dietary assessment; methods to analyse cognitive mechanisms related to portion size behaviour; and methods to evaluate the impact of portion size manipulations as well as individual plus environmental factors on portion size behaviour. Special attention has been paid to behavioural studies exploring portion size cognitive processes given the lack of previous methodological reviews in this area. This information may help researchers, clinicians and other stakeholders to establish clearer definitions of portion size in their respective areas of work and to standardise methods to analyse portion size effects.
Authors: Malafarina, V., (Autor de correspondencia); Reginster, J. Y.; Cabrerizo, S. ; et al.
Journal: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 10  Nº 5  2018 
Malnutrition is very prevalent in geriatric patients with hip fracture. Nevertheless, its importance is not fully recognized. The objective of this paper is to review the impact of malnutrition and of nutritional treatment upon outcomes and mortality in older people with hip fracture. We searched the PubMed database for studies evaluating nutritional aspects in people aged 70 years and over with hip fracture. The total number of studies included in the review was 44, which analyzed 26,281 subjects (73.5% women, 83.6 +/- 7.2 years old). Older people with hip fracture presented an inadequate nutrient intake for their requirements, which caused deterioration in their already compromised nutritional status. The prevalence of malnutrition was approximately 18.7% using the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) (large or short form) as a diagnostic tool, but the prevalence was greater (45.7%) if different criteria were used (such as Body Mass Index (BMI), weight loss, or albumin concentration). Low scores in anthropometric indices were associated with a higher prevalence of complications during hospitalization and with a worse functional recovery. Despite improvements in the treatment of geriatric patients with hip fracture, mortality was still unacceptably high (30% within 1 year and up to 40% within 3 years). Malnutrition was associated with an increase in mortality. Nutritional intervention was cost effective and was associated with an improvement in nutritional status and a greater functional recovery. To conclude, in older people, the prevention of malnutrition and an early nutritional intervention can improve recovery following a hip fracture.
Authors: Ramos-Lopez, O.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
Journal: ADIPOCYTE
ISSN 2162-3945  Vol. 7  Nº 2  2018  pp. 137 - 142
Unresolved ER stress is involved in the onset and progression of several obesity-related metabolic disorders, including dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Different epigenetic modifications may regulate ER stress response and consequently disease risks. These epigenetic phenomena encompass DNA and histone methylation patterns in ER stress genes and downstream signaling molecules, as well as microRNA expression. Our results suggest potential associations of methylation signatures at ER regulatory genes in white blood cells with an abdominal/central obesity marker (waist circumference), dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. Interestingly, most of these genes were implicated in ER stress, as revealed by pathway enrichment analysis. Together, these findings add knowledge into the current understanding of relationships between obesity and accompanying complications with epigenetics and ER stress. Here, we comment about the implication of ER stress in central/abdominal adiposity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance, with an emphasis on the role that epigenetics may play on these pathological processes.
Authors: Russolillo-Femenias, G.; Menal-Puey, S., (Autor de correspondencia); Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF THE ACADEMY OF NUTRITION AND DIETETICS
ISSN 2212-2672  Vol. 118  Nº 11  2018  pp. 2029 - 2041
Authors: Estruch, R.; Ros, E.; Salas-Salvado, J. ; et al.
Journal: NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE
ISSN 0028-4793  Vol. 378  Nº 25  2018  pp. e34
BACKGROUND Observational cohort studies and a secondary prevention trial have shown inverse associations between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular risk. METHODS In a multicenter trial in Spain, we assigned 7447 participants (55 to 80 years of age, 57% women) who were at high cardiovascular risk, but with no cardiovascular disease at enrollment, to one of three diets: a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with mixed nuts, or a control diet (advice to reduce dietary fat). Participants received quarterly educational sessions and, depending on group assignment, free provision of extra-virgin olive oil, mixed nuts, or small nonfood gifts. The primary end point was a major cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes). After a median follow-up of 4.8 years, the trial was stopped on the basis of a prespecified interim analysis. In 2013, we reported the results for the primary end point in the Journal. We subsequently identified protocol deviations, including enrollment of household members without randomization, assignment to a study group without randomization of some participants at 1 of 11 study sites, and apparent inconsistent use of randomization tables at another site. We have withdrawn our previously published report and now report revised effect estimates based on analyses that do not rely exclusively on the assumption that all the participants were randomly assigned. RESULTS A primary end-point event occurred in 288 participants; there were 96 events in the group assigned to a Mediterranean diet with extra-virgin olive oil (3.8%), 83 in the group assigned to a Mediterranean diet with nuts (3.4%), and 109 in the control group (4.4%). In the intention-to-treat analysis including all the participants and adjusting for baseline characteristics and propensity scores, the hazard ratio was 0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53 to 0.91) for a Mediterranean diet with extra-virgin olive oil and 0.72 (95% CI, 0.54 to 0.95) for a Mediterranean diet with nuts, as compared with the control diet. Results were similar after the omission of 1588 participants whose study-group assignments were known or suspected to have departed from the protocol. CONCLUSIONS In this study involving persons at high cardiovascular risk, the incidence of major cardiovascular events was lower among those assigned to a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil or nuts than among those assigned to a reduced-fat diet.
Authors: Sayon Orea, María del Carmen (Autor de correspondencia); Santiago Neri, Susana; Bes Rastrollo, Maira; et al.
Journal: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH
ISSN 1660-4601  Vol. 15  Nº 10  2018  pp. E2104
The aim of this study was to investigate determinants of self-rated health (SRH) perception in Spanish adults. This cross-sectional study including data from 11,342 participants from the Spanish PLENUFAR VI study. SRH status was grouped in two categories ('good'/'poor') and the associations of socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyles, diet adequacy and chronic disease with SRH were assessed. After adjusting for relevant confounders, the risk ratios (RR) and (95% confidence intervals) for poor SRH were 1.05 (1.03-1.07) for each hour of increment of sitting, 1.56 (1.30-1.88) for short (>= 5 h vs. 7-8 h) sleep duration, 0.63 (0.55-0.72) for vigorous (vs. light) physical activity, 0.61 (0.50-0.74) for adequate (vs. non-adequate) diet. Activities like jogging [RR for each unit of increment in the METs-h/day = 0.87 (0.82-0.92)], gymnastics [0.87 (0.81-0.93)], biking [0.91 (0.85-0.98)], and track and field [0.94 (0.89-0.98)], were associated with better health perception. Normally weight participants with any chronic disease had lower probability to report poor SRH than overweight/obese participants with any chronic disease. Frequent consumption of bread (>2 servings/day) was associated with a lower adjusted mean of health perception scale, while higher consumption of vegetables and fruit or fish were associated with higher values, concerning good SRH. We can conclude that normal-weight participants even suffering a chronic disease had lower probability to report poor health perception than participants with overweight/obesity and a chronic disease especially for hypertension and diabetes. Activities like jogging, gymnastics, biking, and track and field, and a higher consumption of fruits, vegetables and fish, were associated with better health rated perception.
Authors: Ramos-Lopez, O.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
Journal: BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR
ISSN 2162-3279  Vol. 8  Nº 8  2018 
Introduction: Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter that regulates the rewarding and motivational processes underlying food intake and eating behaviors. This study hypothesized associations of DNA methylation signatures at genes modulating DA signaling with obesity features, metabolic profiles, and dietary intake. Methods: An adult population within the Methyl Epigenome Network Association project was included (n = 473). DNA methylation levels in white blood cells were measured by microarray (450K). Differentially methylated genes were mapped within the dopaminergic synapse pathway using the KEGG reference database (map04728). Subsequently, network enrichment analyses were run in the pathDIP portal. Associations of methylation patterns with anthropometric markers of general (BMI) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference), the blood metabolic profile, and daily dietary intakes were screened. Results: After applying a correction for multiple comparisons, 12 CpG sites were strongly associated (p < 0.0001) with BMI: cg03489495 (ITPR3), cg22851378 (PPP2R2D), cg04021127 (PPP2R2D), cg22441882 (SLC18A1), cg03045635 (DRD5), cg23341970 (ITPR2), cg13051970 (DDC), cg08943004 (SLC6A3), cg20557710 (CACNA1C), cg24085522 (GNAL), cg16846691 (ITPR2), and cg09691393 (SLC6A3). Moreover, average methylation levels of these genes differed according to the presence or absence of abdominal obesity. Pathway analyses revealed a statistically significant contribution of the aforementioned genes to dopaminergic synapse transmission (p = 4.78E-08). Furthermore, SLC18A1 and SLC6A3 gene methylation signatures correlated with total energy (p < 0.001) and carbohydrate (p < 0.001) intakes. Conclusions: The results of this investigation reveal that methylation status on DA signaling genes may underlie epigenetic mechanisms contributing to carbohydrate and calorie consumption and fat deposition.
Authors: Cárdenas Fuentes, G.; Bawaked, R. A.; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
Journal: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH
ISSN 1101-1262  Vol. 28  Nº 5  2018  pp. 944 - 950
Background: There is limited, and inconsistent, data on the prospective association between physical activity and surrogate markers of adiposity in older adults. We aim to determine the prospective association of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and the incidence of obesity. Methods: This prospective analysis included 7144 individuals with a mean age of 67 +/- 6.2 years, from the PREvencio ' n con DIeta MEDiterra ' nea (PREDIMED) study. BMI and WC were measured and LTPA was recorded using the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire. Exposure and outcome variables were calculated as cumulative average of repeated measurements. Results: Total LTPA was inversely associated (P < 0.001) with BMI and WC. The difference in BMI and WC between extreme quintiles of LTPA (Q1-Q5) was 2.1 kg/m 2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.68. // 2.49, P < 0.001) and 4.8 cm (CI 2.28. // 7.25, P < 0.001), respectively. Lowintensity LTPA was inversely associated with BMI but not with WC, while moderate/vigorous LTPA showed an inverse relationship with BMI and WC. The hazard of general and abdominal obesity incidence decreased across quintiles of total and moderate/vigorous LTPA (P < 0.001 for both), whereas low-intensity LTPA was inversely associated with the incidence of general obesity (P < 0.001). Conclusion: LTPA was inversely associated with BMI, WC and incidence of general and abdominal obesity. The finding that low-intensity LTPA was inversely related to BMI and the incidence of obesity is of particular importance because this level of physical activity could be a feasible option for many older adults.
Authors: Goñi Mateos, Leticia; Sun, D.; Heianza, Y.; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH
ISSN 0022-2275  Vol. 59  Nº 1  2018  pp. 155 - 161
Compelling evidence indicates that lipid metabolism is in partial control of the circadian system. In this context, it has been reported that the melatonin receptor 1B (MTNR1B) genetic variant influences the dynamics of melatonin secretion, which is involved in the circadian system as a chronobiotic. The objective was to analyze whether the MTNR1B rs10830963 genetic variant was related to changes in lipid levels in response to dietary interventions with different macronutrient distribution in 722 overweight/obese subjects from the POUNDS Lost trial. We did not find a significant association between the MTNR1B genotype and changes in lipid metabolism. However, dietary fat intake significantly modified genetic effects on 2 year changes in total and LDL cholesterol (P interaction = 0.006 and 0.001, respectively). In the low-fat diet group, carriers of the sleep disruption G allele (minor allele) showed a greater reduction of total cholesterol (ß ± SE = -5.78 ± 2.88 mg/dl, P = 0.04) and LDL cholesterol (ß ± SE = -7.19 ± 2.37 mg/dl, P = 0.003). Conversely, in the high-fat diet group, subjects carrying the G allele evidenced a smaller decrease in total cholesterol (ß ± SE = 5.81 ± 2.65 mg/dl, P = 0.03) and LDL cholesterol (ß ± SE = 5.23 ± 2.21 mg/dl, P = 0.002). Subjects carrying the G allele of the circadian rhythm-related MTNR1B variant may present a bigger impact on total and LDL cholesterol when undertaking an energy-restricted low-fat diet.
Authors: Celis-Morales, C.; Livingstone, K. M.; Affleck, A.; et al.
Journal: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0954-3007  Vol. 72  Nº 2  2018  pp. 207 - 219
Background/objectives To identify predictors of obesity in adults and investigate to what extent these predictors are independent of other major confounding factors. Subjects/methods Data collected at baseline from 1441 participants from the Food4Me study conducted in seven European countries were included in this study. A food frequency questionnaire was used to measure dietary intake. Accelerometers were used to assess physical activity levels (PA), whereas participants self-reported their body weight, height and waist circumference via the internet. Results The main factors associated (p < 0.05) with higher BMI per 1-SD increase in the exposure were age (beta:1.11 kg/m(2)), intakes of processed meat (beta:1.04 kg/m(2)), red meat (beta:1.02 kg/m(2)), saturated fat (beta:0.84 kg/m(2)), monounsaturated fat (beta:0.80 kg/m(2)), protein (beta:0.74 kg/m(2)), total energy intake (beta:0.50 kg/m(2)), olive oil (beta:0.36 kg/m(2)), sugar sweetened carbonated drinks (beta:0.33 kg/m(2)) and sedentary time (beta:0.73 kg/m(2)). In contrast, the main factors associated with lower BMI per 1-SD increase in the exposure were PA (beta:-1.36 kg/m(2)), intakes of wholegrains (beta:-1.05 kg/m(2)), fibre (beta:-1.02 kg/m(2)), fruits and vegetables (beta:-0.52 kg/m(2)), nuts (beta:-0.52 kg/m(2)), polyunsaturated fat (beta:-0.50 kg/m(2)), Healthy Eating Index (beta:-0.42 kg/m(2)), Mediterranean diet score (beta:-0.40 kg/m(2)), oily fish (beta:-0.31 kg/m(2)), dairy (beta:-0.31 kg/m(2)) and fruit juice (beta:-0.25 kg/m(2)). Conclusions These findings are important for public health and suggest that promotion of increased PA, reducing sedentary behaviours and improving the overall quality of dietary patterns are important strategies for addressing the existing obesity epidemic and associated disease burden.
Authors: Fallaize, R.; Livingstone, K. M. ; Celis-Morales, C.; et al.
Journal: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 10  Nº 1  2018  pp. 49
Diet-quality scores (DQS), which are developed across the globe, are used to define adherence to specific eating patterns and have been associated with risk of coronary heart disease and type-II diabetes. We explored the association between five diet-quality scores (Healthy Eating Index, HEI; Alternate Healthy Eating Index, AHEI; MedDietScore, MDS; PREDIMED Mediterranean Diet Score, P-MDS; Dutch Healthy Diet-Index, DHDI) and markers of metabolic health (anthropometry, objective physical activity levels (PAL), and dried blood spot total cholesterol (TC), total carotenoids, and omega-3 index) in the Food4Me cohort, using regression analysis. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Participants (n = 1480) were adults recruited from seven European Union (EU) countries. Overall, women had higher HEI and AHEI than men (p < 0.05), and scores varied significantly between countries. For all DQS, higher scores were associated with lower body mass index, lower waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference, and higher total carotenoids and omega-3-index (p trends < 0.05). Higher HEI, AHEI, DHDI, and P-MDS scores were associated with increased daily PAL, moderate and vigorous activity, and reduced sedentary behaviour (p trend < 0.05). We observed no association between DQS and TC. To conclude, higher DQS, which reflect better dietary patterns, were associated with markers of better nutritional status and metabolic health.
Authors: Goñi Mateos, Leticia; García-Granero Marquez, Marta; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
Journal: NUTRITION AND DIABETES
ISSN 2044-4052  Vol. 8  Nº 1  2018  pp. 27
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a complex and multifactorial disease resulting from the interactions among genetics, metabolic, behavioral, sociocultural and environmental factors. In this sense, the aim of the present study was to identify phenotype and genotype variables that could be relevant determinants of body mass index (BMI) variability. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In the present study, a total of 1050 subjects (798 females; 76%) were included. Least angle regression (LARS) analysis was used as regression model selection technique, where the dependent variable was BMI and the independent variables were age, sex, energy intake, physical activity level, and 16 polymorphisms previously related to obesity and lipid metabolism. RESULTS: The LARS analysis obtained the following formula for BMI explanation: (64.7¿+¿0.10¿×¿age [years]¿+¿0.42¿×¿gender [0, men; 1, women]¿+¿-40.6¿×¿physical activity [physical activity level]¿+¿0.004¿×¿energy intake [kcal]¿+¿0.74¿×¿rs9939609 [0 or 1-2 risk alleles]¿+¿-0.72¿×¿rs1800206 [0 or 1-2 risk alleles]¿+¿-0.86¿×¿rs1801282 [0 or 1-2 risk alleles]¿+¿0.87¿×¿rs429358 [0 or 1-2 risk alleles]. The multivariable regression model accounted for 21% of the phenotypic variance in BMI. The regression model was internally validated by the bootstrap method (r2 original data set¿=¿0.208, mean r2 bootstrap data sets¿=¿0.210). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, age, physical activity, energy intake and polymorphisms in FTO, APOE, PPARG and PPARA genes are significant predictors of the BMI trait.
Authors: Varela Guruceaga, Maider; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; et al.
Journal: MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR ENDOCRINOLOGY
ISSN 0303-7207  Vol. 473  2018  pp. 257 - 267
Obesity is characterized by hypertrophy and hyperplasia of adipose tissue, which have been related to the development of hypoxia and insulin resistance. On the other hand, caveolin-1 (Cav-1), one of the main proteins of caveolae, promotes insulin receptor (IR) phosphorylation and the subsequent activation of insulin signaling. In this work we investigated the effect of hypoxia on Cav-1 regulation and the status of insulin signaling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our results showed that hypoxia inhibited adipogenesis and insulin signaling in adipocytes. Furthermore, 48¿h of hypoxia reduced insulin-induced glucose uptake while increased basal glucose uptake. This result was consistent with the upregulation of glucose transporter GLUT1 and the downregulation of GLUT4, which also showed defective translocation to plasma membrane when adipocytes were stimulated with insulin. In addition, the expression of caveolae-related proteins was reduced by hypoxia and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that Cav-1 transcription was directly regulated by HIF-1. These results strengthen the role of caveolae in insulin signaling and help to explain adipocyte response to hypoxia.
Authors: Christensen, P. , (Autor de correspondencia); Larsen, T. M.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.; et al.
Journal: DIABETES OBESITY AND METABOLISM
ISSN 1462-8902  Vol. 20  Nº 12  2018  pp. 2840 - 2851
Aims Materials and methods The PREVIEW lifestyle intervention study ( Identifier: NCT01777893) is, to date, the largest, multinational study concerning prevention of type-2 diabetes. We hypothesized that the initial, fixed low-energy diet (LED) would induce different metabolic outcomes in men vs women. All participants followed a LED (3.4 MJ/810 kcal/daily) for 8 weeks (Cambridge Weight Plan). Participants were recruited from 8 sites in Europe, Australia and New Zealand. Those eligible for inclusion were overweight (BMI >= 25 kg/m(2)) individuals with pre-diabetes according to ADA-criteria. Outcomes of interest included changes in insulin resistance, fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) and metabolic syndrome Z-score. Results Conclusions In total, 2224 individuals (1504 women, 720 men) attended the baseline visit and 2020 (90.8%) completed the follow-up visit. Following the LED, weight loss was 16% greater in men than in women (11.8% vs 10.3%, respectively) but improvements in insulin resistance were similar. HOMA-IR decreased by 1.50 +/- 0.15 in men and by 1.35 +/- 0.15 in women (ns). After adjusting for differences in weight loss, men had larger reductions in metabolic syndrome Z-score, C-peptide, FM and heart rate, while women had larger reductions in HDL cholesterol, FFM, hip circumference and pulse pressure. Following the LED, 35% of participants of both genders had reverted to normo-glycaemia. An 8-week LED induced different effects in women than in men. These findings are clinically important and suggest gender-specific changes after weight loss. It is important to investigate whether the greater decreases in FFM, hip circumference and HDL cholesterol in women after rapid weight loss compromise weight loss maintenance and future cardiovascular health.
Authors: Ramos-Lopez, O.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
Journal: MOLECULAR GENETICS AND METABOLISM
ISSN 1096-7192  Vol. 123  Nº 1  2018  pp. 50 - 58
A sustained activation of the unfolded protein response and the subsequent endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been involved in the onset and severity of several metabolic diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of DNA methylation signatures at ER stress genes with adiposity traits and related metabolic disorders. An epigenomic analysis within the Methyl Epigenome Network Association (MENA) project was conducted in an adult population (n=474). DNA methylation status in peripheral white blood cells was analyzed by a microarray approach. KEGG database was used to the characterization and discrimination of genes involved in the "protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum pathway". Anthropometric measurements and plasma metabolic profiles were analyzed. A total of 15 CpG sites at genes participating in ER pathway were strongly correlated with BMI after adjusted linear regression analyses (p<0.0001). These included cg08188400 (MAP2K7), cg20541779 (CASP12), cg24776411 (EIF2AK1), cg14190817 (HSPA5), cg21376454 (ERN1), cg06666486 (EIF2AK1), cg03211481 (DNAJC1), cg18357645 (OS9), cg05801879 (MBTPS1), cg20964082 (ERO1LB), cg17300868 (NFE2L2), cg03384128 (EIF2AK4), cg02712587 (EIF2AK4), cg04972384 (SELS), cg02240686 (EIF2AK2). Noteworthy, most of them were implicated in ER stress (p=2.9E-09). However, only methylation levels at cg20964082 (ERO1LB), cg17300868 (NFE2L2), cg05801879 (MBTPS1), and cg03384128 (EIF2AK4) also correlated with total fat mass. Interestingly, significant associations between methylation patterns at cg20964082 (ERO1LB) and cg17300868 (NFE2L2) and insulin and HOMA-IR index were found, whereas cg05801879 (MBTPS1) and cg03384128 (EIF2AK4) were correlated with triglyceride levels. This study suggests associations of methylation signatures at ER stress genes with adiposity and insulin resistance, as revealed by discriminative pathway analyses.
Authors: Ramos-Lopez, O.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
Journal: NUTRITION
ISSN 0899-9007  Vol. 47  2018  pp. 83 - 89
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of two PPARGCIA gene polymorphisms on metabolic outcomes in response to two energy-restricted diets. Methods: A 4-mo nutritional intervention was conducted that involved two different hypo-energetic diets based on low-fat (LF) and moderately high-protein (MHP) dietary patterns. Unrelated subjects with excessive weight were genotyped for two PPARGCIA polymorphisms: Rs8192678 (Gly482Ser) and rs3755863 (G > A). Genotyping was performed by next-generation sequencing and haplotypes were screened. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests were assessed with standardized methods. Results: Different cholesterol outcomes were observed by diet and Gly482Ser genotype. The Gly482 Gly homozygotes after an LF diet had lower reductions in total cholesterol (-9 mg/dL vs. -27 mg/dL; P = 0.017) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (-5 mg/dL vs. -18 mg/dL; P = 0.016) than the subjects who were carriers of 482 Ser allele. However, this finding was not recorded in the MHP group where Gly482 Gly homozygotes underwent similar cholesterol decreases as the 482 Ser allele carriers. Likewise, all genotype carriers had significant reductions in the frequencies of hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol >= 200 mg/dL) except for Gly482 Gly homozygotes in the LF group. Meanwhile, the rs3755863 polymorphism and PPARGCIA haplotypes showed borderline effects with regard to cholesterol decreases. Conclusions: An energy-restricted MHP diet might be more beneficial than an LF diet to reduce serum cholesterol among subjects who are carriers of the PPARGCIA Gly482Gly genotype. The analysis of this genetic variant might be the basis for a precise. nutrigenetic management of hypercholesterolemia based on genetic makeup.
Authors: Samblas García, Mirian; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Mansego Talavera, María Luisa; et al.
Journal: PEDIATRIC OBESITY
ISSN 2047-6310  Vol. 13  Nº 3  2018  pp. 149 - 158
BackgroundThe global prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has increased in the last years. Epigenetic dysregulation affecting gene expression could be a determinant in early-life obesity onset and accompanying complications. ObjectiveThe aim of the present investigation was to analyse the putative association between DNA methylation and childhood obesity. MethodsDNA was isolated from white blood cells of 24 children obtained from the GENOI study and was hybridized in a 450K methylation array. Two CpG sites associated with obesity were validated in 91 children by MassArray (R) EpiTyper technology. ResultsGenome-wide analysis identified 734 CpGs (783 genes) differentially methylated between cases (n=12) and controls (n=12). Ingenuity Pathway Analysis showed that these genes were involved in oxidative stress and circadian rhythm signalling pathways. Moreover, the DNA methylation levels of VIPR2, GRIN2D, ADCYAP1R1, PER3 and PTPRS regions correlated with the obesity trait. EpiTyper validation also identified significant correlations between methylation levels of CpG sites on PTPRS and PER3 with BMI z-score. ConclusionsThis study identified several CpG sites and specifically several CpGs in the PTPRS and PER3 genes differentially methylated between obese and non-obese children, suggesting a role for DNA methylation concerning development of childhood obesity.
Authors: Manios, Y. , (Autor de correspondencia); Moschonis, G.; Lambrinou, C. P.; et al.
Journal: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 1436-6207  Vol. 57  Nº 4  2018  pp. 1357 - 1368
Purpose To report the vitamin D status in adults from seven European countries and to identify behavioural correlates. Methods In total, 1075 eligible adult men and women from Ireland, Netherlands, Spain, Greece, UK, Poland and Germany, were included in the study. Results Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency, defined as 25-hydroxy vitamin D-3 (25-OHD3) concentration of < 30 and 30-49.9 nmol/L, respectively, were observed in 3.3 and 30.6% of the participants. The highest prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was found in the UK and the lowest in the Netherlands (8.2 vs. 1.1%, P < 0.05). In addition, the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was higher in females compared with males (36.6 vs. 22.6%, P < 0.001), in winter compared with summer months (39.3 vs. 25.0%, P < 0.05) and in younger compared with older participants (36.0 vs. 24.4%, P < 0.05). Positive dose-response associations were also observed between 25-OHD3 concentrations and dietary vitamin D intake from foods and supplements, as well as with physical activity (PA) levels. Vitamin D intakes of >= 5 mu g/day from foods and >= 5 mu g/day from supplements, as well as engagement in >= 30 min/day of moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA were associated with higher odds (P < 0.05) for maintaining sufficient (>= 50 nmol/L) 25-OHD3 concentrations. Conclusions The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency varied considerably among European adults. Dietary intakes of >= 10 mu g/day of vitamin D from foods and/or supplements and at least 30 min/day of moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA were the minimum thresholds associated with vitamin D sufficiency.
Authors: García Lacarte, Marcos; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo (Autor de correspondencia); Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Journal: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 13  Nº 8  2018 
Background Non-coding RNAs (i.e., miRNAs) play a role in the development of obesity and related comorbidities and the regulation of body weight. Objective To identify candidate miRNA biomarkers throughout omics approaches in order to predict the response to specific weight-loss dietary treatments. Design Genomic DNA and cDNA isolated from white blood cells of a subset from the RESMENA nutritional intervention study (Low-responders (LR) vs High-responders (HR)) was hybridized in Infinium Human Methylation450 BeadChip and in Illumina Human HT-12 v4 gene expression BeadChips arrays respectively. A bioinformatic prediction of putative target sites of selected miRNAs was performed by applying miRBase algorithms. HEK-293T cells were co-transfected with expression vectors containing the 3'-UTR of candidate genes to validate the binding of miRNAs to its target sites. Results 134 miRNAs were differentially methylated between HR and LR in the methylation array, whereas 44 miRNAs were differentially expressed between both groups in the expression array. Specifically, miR-1237, miR-1976, miR-642, miR-636, miR-612 and miR-193B were simultaneously hypomethylated and overexpressed in HR. miR-612 and miR-1976 showed greatest differences in methylation and expression levels, respectively. The bioinformatic prediction revealed that TP53 was a putative target gene of miR-612 and CD40 of miR-1976. Moreover, TP53 was downregulated in the expression array when comparing HR vs LR expression levels adjusted by sex, diet, age and baseline weight, and CD40 showed a statistical trend. Furthermore, gene expression levels of TP53 and CD40 in white blood cells, when measured by qPCR, were also downregulated in HR. Finally, miR-612 and miR-1976 potently repressed TP53 and CD40 respectively by targeting its 3'-UTR regions. Conclusion miR-612 and miR-1976 levels could be prospective biomarkers of response to specific weight-loss diets and might regulate the gene expression of TP53 and CD40.
Authors: Mena-Sanchez, G. ; Babio, N. , (Autor de correspondencia); Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
Journal: NUTRITION METABOLISM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
ISSN 0939-4753  Vol. 28  Nº 10  2018  pp. 1002 - 1011
Background and Aims: Fermented dairy products have been associated with a better diet quality and cardio-metabolic profile. However, in Mediterranean populations, these associations have not been well characterized. The aim of this study was to assess the diet quality and the associations between the consumption of total fermented dairy products and their subtypes and the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) components in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Methods and Results: Baseline cross-sectional analyses were conducted on 6,572 men and women (mean age: 65 years) with overweight or obesity and MetS recruited into the PREDIMED-Plus cohort. A 143-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was used, and anthropometrical, biochemical, and blood pressure measurements were recorded. Multivariate-adjusted Cox regressions were fitted to analyze the association between quartiles of consumption of fermented dairy products and their subtypes and MetS components to estimate the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Participants who were high consumers of fermented dairy products reported a higher consumption of fruit, vegetables, fish, nuts, and whole bread and a lower consumption of white bread, alcohol, and cookies. Participants in the higher quartile showed a lower prevalence of the low HDL-cholesterol component of the MetS (RR=0.88; 95% CI: 0.78-0.98) than those in the lowest quartile of cheese consumption. Cheese consumption was inversely associated with the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia. Total fermented dairy products, yogurt, and its types were not associated with any of the MetS components. Conclusions: Compared to nonconsumers, participants consuming fermented dairy products reported a better diet quality and, particularly, cheese consumers presented a lower prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol plasma levels, which are MetS components. (C) 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Authors: Milton Laskibar, Iñaki; Aguirre, Leixuri (Autor de correspondencia); Etxeberría Aramburu, Usune; et al.
Journal: FOOD & FUNCTION
ISSN 2042-6496  Vol. 9  Nº 8  2018  pp. 4207 - 4215
Autophagy eliminates damaged cellular components. In the liver, it has been proposed that it mediates the breakdown of lipid droplets. This study aimed to compare the involvement of autophagy and the oxidative status in the effects of resveratrol and energy restriction as therapeutic tools for managing liver steatosis. In addition, potential additive or synergic effects were studied. Rats were fed a high-fat high-sucrose diet for 6 weeks and then divided into four experimental groups and fed a standard diet: a control group (C), a resveratrol-treated group (RSV, 30 mg kg(-1) d(-1)), an energy restricted group (R, -15%), and an energy restricted group treated with resveratrol (RR). Liver triacylglycerols (TGs) were measured by Folch's method. TBARS, GSH, GSSG, GPx and SOD were assessed using commercial kits. The protein expression of beclin, atg5 and p62, as well as ratios of pSer555 ULK1/total ULK1, pSer757 ULK1/total ULK1 and LC3 II/I were determined by western blotting. Energy restriction increased the protein expression of beclin, atg5 and pSer757 ULK1/total ULK1 and LC3 II/I ratios, and reduced the protein expression of p62, thus indicating that it induced autophagy activation. The effects of resveratrol were similar but less marked than the hypocaloric diet. No differences were observed in oxidative stress determinants except for TBARS, which was decreased by energy restriction. In conclusion, resveratrol can reverse partially dietary-induced hepatic lipid accumulation, although less efficiently than energy restriction. The delipidating effect of energy restriction is mediated in part by the activation of autophagy; however, the involvement of this process in the effects of resveratrol is less clear.
Authors: Arpón, A.; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Razquin Burillo, Cristina; et al.
Journal: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 10  Nº 1  2018 
Authors: Navarro Herrera, D.; Aranaz Oroz, Paula; Eder-Azanza, L.; et al.
Journal: FOOD & FUNCTION
ISSN 2042-6496  Vol. 9  Nº 3  2018  pp. 1621 - 1637
Bioactive compounds, including some fatty acids (FAs), can induce beneficial effects on body fat-content and metabolism. In this work, we have used C. elegans as a model to examine the effects of several FAs on body fat accumulation. Both omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids induced a reduction of fat content in C. elegans, with linoleic, gamma-linolenic and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acids being the most effective ones. These three FAs are sequential metabolites especially in omega-6 PUFA synthesis pathway and the effects seem to be primarily due to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, and independent of its transformation into omega-3 or arachidonic acid. Gene expression analyses suggest that peroxisomal beta oxidation is the main mechanism involved in the observed effect. These results point out the importance of further analysis of the activity of these omega-6 FAs, due to their potential application in obesity and related diseases.
Authors: Andriessen, C.; Christensen, P.; Vestergaard-Nielsen, L.; et al.
Journal: APPETITE
ISSN 0195-6663  Vol. 125  2018  pp. 314 - 322
People with obesity often struggle to maintain their weight loss after a weight loss period. Furthermore, the effect of weight loss on appetite and food preferences remains unclear. Hence this study investigated the effect of weight loss on subjective appetite and food preferences in healthy, overweight and obese volunteers. A subgroup of adult participants (n¿=¿123) from the Diet Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) study (subgroup A) was recruited from across six European countries. Participants lost ¿8% of initial body weight during an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD). Subjective appetite and food preferences were measured before and after the LCD, in response to a standardized meal test, using visual analogue rating scales (VAS) and the Leeds Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ). After the LCD, participants reported increased fullness (p¿<¿0.05), decreased desire to eat (p¿<¿0.05) and decreased prospective consumption (p¿<¿0.05) after consuming the test meal. An interaction effect (visit x time) was found for hunger ratings (p¿<¿0.05). Area under the curve (AUC) for hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption was decreased by 18.1%, 20.2% and 21.1% respectively whereas AUC for fullness increased by 13.9%. Preference for low-energy products measured by the Food Preference Checklist (FPC) decreased by 1.9% before the test meal and by 13.5% after the test meal (p¿<¿0.05). High-carbohydrate and high-fat preference decreased by 11.4% and 16.2% before the test meal and by 17.4% and 22.7% after the meal (p¿<¿0.05). No other effects were observed. These results suggest that LCD induced weight loss decreases the appetite perceptions of overweight volunteers whilst decreasing their preference for high-fat-, high-carbohydrate-, and low-energy products.
Authors: Escoté Miró, Xavier; Félix Soriano, Elisa; Gayoso Morandeira, Lucía; et al.
Journal: FOOD & FUNCTION
ISSN 2042-6496  Vol. 9  Nº 5  2018  pp. 3028 - 3036
FGF21 has emerged as a key metabolism and energy homeostasis regulator. Dietary supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or -lipoic acid (LIP) has shown beneficial effects on obesity. In this study, we evaluated EPA and/or LIP effects on plasma FGF21 and the fatty acid (FA) profile in overweight/obese women following hypocaloric diets. At the baseline, FGF21 levels were negatively related to the AST/ALT ratio and HMW adiponectin. The weight loss did not cause any significant changes in FGF21 levels, but after the intervention FGF21 increased in EPA-supplemented groups compared to non-EPA-supplemented groups. EPA supplementation decreased the plasma n-6-PUFA content and increased n-3-PUFAs, mainly EPA and DPA, but not DHA. In the LIP-alone supplemented group a decrease in the total SFA and n-6-PUFA content was observed after the supplementation. Furthermore, EPA affected the desaturase activity, lowering 4D and raising 5/6D. These effects were not observed in the LIP-supplemented groups. Besides, the changes in FGF21 levels were associated with the changes in EPA, n-3-PUFAs, 5/6D, and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Altogether, our study suggests that n-3-PUFAs influence FGF21 levels in obesity, although the specific mechanisms implicated remain to be elucidated.
Authors: Cantero González, Irene; Abete Goñi, Itziar; del Bas, J. M. ; et al.
Journal: NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 1743-7075  Vol. 15  2018  pp. 51
Background: Obesity and comorbidities such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are major public health burdens. Alterations in lipid metabolism are involved in hepatic diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of weight loss on lysophospholipid (LP) metabolism and liver status in obese subjects as well as to provide new evidence regarding the interaction of LP metabolism as a key factor in the onset and management of obesity-related diseases such as liver damage. Methods: Thirty-three subjects from the RESMENA (Reduction of Metabolic Syndrome in Navarra, NCT01087086) study were selected based on their Fatty Liver Index (FLI). Plasma lipid species (lysophosphatidilcholine: LPC, lysophosphatidilethanolamines: LPE and lysophosphatidylinositols: LPI specifically) were determined by LC-MS, while waist circumference (WC) and other non-invasive liver markers such as, FLI and BAAT scores as well as dietary records, anthropometrical measurements, body composition by DXA and other metabolic determinants were analyzed before and after a six-month hypocaloric nutritional intervention. Results: Computed Z-scores of total LP (LPC, LPE, and LPI) were significantly decreased after 6-months of following a hypocaloric diet. Specifically, LPC14:0, LPC15:0, LPC16:1, LPC18:4, LPC20:4, showed clear relationships with weight loss. Changes in FLI score, WC and BAAT score revealed associations with general changes in LPC score. Interestingly the BAAT score was statistically associated with the LPC score after adjustment for weight loss. Conclusion: The lipidomic LPC profile analysis revealed a generalized decrease in circulating lysophospholipids after weight loss. The involvement of particular LP in liver metabolism and obesity merit further attention, as some of these specific non-invasive liver markers were reduced independently of weight loss.
Authors: Ramos-López, O.; Samblas García, Mirian; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
Journal: CHRONOBIOLOGY INTERNATIONAL
ISSN 1525-6073  Vol. 35  Nº 7  2018  pp. 969-981
Authors: Dorenbos, E. ; Drummen, M.; Rijks, J.; et al.
Journal: DIABETES OBESITY AND METABOLISM
ISSN 1462-8902  Vol. 20  Nº 5  2018  pp. 1096 - 1101
Insulin resistance (IR) in adolescence is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus [T2DM]. The PREVIEW (Prevention of Diabetes Through Lifestyle Intervention and Population Studies in Europe and Around the World) study assessed the effectiveness of a high-protein, low-glycaemic-index diet and a moderate-protein, moderate-glycaemic-index diet to decrease IR in insulin-resistant children who were overweight or obese. Inclusion criteria were age 10 to 17 years, homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) ¿2.0 and overweight/obesity. In 126 children (mean ± SD age 13.6 ± 2.2 years, body mass index [BMI] z-score 3.04 ± 0.66, HOMA-IR 3.48 ± 2.28) anthropometrics, fat mass percentage (FM%), metabolic characteristics, physical activity, food intake and sleep were measured. Baseline characteristics did not differ between the groups. IR was higher in pubertal children with morbid obesity than in prepubertal children with morbid obesity (5.41 ± 1.86 vs 3.23 ± 1.86; P = .007) and prepubertal and pubertal children with overweight/obesity (vs 3.61 ± 1.60, P = .004, and vs 3.40 ± 1.50, P < .001, respectively). IR was associated with sex, Tanner stage, BMI z-score and FM%. Fasting glucose concentrations were negatively associated with Baecke sport score (r = -0.223, P = .025) and positively with daytime sleepiness (r = 0.280, P = .016) independent of sex, Tanner stage, BMI z-score and FM%. In conclusion, IR was most severe in pubertal children with morbid obesity. The associations between fasting glucose concentration and Baecke sport score and sleepiness suggest these might be possible targets for diabetes prevention.
Authors: Galarregui, C.; Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles; Cantero González, Irene; et al.
Journal: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
ISSN 1422-0067  Vol. 19  Nº 11  2018  pp. 3662
Background: Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glycemic index (GI), and glycemic load (GL) are accepted indicators of diet quality, which have an effect on diet-disease relationships. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential associations of dietary TAC, GI, and GL with variables related to nutritive status and insulin resistance (IR) risk in cardiometabolic subjects. Methods: A total of 112 overweight or obese adults (age: 50.8 +/- 9 years old) were included in the trial. Dietary intake was assessed by a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), which was also used to calculate the dietary TAC, GI, and GL. Anthropometrics, blood pressure, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), glycemic and lipid profiles, C-reactive protein (CRP), as well as fatty liver quantification by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were assessed. Results: Subjects with higher values of TAC had significantly lower circulating insulin concentration and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Participants with higher values of HOMA-IR showed significantly higher GI and GL. Correlation analyses showed relevant inverse associations of GI and GL with TAC. A regression model evidenced a relationship of HOMA-IR with TAC, GI, and GL. Conclusion: This data reinforces the concept that dietary TAC, GI, and GL are potential markers of diet quality, which have an impact on the susceptible population with a cardiometabolic risk profile.
Authors: De Silva, N.; Samblas García, Mirian; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
ISSN 1138-7548  Vol. 74  Nº 4  2018  pp. 559-568
Obesity is usually associated with low-grade inflammation, which determines the appearance of comorbidities like atherosclerosis and insulin resistance. Infiltrated macrophages in adipose tissue are partly responsible of this inflammatory condition. Numerous studies point to the existence of close intercommunication between macrophages and adipocytes and pay particular attention to the proinflammatory cytokines released by both cell types. However, it has been recently described that in both, circulation and tissue level, there are extracellular vesicles (including microvesicles and exosomes) containing miRNAs, mRNAs, and proteins that can influence the inflammatory response. The objective of the present research is to investigate the effect of exosomes released by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages on gene expression and cell metabolism of adipocytes, focusing on the differential exosomal miRNA pattern between LPS- and non-activated macrophages. The results show that the exosomes secreted by the macrophages do not influence the preadipocyte-to-adipocyte differentiation process, fat storage, and insulin-mediated glucose uptake in adipocytes. However, exosomes induce changes in adipocyte gene expression depending on their origin (LPS- or non-activated macrophages), including genes such as CXCL5, SOD, TNFAIP3, C3, and CD34. Some of the pathways or metabolic processes upregulated by exosomes from LPS-activated macrophages are related to inflammation (complement activation, regulation of reactive oxygen species, migration and activation of leukocyte, and monocyte chemotaxis), carbohydrate catabolism, and cell activation. miR-530, chr9_22532, and chr16_34840 are more abundant in exosomes from LPS-activated macrophages, whereas miR-127, miR-143, and miR-486 are more abundant in those secreted by non-activated macrophages.
Authors: Barcones-Molero, M. F., (Autor de correspondencia); Sanchez-Villegas, A.; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
Journal: REVISTA CLINICA ESPAÑOLA
ISSN 0014-2565  Vol. 218  Nº 8  2018  pp. 408 - 416
Antecedentes La calidad de vida relacionada con la salud es un elemento importante en la valoración integral del sobrepeso y la obesidad. Objetivo Evaluar el impacto de la obesidad y la ganancia de peso sobre la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en la cohorte dinámica Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra. Materiales y métodos Los análisis incluyeron a 10.033 participantes de la cohorte dinámica prospectiva del Proyecto Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra, con una tasa de respuesta de aproximadamente el 90%. La calidad de vida fue medida con la versión abreviada de la Encuesta de Salud (SF-36) (0: peor calidad de vida, 100: mejor calidad de vida). El análisis estadístico se realizó con modelos lineales generalizados (media de cada dominio del SF-36 e IC al 95%). Una diferencia de 3 puntos fue considerada como clínicamente relevante. Resultados El análisis del SF-36 mostró que la función física, la salud general y la variable física sumario fueron inferiores en las personas con sobrepeso y obesidad al inicio del estudio que en los individuos con normopeso. La población a estudio con sobrepeso u obesidad sin cambios tras 2años de seguimiento presentó peores puntuaciones en los dominios del SF-36 correspondientes a la función física, dolor corporal, variable física sumario y salud general que los individuos que mantuvieron la categoría del normopeso según el IMC (kg/m2). Conclusiones La obesidad parece asociarse a un impacto negativo sobre la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud, que afecta más significativamente al área física que a la psicosocial.
Authors: Schroder, H. , (Autor de correspondencia); Cardenas-Fuentes, G. ; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
Journal: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
ISSN 1479-5868  Vol. 15  2018 
BackgroundThe development and implementation of effective physical activity (PA) intervention programs is challenging, particularly in older adults. After the first year of the intervention program used in the ongoing PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea (PREDIMED)-Plus trial, we assessed the initial effectiveness of the PA component.MethodsPREDIMED-Plus is an ongoing randomized clinical trial including 6874 participants randomized to an intensive weight-loss lifestyle intervention based on an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), physical activity promotion and behavioral support and to a control group using MedDiet recommendations but without calorie restriction or PA advice. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are measured by standard clinical protocols. Duration and intensity of PA is self-reported using the validated REGICOR Short Physical Activity Questionnaire. The primary endpoint of the PREDIMED-Plus trial is a combined cardiovascular outcome: myocardial infarction (acute coronary syndromes with positive troponin test), stroke, or cardiovascular mortality. The present study involved secondary analysis of PA data (n=6059; mean age 654.9years) with one-year changes in total, light, and moderate-to-vigorous PA within and between intervention groups as the outcome. Generalized estimating equation models were fitted to evaluate time trends of PA, BMI, and WC within groups and differences between intervention and control groups.ResultsAfter 12months, average daily MVPA increased by 27.2 (95%CI 5.7;48.7) METs-min/day and 123.1 (95%CI 109.7-136.6) METs-min/day in the control and intervention groups, respectively. Total-PA, light-PA, and MVPA increased significantly (p<0.01) in both groups. A significant (p<0.001) time*intervention group interaction was found for Total-PA and MVPA, meaning the PA trajectory over time differed between the intervention and control groups. Age, sex, education level, and BMI did not moderate the effectiveness of the PA intervention. BMI and WC decreased significantly with increasing MVPA, compared with participants who reported no changes in MVPA.ConclusionAfter one year of follow-up, the PREDIMED-Plus PA intervention has been effective in increasing daily PA in older adults.Trial registration Retrospectively registered at the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial (http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN89898870), registration date: 24 July 2014.
Authors: Ramos-Lopez, O.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
Journal: NUTRITION METABOLISM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
ISSN 0939-4753  Vol. 28  Nº 2  2018  pp. 165 - 172
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A precise nutrigenetic management of hypercholesterolemia involves the understanding of the interactions between the individual's genotype and dietary intake. The aim of this study was to analyze the response to two dietary energy-restricted interventions on cholesterol changes in carriers of two ADRB2 polymorphisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 4-month nutritional intervention was conducted involving two different hypo-energetic diets based on low-fat (LF) and moderately high-protein (MHP) dietary patterns. A total of 107 unrelated overweight/obese individuals were genotyped for two ADRB2 non-synonymous polymorphisms: Arg16Gly (rs1042713) and Gln27Glu (rs1042714). Genotyping was performed by next-generation sequencing and haplotypes were phenotypically screened. Anthropometric measurements and the biochemical profile were assessed by conventional methods. Both diets induced cholesterol decreases at the end of both nutritional interventions. Interestingly, phenotypical differences were observed according to the Arg16Gly polymorphism. Within the MHP group, Gly16Gly homozygotes had lower reductions in total cholesterol (-6.5 mg/dL vs. -24.2 mg/dL, p = 0.009), LDL-c levels (-1.4 mg/dL vs. -16.5 mg/dL, p = 0.005), and non-HDL-c (-4.5 mg/dL vs. -21.5 mg/dL, p = 0.008) than Arg16 allele carriers. Conversely, within the LF group, Gly16Gly homozygotes underwent similar falls in total cholesterol (-18.5 mg/dL vs. -18.7 mg/dL, ns), LDL-c levels (-9.7 mg/dL vs. -13.1 mg/dL, ns), and non-HDL-c (-15.3 mg/dL vs. -15.7 mg/dL, ns) than Arg16 allele carriers. The Gln27Glu polymorphism and the Gly16/Glu27 haplotype showed similar, but not greater effects. CONCLUSIONS: An energy-restricted LF diet could be more beneficial than a MHP diet to reduce serum cholesterol, LDL-c, and non-HDL-c among Gly16Gly genotype carriers. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: Identifier: NCT02737267.
Authors: Swindell, N.; Mackintosh, K.; McNarry, M.; et al.
Journal: DIABETES CARE
ISSN 0149-5992  Vol. 41  Nº 3  2018  pp. 562 - 569
OBJECTIVE The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to examine the association among physical activity (PA), sedentary time (ST), and cardiometabolic risk in adults with prediabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants (n = 2,326; 25-70 years old, 67% female) from eight countries, with a BMI > 25 kg.m(-2) and impaired fasting glucose (5.6-6.9 mmol.L-1) or impaired glucose tolerance (7.8-11.0 mmol.L-1 at 2 h), participated. Seven-day accelerometry objectively assessed PA levels and ST. RESULTS Multiple linear regression revealed that moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was negatively associated with HOMA of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (standardized beta = -0.078 [95% CI-0.128, -0.027]), waist circumference (WC) (beta = -0.177 [-0.122, -0.134]), fasting insulin (beta = -0.115 [-0.158, -0.072]), 2-h glucose (beta = -0.069 [-0.112, -0.025]), triglycerides (beta = -0.091 [-0.138, -0.044]), and CRP (beta = -0.086 [-0.127, -0.045]). ST was positively associated with HOMA-IR (beta = 0.175 [0.114, 0.236]), WC (beta = 0.215 [0.026, 0.131]), fasting insulin (beta = 0.155 [0.092, 0.219]), triglycerides (beta = 0.106 [0.052, 0.16]), CRP (beta = 0.106 [0.39, 0.172]), systolic blood pressure (BP) (beta = 0.078 [0.026, 0.131]), and diastolic BP (beta = 0.106 [0.39, -0.172]). Associations reported between total PA (counts . min(-1)), and all risk factors were comparable or stronger than for MVPA: HOMA-IR (beta = -0.151 [-0.194, -0.107]), WC (beta = -0.179 [-0.224, -0.134]), fasting insulin (beta = -0.139 [-0.183, -0.096]), 2-h glucose (beta = -0.088 [-0.131, -0.045]), triglycerides (beta = -0.117 [-0.162, -0.071]), and CRP (beta = -0.104 [-0.146, -0.062]). CONCLUSIONS In adults with prediabetes, objectively measured PA and ST were associated with cardiometabolic risk markers. Total PA was at least as strongly associated with cardiometabolic risk markers as MVPA, which may imply that the accumulation of total PA over the day is as important as achieving the intensity of MVPA.
Authors: Romo Hualde, Ana; Huerta Hernández, Ana Elsa; González Navarro, Carlos Javier; et al.
Journal: LIPIDS IN HEALTH AND DISEASE
ISSN 1476-511X  Vol. 17  2018  pp. 103
Background: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and alpha-lipoic acid (alpha-LA) have been investigated for their beneficial effects on obesity and cardiovascular risk factors. In the current research, the goal was to evaluate metabolomic changes following the dietary supplementation of these two lipids, alone or combined in healthy overweight/obese sedentary women following an energy-restricted diet. For this purpose, an untargeted metabolomics approach was conducted on urine samples using liquid chromatography coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOF-MS). Methods: This is a short-term double blind placebo-controlled study with a parallel nutritional design that lasted 10 weeks. Participants were assigned to one of the 4 experimental groups [Control, EPA (1.3 g/d), alpha-LA (0.3 g/d) and EPA+alpha-LA (1.3 g/d + 0.3 g/d)]. All intervention groups followed an energy-restricted diet of 30% less than total energy expenditure. Clinically relevant biochemical measurements were analyzed. Urine samples (24 h) were collected at baseline and after 10 weeks. Untargeted metabolomic analysis on urine samples was carried out, and principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were performed for the pattern recognition and characteristic metabolites identification. Results: Urine samples were scattered in the PCA scores plots in response to the supplementation with alpha-LA. Totally, 28 putative discriminant metabolites in positive ionization, and 6 in negative ionization were identified among groups clearly differentiated according to the a-LA administration. Remarkably is the presence of an ascorbate intermediate metabolite (one of the isomers of trihydroxy-dioxohexanoate, or dihydroxy-oxohexanedionate) in the groups supplemented with aLA. This fact might be associated with antioxidant properties of both alpha-LA and ascorbic acid. Correlations between phenotypical parameters and putative metabolites of provided additional information on whether there is a direct or inverse relationship between them. Especially interesting are the negative correlation between ascorbate intermediate metabolite and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and the positive one between superoxide dismutase (SOD) and aLA supplementation. Conclusions: This metabolomic approach supports that the beneficial effects of alpha-LA administration on body weight reduction may be partly explained by the antioxidant properties of this organosulfur carboxylic acid mediated by isomers of trihydroxy-dioxohexanoate, or dihydroxy-oxohexanedionate.
Authors: Galilea-Zabalza, I. ; Buil-Cosiales, P.; Salas-Salvado, J. ; et al.
Journal: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 13  Nº 6  2018  pp. Article number e0198974
We assessed if a 17-item score capturing adherence to a traditional Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) was associated with better health-related quality of life among older Spanish men and women with overweight or obesity harboring the metabolic syndrome. We analyzed baseline data from 6430 men and women (age 55-70 years) participating in the PREDIMED-Plus study. PREDIMED-Plus is a multi-centre randomized trial testing an energy-restricted MedDiet combined with promotion of physical activity and behavioral therapy for primary cardiovascular prevention compared to a MedDiet alone. Participants answered a 36-item questionnaire about health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and a 17-item questionnaire that assessed adherence to an MedDiet. We used ANCOVA and multivariable-adjusted linear regression models to compare baseline adjusted means of the quality of life scales according to categories of adherence to the MedDiet. Higher adherence to the MedDiet was independently associated with significantly better scores in the eight dimensions of HRQoL. Adjusted differences of > = 3 points between the highest and the lowest dietary adherence groups to the MedDiet were observed for vitality, emotional role, and mental health and of > = 2 points for the other dimensions. In conclusion, this study shows a positive association between adherence to a MedDiet and several dimensions of quality of life.
Authors: Huttunen-Lenz, M., (Autor de correspondencia); Hansen, S.; Christensen, P.; et al.
Journal: PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH AND BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT
ISSN 1179-1578  Vol. 11  2018  pp. 383 - 394
Purpose: Onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is often gradual and preceded by impaired glucose homeostasis. Lifestyle interventions including weight loss and physical activity may reduce the risk of developing T2D, but adherence to a lifestyle change is challenging. As part of an international T2D prevention trial (PREVIEW), a behavior change intervention supported participants in achieving a healthier diet and physically active lifestyle. Here, our aim was to explore the influence of this behavioral program (PREMIT) on social-cognitive variables during an 8-week weight loss phase. Methods: PREVIEW consisted of an initial weight loss, Phase I, followed by a weight-maintenance, Phase II, for those achieving the 8-week weight loss target of >= 8% from initial bodyweight. Overweight and obese (BMI >= 25 kg/m(2))individuals aged 25 to 70 years with confirmed pre-diabetes were enrolled. Uni- and multivariate statistical methods were deployed to explore differences in intentions, self-efficacy, and outcome expectancies between those who achieved the target weight loss ("achievers") and those who did not ("non-achievers"). Results: At the beginning of Phase I, no significant differences in intentions, self-efficacy and outcome expectancies between "achievers" (1,857) and "non-achievers" (163) were found. "Non-achievers" tended to be younger, live with child/ren, and attended the PREMIT sessions less frequently. At the end of Phase I, "achievers" reported higher intentions (healthy eating chi(2)((1))=2.57; P < 0.008, exercising chi(2)((1))=0.66; P < 0.008), self-efficacy (F-(2;1970)=10.27, P <0.005), and were more positive about the expected outcomes (F-(4; 1968)=11.22, P < 0.005). Conclusion: Although statistically significant, effect sizes observed between the two groups were small. Behavior change, however, is multi-determined. Over a period of time, even small differences may make a cumulative effect. Being successful in behavior change requires that the "new" behavior is implemented time after time until it becomes a habit. Therefore, having even slightly higher self-efficacy, positive outcome expectancies and intentions may over time result in considerably improved chances to achieve long-term lifestyle changes.
Authors: Laiglesia González, Laura María; Lorente Cebrián, Silvia; López Yoldi, Miguel; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY
ISSN 0021-9541  Vol. 233  Nº 3  2018  pp. 2238 - 2246
Obesity is associated with high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-¿), which promotes inflammation in adipose tissue. The omega-3 PUFAs, and their derived lipid mediators, such as Maresin 1 (MaR1) have anti-inflammatory effects on adipose tissue. This study aimed to analyze if MaR1 may counteract alterations induced by TNF-¿ on lipolysis and autophagy in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our data revealed that MaR1 (1-100¿nM) inhibited the TNF-¿-induced glycerol release after 48¿hr, which may be related to MaR1 ability of preventing the decrease in lipid droplet-coating protein perilipin and G0/G1 Switch 2 protein expression. MaR1 also reversed the decrease in total hormone sensitive lipase (total HSL), and the ratio of phosphoHSL at Ser-565/total HSL, while preventing the increased ratio of phosphoHSL at Ser-660/total HSL and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 induced by TNF-¿. Moreover, MaR1 counteracted the cytokine-induced decrease of p62 protein, a key autophagy indicator, and also prevented the induction of LC3II/LC3I, an important autophagosome formation marker. Current data suggest that MaR1 may ameliorate TNF-¿-induced alterations on lipolysis and autophagy in adipocytes. This may also contribute to the beneficial actions of MaR1 on adipose tissue and insulin sensitivity in obesity.
Authors: Guerendiain, M.; Montes, R.; Lopez-Belmonte, G.; et al.
Journal: CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0261-5614  Vol. 37  Nº 1  2018  pp. 149 - 156
Background & aims: In recent years, obesity has reached alarming levels among children and adolescents. The study of plasma fatty acid (FA) composition, as a reflection of diet, and its associations with other parameters, that are closely linked to obesity and the cardiometabolic profile, may be useful for setting nutritional goals for obesity treatment and prevention. This study explored the relationship between plasma FA levels and body fat and cardiometabolic risk markers, in overweight adolescents. Methods: A multidisciplinary weight loss program was followed by 127 overweight and obese adolescents aged 12-17 years old. Plasma FA composition, anthropometric indicators of adiposity and biochemical parameters were analyzed at baseline, two months (the end of the intensive intervention phase) and six months (the end of the extensive phase). Results: While saturated fatty acid (SFA) and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels decreased significantly during the intervention, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and n-3 PUFA showed the opposite trend. The decrease in SFA C14:0 was associated with a reduction in total and LDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and insulin. The increase in MUFAs, especially C18:1n-9, was related to a reduction in weight, fat mass, fat mass index and glucose. Regarding PUFAs, changes in the n-3 series were not associated with any of the parameters studied, whereas the reduction in n-6 PUFA5 was directly related to weight, fat mass, total and HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein Al, glucose and insulin, and inversely associated with diastolic blood pressure. The adolescents with greater weight loss presented significant changes in MUFAs, n-6 PUFA5 and C14:0. Conclusions: Modifications in plasma FA composition were associated with adiposity reduction and cardiometabolic profile improvement in an anti-obesity program aimed at adolescents. The changes observed in FA composition were related to the success of the treatment, since the individuals most affected by these variations were those who presented the greatest weight loss. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Authors: Milton-Laskibar, I.; Aguirre, L. , (Autor de correspondencia); Etxeberria, U.; et al.
Journal: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 10  Nº 10  2018 
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of mild energy restriction and resveratrol on thermogenic and oxidative capacity in interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) and in skeletal muscle. Rats were fed a high-fat high-sucrose diet for six weeks, and divided into four experimental groups fed a standard diet: a control group, a resveratrol-treated group, an energy-restricted group and an energy-restricted group treated with resveratrol. Weights of IBAT, gastrocnemius muscle and fat depots were measured. Activities of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) and citrate synthase (CS), protein levels of sirtuin (SIRT1 and 3), uncoupling proteins (UCP1 and 3), glucose transporter (GLUT4), mitochondrial transcription factor (TFAM), nuclear respiratory factor (NRF1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC1) activation were measured. No changes in IBAT and gastrocnemius weights were found. Energy-restriction, but not resveratrol, decreased the weights of adipose depots. In IBAT, resveratrol enhanced thermogenesis activating the SIRT1/PGC1/PPAR axis. Resveratrol also induced fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake. These effects were similar when resveratrol was combined with energy restriction. In the case of gastrocnemius muscle, the effects were not as clear as in the case of IBAT. In this tissue, resveratrol increased oxidative capacity. The combination of resveratrol and energy restriction seemingly did not improve the effects induced by the polyphenol alone.
Authors: Hansen, S., (Autor de correspondencia); Huttunen-Lenz, M.; Sluik, D.; et al.
Journal: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE
ISSN 1070-5503  Vol. 25  Nº 6  2018  pp. 682 - 692
PurposeWeight loss has been demonstrated to be a successful strategy in diabetes prevention. Although weight loss is greatly influenced by dietary behaviors, social-cognitive factors play an important role in behavioral determination. This study aimed to identify demographic and social-cognitive factors (intention, self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, social support, and motivation with regard to dietary behavior and goal adjustment) associated with weight loss in overweight and obese participants from the PREVIEW study who had pre-diabetes.MethodProspective correlational data from 1973 adult participants were analyzed. The participants completed psychological questionnaires that assessed social-cognitive variables with regard to dietary behavior. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to identify baseline demographic and social-cognitive factors associated with weight loss.ResultsOverall, being male, having a higher baseline BMI, having a higher income, perceiving fewer disadvantages of a healthy diet (outcome expectancies), experiencing less discouragement for healthy eating by family and friends (social support), and lower education were independently linked to greater weight loss. When evaluating females and males separately, education was no longer associated with weight loss.ConclusionThe results indicate that a supportive environment in which family members and friends avoid discouraging healthy eating, with the application of a strategy that uses specific behavior change techniques to emphasize the benefits of outcomes, i.e., the benefits of a healthy diet, may support weight loss efforts. Weight loss programs should therefore always address the social environment of persons who try to lose body weight because family members and friends can be important supporters in reaching a weight loss goal.
Authors: Ramos-Lopez, O.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
Journal: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GENOMICS
ISSN 2314-436X  2018 
Background and Aim. Individual lipid phenotypes including circulating total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and triglycerides (TG) determinations are influenced by gene-environment interactions. The aim of this study was to predict blood lipid level (TC, LDL-c, HDL-c, and TG) variability using genetic and lifestyle data in subjects with excessive body weight-for-height. Methods. This cross-sectional study enrolled 304 unrelated overweight/obese adults of self-reported European ancestry. A total of 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to obesity and weight loss were analyzed by a targeted next-generation sequencing system. Relevant genotypes of each SNP were coded as 0 (nonrisk) and 1 (risk). Four genetic risk scores (GRS) for each lipid phenotype were calculated by adding the risk genotypes. Information concerning lifestyle (diet, physical activity, alcohol drinking, and smoking) was obtained using validated questionnaires. Total body fat (TFAT) and visceral fat (VFAT) were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results. Overall, 45 obesity-related genetic variants were associated with some of the studied blood lipids. In addition to conventional factors (age, sex, dietary intakes, and alcohol consumption), the calculated GRS significantly contributed to explain their corresponding plasma lipid trait. Thus, HDL-c, TG, TC, and LDL-c serum concentrations were predicted by approximately 28% (optimism-corrected adj. R-2 = 0 28), 25% (optimism-corrected adj. R-2 = 0 25), 24% (optimism-corrected adj. R-2 = 0 24), and 21% (optimism-corrected adj. R-2 = 0.21), respectively. Interestingly, GRS were the greatest contributors to TC (squared partial correlation (PC2) = 0.18) and LDL-c (PC2 = 0.18) features. Likewise, VFAT and GRS had a higher impact on HDL-c (PC2 = 0.09 and PC2 = 0.06, respectively) and TG levels (PC2 = 0.20 and PC2 = 0.07, respectively) than the rest of variables. Conclusions. Besides known lifestyle influences, some obesity-related genetic variants could help to predict blood lipid phenotypes.
Authors: Laiglesia González, Laura María; Lorente Cebrián, Silvia; Martinez-Fernandez, L.; et al.
Journal: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY
ISSN 0307-0565  Vol. 42  Nº 3  2018  pp. 572 - 579
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of Maresin 1 (MaR1) in obesity-related liver steatosis and the mechanisms involved. METHODS: MaR1 effects on fatty liver disease were tested in ob/ob (2-10 mu g kg(-1) i.p., 20 days) and in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice (2 mu g kg(-1), i.p., or 50 mu g kg(-1), oral gavage for 10 days), as well as in cultured hepatocytes. RESULTS: In ob/ob mice, MaR1 reduced liver triglycerides (TG) content, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 protein expression, while increased acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation and LC3II protein expression, in parallel with a drop in p62 levels. Similar effects on hepatic TG, ACC phosphorylation, p62 and LC3II were observed in DIO mice after MaR1 i.p. injection. Interestingly, oral gavage of MaR1 also decreased serum transaminases, reduced liver weight and TG content. MaR1-treated mice exhibited reduced hepatic lipogenic enzymes content (FAS) or activation (by phosphorylation of ACC), accompanied by upregulation of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (Cpt1a), acyl-coenzyme A oxidase (Acox1) and autophagy-related proteins 5 and 7 (Atg5-7) gene expression, along with increased number of autophagic vacuoles and reduced p62 protein levels. MaR1 also induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in DIO mice and in primary hepatocytes, and AMPK inhibition completely blocked MaR1 effects on Cpt1a, Acox1, Atg5 and Atg7 expression. CONCLUSIONS: MaR1 ameliorates liver steatosis by decreasing lipogenic enzymes, while inducing fatty acid oxidation genes and autophagy, which could be related to AMPK activation. Thus, MaR1 may be a new therapeutic candidate for reducing fatty liver in obesity.
Authors: Navarro-Herrera, D.; Aranaz Oroz, Paula; Eder-Azanza, L.; et al.
Journal: FOOD & FUNCTION
ISSN 2042-6496  Vol. 9  Nº 8  2018  pp. 4340 - 4351
Obesity is a medical condition with increasing prevalence, characterized by an accumulation of excess fat that could be improved using some bioactive compounds. However, many of these compounds with in vitro activity fail to respond in vivo, probably due to the sophistication of the physiological energy regulatory networks. In this context, C. elegans has emerged as a plausible model for the identification and characterization of the effect of such compounds on fat storage in a complete organism. However, the results obtained in such a simple model are not easily extrapolated to more complex organisms such as mammals, which hinders its application in the short term. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain new experimental data about the evolutionary conservation of the mechanisms of fat loss between worms and mammals. Previously, we found that some omega-6 fatty acids promote fat loss in C. elegans by up-regulation of peroxisomal fatty acid ß-oxidation in an omega-3 independent manner. In this work, we prove that the omega-6 fatty acids¿ effects on worms are also seen when they are supplemented with a natural omega-6 source (borage seed oil, BSO). Additionally, we explore the anti-obesity effects of two doses of BSO in a diet-induced obesity rat model, validating the up-regulation of peroxisomal fatty acid ß-oxidation. The supplementation with BSO significantly reduces body weight gain and energy efficiency and prevents white adipose tissue accumulation without affecting food
Authors: Cantero González, Irene; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Babio, N.; et al.
Journal: CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0261-5614  Vol. 37  Nº 5  2018  pp. 1736 - 1743
Background & aims: To assess the possible association between a validated Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) and specific dietary components with suitable non-invasive markers of liver status in overweight and obese subjects within the PREDIMED study. Methods: A cross-sectional study encompassing 794 randomized overweight and obese participants (mean +/- SD age: 67.0 +/- 5.0 y, 55% females) from the PREDIMED (PREvencion con Dleta MEDiterranea) trial was conducted. DII is a validated tool evaluating the effect of diet on six inflammatory biomarkers (IL-1b, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha and C-reactive protein). Furthermore, a validated 137-item food-frequency-questionnaire was used to obtain the information about the food intake. In addition, anthropometric measurements and several non-invasive markers of liver status were assessed and the Fatty Liver Index (FLI) score was calculated. Results: A higher DII and lower adherence to Mediterranean diet (MeDiet) were associated with a higher degree of liver damage (FLI > 60) in obese as compared to overweight participants. Furthermore, the DII score was positively associated with relevant non-invasive liver markers (ALT, AST, GGT and FLI) and directly affected FLI values. Interestingly, a positive correlation was observed between liver damage (>50th percentile FLI) and nutrients and foods linked to a pro-inflammatory dietary pattern. Conclusions: This study reinforced the concept that obesity is associated with liver damage and revealed that the consumption of a pro-inflammatory dietary pattern might contribute to obesity and fatty liver disease features. These data suggest that a well-designed precision diet including putative anti-inflammatory components could specifically prevent and ameliorate non-alcoholic fatty liver manifestations in addition to obesity. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Authors: Marques-Rocha, J. L.; García Lacarte, Marcos; Samblas García, Mirian; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
ISSN 1138-7548  Vol. 74  Nº 4  2018  pp. 579 - 589
The main aim of this investigation was to study the regulatory roles of let-7b and miR-155-3p on the expression of inflammation-associated genes in monocytes, macrophages, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages (AcM). A second goal was to analyze the potential modulatory roles of different fatty acids, including oleic, palmitic, eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA), on the expression of these miRNAs in the three cell types. This hypothesis was tested in human acute monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1), which were differentiated into macrophages with 2-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and further activated with LPS for 24h. Monocytes, macrophages, and AcM were transfected with a negative control, or mimics for miR-155-3p and miR-let-7b-5p. The expression of both miRNAs and some proinflammatory genes was analyzed by qRT-PCR. Interestingly, let-7b mimic reduced the expression of IL6 and TNF in monocytes, and SERPINE1 expression in LPS-activated macrophages. However, IL6, TNF, and SERPINE1 were upregulated in macrophages by let-7b mimic. IL6 expression was higher in the three types of cells after transfecting with miR-155-3p mimic. Similarly, expression of SERPINE1 was increased by miR-155-3p mimic in monocytes and macrophages. However, TLR4 was downregulated by miR-155-3p in monocytes and macrophages. Regarding the effects of the different fatty acids, oleic acid increased the expression of let-7b in macrophages and AcM and also increased the expression of miR-155 in monocytes when compared with DHA but not when compared with non-treated cells. Overall, these results suggest anti- and proinflammatory roles of let-7b and miR-155-3p in THP-1 cells, respectively, although these outcomes are strongly dependent on the cell type. Noteworthy, oleic acid might exert beneficial anti-inflammatory effects in immune cells (i.e., non-activated and LPS-activated macrophages) by upregulating the expression of let-7b.
Authors: Moller, G. , (Autor de correspondencia); Andersen, J. R.; Ritz, C.; et al.
Journal: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 10  Nº 1  2018  pp. 54
Concerns about detrimental renal effects of a high-protein intake have been raised due to an induced glomerular hyperfiltration, since this may accelerate the progression of kidney disease. The aim of this sub-study was to assess the effect of a higher intake of protein on kidney function in pre-diabetic men and women, aged 55 years and older. Analyses were based on baseline and one-year data in a sub-group of 310 participants included in the PREVIEW project (PREVention of diabetes through lifestyle Intervention and population studies in Europe and around the World). Protein intake was estimated from four-day dietary records and 24-hour urinary urea excretion. We used linear regression to assess the association between protein intake after one year of intervention and kidney function markers: creatinine clearance, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), urinary urea/creatinine ratio (UCR), serum creatinine, and serum urea before and after adjustments for potential confounders. A higher protein intake was associated with a significant increase in UCR (p = 0.03) and serum urea (p = 0.05) after one year. There were no associations between increased protein intake and creatinine clearance, eGFR, ACR, or serum creatinine. We found no indication of impaired kidney function after one year with a higher protein intake in pre-diabetic older adults.
Authors: Arpon, A.; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Laja, A.; et al.
Journal: EPIGENOMICS
ISSN 1750-1911  Vol. 10  Nº 1  2018  pp. 91 - 103
Aim: To analyze whether preterm newborns show differences in methylation patterns in comparison to full-term newborns in white blood cells. Patients & methods: Anthropometrical, biochemical features and methylation levels of preterm newborns (n = 24) and full-term newborns (n = 22) recruited in La Paz University Hospital (Spain) were assessed at 12 months of gestational age, whereas Bayley Scale of Infant Development was evaluated at 24/36 months. Results: From all the statistically significant CpGs, methylation levels of cg00997378 (SLC6A3 gene) showed the highest differences (p < 0.0001), being associated with prematurity risk factors. Conclusion: SLC6A3 methylation, previously related to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, neuronal function and behavior, might be a potential epigenetic biomarker with value in the early diagnosis and management of neurodevelopmental diseases in newborns.
Authors: Goñi Mateos, Leticia; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
Journal: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 10  Nº 6  2018  pp. E789
The adenylate cyclase 3 (ADCY3) gene is involved in the regulation of several metabolic processes including the development and function of adipose tissue. The effects of the ADCY3 rs10182181 genetic variant on changes in body composition depending on the macronutrient distribution intake after 16 weeks of the dietary intervention were tested. The ADCY3 genetic variant was genotyped in 147 overweight or obese subjects, who were randomly assigned to one of the two diets varying in macronutrient content: a moderately-high-protein diet and a low-fat diet. Anthropometric and body composition measurements (DEXA scan) were recorded. Significant interactions between the ADCY3 genotype and dietary intervention on changes in weight, waist circumference, and body composition were found after adjustment for covariates. Thus, in the moderately-high-protein diet group, the G allele was associated with a lower decrease of fat mass, trunk and android fat, and a greater decrease in lean mass. Conversely, in the low-fat diet group carrying the G allele was associated with a greater decrease in trunk, android, gynoid, and visceral fat. Subjects carrying the G allele of the rs10182181 polymorphism may benefit more in terms of weight loss and improvement of body composition measurements when undertaking a hypocaloric low-fat diet as compared to a moderately-high-protein diet.
Authors: Lopez-Pascual, A. ; Lorente Cebrián, Silvia; Moreno Aliaga, María Jesús; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY
ISSN 0021-9541  Vol. 234  Nº 1  2018  pp. 550 - 560
Obesity is a multifactorial, chronic, inflammatory disease that involves different processes, such as adipose tissue hypoxia. The aim of the current study was to characterize the effects of conditioned medium (CM) from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages on the regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha)-related genes in murine adipocytes. For the in vitro analyses, 3T3-L1 murine adipocytes (9 days postdifferentiation) were incubated either in CM (25% medium of RAW 264.7 murine macrophages with 24hr 500ng/ml LPS), LPS at 500ng/ml, or hypoxia (Hx; 1% O-2, 94% N-2, 5% CO2) for 24hr. For the in vivo experiments, mice were fed a high-fat diet. Both epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) and adipocytes in CM showed upregulation of Glut1, Mcp1, Il10, Tnf, and Il1b. The secretion of IL-6, TNF-alpha, and MCP-1 was also increased in CM-treated adipocytes. Moreover, increased levels of HIF-1 alpha subunit and nuclear factor kappa B p65 were found after CM treatment, linking Hx, and inflammation. HIF-1 alpha directly bound vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa) and uncoupling protein 2 (Ucp2) genes, up- and downregulating its expression, respectively. Furthermore, the oxygen consumption rate was 30% lower in CM. The siRNA knockdown of mammalian target of rapamycin (Mtor) reversed the induction of HIF-1 alpha found in CM. The macrophage infiltration simulated through CM seems to be a similar environment to an abnormally enlarged eWAT. We have evidenced that HIF-1 alpha plays a regulatory role in the expression of Vegfa and Ucp2 in CM. Finally, the inhibition of the mTOR pathway prevented the HIF-1 alpha activation induced by CM. The involvement of HIF-1 alpha under proinflammatory conditions provides insight into the origins of Hx in obesity.
Authors: Lopez Pascual, Amaya; Arévalo, Jessica; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; et al.
Journal: FRONTIERS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY
ISSN 1664-2392  Vol. 9  2018 
Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by the clustering of hyperglycemia, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and central adiposity. Altitude has been proposed as a protective factor to prevent the development of MetS and its components. Aim: To determine whether living at geographical elevation is associated with MetS and its individual components after adjustment for potential confounders in an Ecuadoran population. Methods: The study included 260 Ecuadoran university graduates over 20 years of age, from the coastal or the Andean Altiplano region. The altitude of residence was imputed with the postal code of each participant residence according to the data of the Ecuadoran Geophysical Institute of the National Polytechnic School. MetS was defined according to the harmonizing definition. Logistic regression models were fitted to assess the relationship between altitude level and the prevalence of MetS and its individual components. To test the internal validity, re-sampling techniques were used (1,000 bootstrap samples). Results: Living at high altitude was associated with less hypercholesterolemia (OR = 0.24; p < 0.001), hyperglycemia (OR = 0.25; p < 0.05) and MetS (OR = 0.24; p < 0.05), after adjusting for potential confounders. At high altitude the bootstrapped logistic regressionmodels showed lower prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (OR = 0.30; p < 0.05), hyperglycemia (OR = 0.22; p < 0.001) and MetS (OR = 0.28; p < 0.05). The MetS score (0-5 points) showed a reduction in the number of MetS components at high altitude compared to sea level (B = -0.34; p = 0.002). A statistically significant lower self-reported energy intake was found in high altitude compared to sea level after adjustment for potential confounders (p < 0.001). Conclusion: In the present study concerning a small Ecuadoran population composed of highly educated adults living at the coast and the Andean Altiplano, living at high altitude (2,758-2,787m) was associated with a lower prevalence of MetS, hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycemia, compared to the participants at sea level (4-6m). In addition, an inverse association between altitude and self-reported energy intake was found after adjusting for covariates, suggesting a physiological role of appetite at high altitude even in acclimated subjects.
Authors: Beulen, Y.; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; van de Rest, O.; et al.
Journal: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 10  Nº 12  2018  pp. 2011
A moderately high-fat Mediterranean diet does not promote weight gain. This study aimed to investigate the association between dietary intake of specific types of fat and obesity and body weight. A prospective cohort study was performed using data of 6942 participants in the PREDIMED trial, with yearly repeated validated food-frequency questionnaires, and anthropometric outcomes (median follow-up: 4.8 years). The effects of replacing dietary fat subtypes for one another, proteins or carbohydrates were estimated using generalized estimating equations substitution models. Replacement of 5% energy from saturated fatty acids (SFA) with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) resulted in weight changes of -0.38 kg (95% Confidece Iinterval (CI): -0.69, -0.07), and -0.51 kg (95% CI: -0.81, -0.20), respectively. Replacing proteins with MUFA or PUFA decreased the odds of becoming obese. Estimates for the daily substitution of one portion of red meat with white meat, oily fish or white fish showed weight changes up to -0.87 kg. Increasing the intake of unsaturated fatty acids at the expense of SFA, proteins, and carbohydrates showed beneficial effects on body weight and obesity. It may therefore be desirable to encourage high-quality fat diets like the Mediterranean diet instead of restricting total fat intake.
Authors: Estruch, R., (Autor de correspondencia); Ros, E.; Salas-Salvado, J.; et al.
Journal: NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE
ISSN 0028-4793  Vol. 378  Nº 25  2018  pp. 2441 - 2442
Authors: Mallorqui-Bague, N. ; Lozano-Madrid, M.; Toledo Atucha, Estefanía; et al.
Journal: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION
ISSN 0014-2972  Vol. 48  Nº Supl. 1  2018  pp. 68 - 69
Authors: Milton-Laskibar, I. ; Aguirre, L. ; Romo, N. ; et al.
Journal: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 73  Nº Supl. 2  2018  pp. 59 - 59
Authors: Galarregui, C.; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Cantero González, Irene; et al.
Journal: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 73  Nº Supl. 2  2018  pp. 30 - 30
Authors: Konieczna, J. ; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Galmes, A. M.; et al.
Journal: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION
ISSN 0014-2972  Vol. 48  Nº Supl. 1  2018  pp. 172 - 172
Authors: Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; García Lacarte, Marcos; Astrom, G.; et al.
Journal: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION
ISSN 0014-2972  Vol. 48  Nº Supl. 1  2018  pp. 196 - 196
Authors: Morell Azanza, Lydia; Ojeda Rodríguez, Ana; Rendo Urteaga, Tara; et al.
Journal: OBESITY FACTS
ISSN 1662-4025  Vol. 11  Nº Supl. 1  2018  pp. 222 - 223
Authors: Panades, A. M. G.; Konieczna, J.; Abete Goñi, Itziar; et al.
Journal: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION
ISSN 0014-2972  Vol. 48  Nº Supl. 1  2018  pp. 170 - 171
Authors: Cantero González, Irene; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Marin-Alejandre, A. ; et al.
Journal: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 73  Nº Supl 2  2018  pp. 45
Authors: Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; Samblas García, Mirian; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio
Journal: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION
ISSN 0014-2972  Vol. 48  Nº Supl. 1  2018  pp. 208 - 208
Authors: Escoté Miró, Xavier; Huerta Hernández, Ana Elsa; Fernández Galilea, Marta; et al.
Journal: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION
ISSN 0014-2972  Vol. 48  Nº Supl. 1  2018  pp. 206 - 206
Authors: Munoz, E. M. N.; de la Hera, M. G.; Gonzalez-Palacios, S. ; et al.
Journal: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION
ISSN 0014-2972  Vol. 48  Nº Supl. 1  2018  pp. 182 - 182
Authors: Milton-Laskibar, I.; Aguirre, L. ; Etxeberría Aramburu, Usune; et al.
Journal: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION
ISSN 0014-2972  Vol. 48  Nº Supl. 1  2018  pp. 181
Authors: Ramos-Lopez, O. ; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
Journal: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION
ISSN 0014-2972  Vol. 48  Nº Supl. 1  2018  pp. 40 - 41
Authors: Escoté Miró, Xavier; Gómez-Zorita, S.; López Yoldi, Miguel; et al.
Journal: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
ISSN 1422-0067  Vol. 18  Nº 8  2017  pp. 1770
Adipose tissue releases bioactive mediators called adipokines. This review focuses on the effects of omentin, vaspin, cardiotrophin-1, Tumor necrosis factor-like Weak Inducer of Apoptosis (TWEAK) and nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV/CCN3) on obesity and diabetes. Omentin is produced by the stromal-vascular fraction of visceral adipose tissue. Obesity reduces omentin serum concentrations and adipose tissue secretion in adults and adolescents. This adipokine regulates insulin sensitivity, but its clinical relevance has to be confirmed. Vaspin is produced by visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues. Vaspin levels are higher in obese subjects, as well as in subjects showing insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes. Cardiotrophin-1 is an adipokine with a similar structure as cytokines from interleukin-6 family. There is some controversy regarding the regulation of cardiotrophin-1 levels in obese -subjects, but gene expression levels of cardiotrophin-1 are down-regulated in white adipose tissue from diet-induced obese mice. It also shows anti-obesity and hypoglycemic properties. TWEAK is a potential regulator of the low-grade chronic inflammation characteristic of obesity. TWEAK levels seem not to be directly related to adiposity, and metabolic factors play a critical role in its regulation. Finally, a strong correlation has been found between plasma NOV/CCN3 concentration and fat mass. This adipokine improves insulin actions.
Authors: Solas Zubiaurre, Maite; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Ramírez Gil, María Javier; et al.
Journal: CURRENT OPINION IN PHARMACOLOGY
ISSN 1471-4892  Vol. 37  2017  pp. 87 - 92
Obesity prevalence is increasing steadily throughout the world's population in most countries and in parallel the prevalence of metabolic disorders including cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes is also rising, but less is reported about excessive adiposity relationship with poorer cognitive performance, cognitive decline and dementia. Some human clinical studies have evidenced that obesity is related to the risk of the development of mild cognitive impairment, in the form of short-term memory and executive function deficits, as well as dementia and Alzheimer's disease. The precise mechanisms that underlie the connections between obesity and the risk of cognitive impairment are still largely unknown but potential avenues of further research include insulin resistance, the gut brain axis, and systemic mediators and central inflammation processes. A common feature of metabolic diseases is a chronic and low-grade activation of the inflammatory system. This inflammation may eventually spread from peripheral tissue to the brain, and recent reports suggest that neuroinflammation is an important causal mechanism in cognitive decline. This inflammatory status could be triggered by changes in the gut microbiota composition. Consumption of diets high in fat and sugar influences the microbiota composition, which may lead to an imbalanced microbial population in the gut. Thus, it has recently been hypothesized that the gut microbiota could be part of a mechanistic link between the consumption of high fat and other unbalanced diets and impaired cognition, termed 'gut-brain axis'. The present review will aim at providing an integrative analysis of the effects of obesity and unbalanced diets on cognitive performance and discusses some of the potential mechanisms involved, namely inflammation and changes in gut-brain axis. Moreover, the review aims to analyze anti-inflammatory drugs that have been tested for the treatment of cognition and obesity, recently approved anti-obesity drugs that could also have an impact on central nervous system, and bioactive food compounds that modulate gut microbiota and could have an impact through the gut-brain axis. In this era of precision nutrition medicine, it is imperative to identify the various metabolic-neurocognitive phenotypes in order to understand the processes that drive these diseases so that targeted therapeutic strategies to prevent and successfully manage these complex, multifactorial diseases could be designed and developed.
Authors: Martínez Urbistondo, Diego; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo
Journal: REVISTA CLINICA ESPAÑOLA
ISSN 0014-2565  Vol. 217  Nº 2  2017  pp. 97 - 98
Authors: Martínez-Urbistondo, D.; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo
Journal: REVISTA CLINICA ESPAÑOLA
ISSN 0014-2565  Vol. 217  Nº 2  2017  pp. 97 - 98
Authors: Huerta Hernández, Ana Elsa; Prieto Hontoria, Pedro Luis; Fernández Galilea, Marta; et al.
Journal: BIOFACTORS
ISSN 0951-6433  Vol. 43  Nº 1  2017  pp. 117 - 131
In obesity, the increment of adiposity levels disrupts the whole body homeostasis, promoting an over production of oxidants and inflammatory mediators. The current study aimed to characterize the transcriptomic changes promoted by supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 1.3 g/day), ¿-lipoic acid (0.3 g/day), or both (EPA¿+¿¿-lipoic acid, 1.3 g/day¿+¿0.3 g/day) in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue from overweight/obese healthy women, who followed a hypocaloric diet (30% of total energy expenditure) during ten weeks, by using a microarray approach. At the end of the intervention, a total of 33,297 genes were analyzed using Affymetrix GeneChip arrays. EPA promoted changes in extracellular matrix remodeling gene expression, besides a rise of genes associated with either chemotaxis or wound repair. ¿-Lipoic acid decreased expression of genes related with cell adhesion and inflammation. Furthermore, ¿-lipoic acid, especially in combination with EPA, upregulated the expression of genes associated with lipid catabolism while downregulated genes involved in lipids storage. Together, all these data suggest that some of the metabolic effects of EPA and ¿-lipoic acid could be related to their regulatory actions on adipose tissue metabolism.
Authors: Sánchez-Iñigo, L.; Navarro-González, D.; Fernández Montero, Alejandro; et al.
Journal: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF STROKE
ISSN 1747-4930  Vol. 12  Nº 2  2017  pp. 187 - 191
Background Whether obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in the absence of metabolic comorbidities remains under debate. Indeed, some obese individuals may be at low risk of metabolic-related complications, while normal-weight individuals may not be "healthy." Aims To assess the incidence of ischemic stroke according to the metabolic health and obesity states of 5171 participants from the Vascular-Metabolic CUN cohort. Methods A Cox proportional-hazard analysis was conducted to estimate the hazard ratio and their 95% confidence interval of stroke according to the metabolic health and obesity states based on TyG index and Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria, during 9.1 years of follow-up. Results After 50,056.2 person-years of follow-up, 162 subjects developed an ischemic stroke (incidence rate 3.23 per 1000 person-years). Metabolically healthy obese subjects did not show greater risk of stroke, while metabolically unhealthy participants, obese and non-obese, had an increased risk of stroke, compared with healthy non-obese. The hazard ratios for the multivariable adjusted model were 1.55 (95% CI: 1.36-1.77) and 1.86 (95% CI: 1.57-2.21), respectively. Conclusions Metabolically unhealthy individuals exhibited a greater risk of ischemic stroke than metabolically healthy obese individuals.
Authors: Morell-Azanza, L.; García Calzón, Sonia; Rendo Urteaga, Tara; et al.
Journal: PEDIATRIC DIABETES
ISSN 1399-543X  Vol. 18  Nº 5  2017  pp. 392 - 398
Background and aims: The oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol particles is an early atherogeninic event. Obese pediatric populations have higher levels of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) than normal weight children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a weight loss program on the biochemical profile and oxLDL levels in Spanish obese children and adolescents. Methods: Forty obese children (mean age 11 years, 51% boys) followed a 10-week weight loss program. They were dichotomized at the median of body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) change, as high (HR) and low responders (LR) after the intervention. The intervention included a moderate energy-restricted diet, nutritional education, and family involvement. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were performed at the beginning and during the follow up. A cardiometabolic risk score (CMS) was calculated considering metabolic risk factors. Results: Higher baseline oxLDL levels were associated with a higher CMS in obese children (P<.001). After the intervention, oxLDL significantly decreased in the HR group. Moreover, a positive correlation between changes in oxLDL and BMI-SDS (r=0.385, P=.015) was found after the weight loss program. Interestingly, multiple-adjusted regression models showed an association between changes in total cholesterol [B: 0.127, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.06 to 0.20] and LDL-cholesterol (B: 0.173, 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.26) with changes in oxLDL. Conclusions: Higher baseline oxLDL levels were associated with a higher CMS in obese children. After the weight loss program, a decrease in oxLDL levels was found in HR subjects and the oxLDL levels were associated with BMI-SDS and cholesterol levels.
Authors: Livingstone, K. M.; Celis-Morales, C.; Hoeller, U.; et al.
Journal: MOLECULAR NUTRITION AND FOOD RESEARCH
ISSN 1613-4125  Vol. 61  Nº 2  2017  pp. 1600476
SCOPE: Little is known about diet- and environment-gene interactions on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D concentration. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate (i) predictors of 25(OH)D concentration and relationships with vitamin D genotypes and (ii) whether dietary vitamin D intake and sunlight exposure modified these relationships. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants from the Food4Me study (n = 1312; age 18-79) were genotyped for vitamin D receptor (VDR) and vitamin D binding protein at baseline and a genetic risk score was calculated. Dried blood spot samples were assayed for 25(OH)D concentration and dietary and lifestyle information collected. Circulating 25(OH)D concentration was lower with increasing genetic risk score, lower in females than males, higher in supplement users than non-users and higher in summer than winter. Carriage of the minor VDR allele was associated with lower 25(OH)D concentration in participants with the least sunlight exposure. Vitamin D genotype did not influence the relationship between vitamin D intake and 25(OH)D concentration. CONCLUSION: Age, sex, dietary vitamin D intake, country, sunlight exposure, season, and vitamin D genetic risk score were associated with circulating 25(OH)D concentration in a pan-European population. The relationship between VDR genotype and 25(OH)D concentration may be influenced by weekday sunlight exposure but not dietary vitamin D intake.
Authors: Huerta Hernández, Ana Elsa; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF FUNCTIONAL FOODS
ISSN 1756-4646  Vol. 36  2017  pp. 178 - 185
This study aims to assess methylation modifications in blood cell genes induced by eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or alpha-lipoic acid (LA) supplementation, and their potential relationship with metabolic risk biomarkers. Healthy overweight/obese women were assigned to 4 experimental groups (control or groups supplemented with 1.3 g EPA/day, 0.3 g LA/day, or both), all followed a 10-week hypocaloric diet. White blood cells DNA was hybridized in Human-450K-methylation microarray. Differentially methylated CpGs (post-pre) were identified in supplemented groups, including CpG regions from NCK2, FITM2, TRRAP, RPTOR and CREBBP genes. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), LA upregulated NCK2, TRRAP and RPTOR mRNA, which negatively associated with changes in body weight and fat mass. Changes in cg10320884 (TRRAP) methylation site negatively correlated with changes in TRRAP mRNA in PBMC, and positively with Framingham score. Further studies are needed to better characterize the potential involvement of epigenetics in the actions of LA and EPA. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Authors: Crujeiras Martínez, Ana Belén; Diaz-Lagares, A.; Sandoval, J.; et al.
Journal: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS
ISSN 2045-2322  Vol. 7  2017  pp. 41903
The characterization of the epigenetic changes within the obesity-related adipose tissue will provide new insights to understand this metabolic disorder, but adipose tissue is not easy to sample in population-based studies. We aimed to evaluate the capacity of circulating leukocytes to reflect the adipose tissue-specific DNA methylation status of obesity susceptibility. DNA samples isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissue and circulating leukocytes were hybridized in the Infinium HumanMethylation 450 BeadChip. Data were compared between samples from obese (n¿=¿45) and non-obese (n¿=¿8-10) patients by Wilcoxon-rank test, unadjusted for cell type distributions. A global hypomethylation of the differentially methylated CpG sites (DMCpGs) was observed in the obese subcutaneous adipose tissue and leukocytes. The overlap analysis yielded a number of genes mapped by the common DMCpGs that were identified to reflect the obesity state in the leukocytes. Specifically, the methylation levels of FGFRL1, NCAPH2, PNKD and SMAD3 exhibited excellent and statistically significant efficiencies in the discrimination of obesity from non-obesity status (AUC¿>¿0.80; p¿<¿0.05) and a great correlation between both tissues. Therefore, the current study provided new and valuable DNA methylation biomarkers of obesity-related adipose tissue pathogenesis through peripheral blood analysis, an easily accessible and minimally invasive biological material instead of adipose tissue.
Authors: Marques-Lopes, I.; Menal-Puey, S.; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF THE ACADEMY OF NUTRITION AND DIETETICS
ISSN 2212-2672  Vol. 118  Nº 7  2017  pp. 1161 - 1170
Authors: Rosique-Esteban, N.; Diaz-Lopez, A.; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
Journal: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 12  Nº 3  2017  pp. e0172253
Limited data exists on the interrelationships between physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors and sleep concerning cardiometabolic risk factors in aged adults at high cardiovascular disease risk. Our aim was to examine independent and joint associations between time spent in leisure-time PA, sedentary behaviors and sleep on the prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Mediterranean individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Cross-sectional analyses were performed on baseline data from 5776 Spanish adults (aged 55-75y in men; 60-75y in women) with overweight/ obesity and MetS, from October 2013 to October 2016, in the PREDIMED-PLUS trial. Employing multivariable-adjusted Cox regression with robust variance and constant time (given the cross-sectional design), higher prevalence of obesity, T2D and abdominal obesity as component of the MetS were associated with greater time in TV-viewing (Relative Risk, RR: 1.02, 95%Cl: 1.01, 1.03; RR:1.04, 95`)/X1: 1.02, 1.06 and RR: 1.01 95`)/X1: 1.00, 1.02; respectively, all P<.01). Conversely, greater time in moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) was associated with lower prevalence of obesity, T2D, abdominal obesity and low HDL-cholesterol (RR: 0.95, 95%Cl: 0.93, 0.97; RR: 0.94, 95%Cl: 0.89, 0.99; RR: 0.97, 95%Cl: 0.96, 0.98; and RR: 0.95, 95%Cl: 0.91, 0.99, respectively, all P<.05). For these outcomes, theoretically substituting 1-h/day of MVPA for 1-h/day TV-viewing was also significantly associated with lower prevalence (RR 0.91 to 0.97, all P <.05). Similar lower RR in these outcomes was observed when substituting 1-h/day of MVPA for 1-h/day of sleeping. Longer time watching TV and not meeting MVPA recommendations were jointly associated with higher RR of the prevalence of obesity and T2D. We concluded that, in senior individuals at high cardiovascular risk, greater time spent on MVPA and fewer on sedentary behaviors was inversely associated with prevalence of obesity, T2D, and some of the components of MetS.
Authors: González Muniesa, Pedro; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Hu, F. B.; et al.
Title: Obesity
Journal: NATURE REVIEWS DISEASE PRIMERS
ISSN 2056-676X  Vol. 3  2017  pp. Article number: 17034
Excessive fat deposition in obesity has a multifactorial aetiology, but is widely considered the result of disequilibrium between energy intake and expenditure. Despite specific public health policies and individual treatment efforts to combat the obesity epidemic, >2 billion people worldwide are overweight or obese. The central nervous system circuitry, fuel turnover and metabolism as well as adipose tissue homeostasis are important to comprehend excessive weight gain and associated comorbidities. Obesity has a profound impact on quality of life, even in seemingly healthy individuals. Diet, physical activity or exercise and lifestyle changes are the cornerstones of obesity treatment, but medical treatment and bariatric surgery are becoming important. Family history, food environment, cultural preferences, adverse reactions to food, perinatal nutrition, previous or current diseases and physical activity patterns are relevant aspects for the health care professional to consider when treating the individual with obesity. Clinicians and other health care professionals are often ill-equipped to address the important environmental and socioeconomic drivers of the current obesity epidemic. Finally, understanding the epigenetic and genetic factors as well as metabolic pathways that take advantage of 'omics' technologies could play a very relevant part in combating obesity within a precision approach.
Authors: Ibero Baraibar, Idoia; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; et al.
Journal: NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA
ISSN 0212-1611  Vol. 34  Nº 4  2017  pp. 759 - 760
El consumo de alimentos de origen vegetal está relacionado con diversos beneficios sobre la salud humana gracias a su contenido en vitaminas, minerales y antioxidantes, entre otros componentes. El cacao es un alimento rico en polifenoles, concretamente en flavanoles, en los que se han demostrado algunas propiedades saludables. En este sentido, el artículo de Orozco-Arbelaez y cols., publicado en este número de Nutrición Hospitalaria, aborda un tema de relevancia, y al mismo tiempo de cierta controversia, sobre el papel del consumo habitual de chocolate en el estado cognitivo de personas mayores. Los resultados de esta investigación señalan que puede existir una relación entre la ingesta de chocolate, en particular de chocolate negro, y una mejora de la función cognitiva en este colectivo por medio de un estudio transversal basado en los datos del estudio ENRICA con 2.056 individuos.
Authors: San Cristóbal Blanco, Rodrigo; Navas Carretero, Santiago; Livingstone, K. M.; et al.
Journal: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 9  Nº 10  2017  pp. 1107
Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) adherence has been proven to produce numerous health benefits. In addition, nutrigenetic studies have explained some individual variations in the response to specific dietary patterns. The present research aimed to explore associations and potential interactions between MedDiet adherence and genetic background throughout the Food4Me web-based nutritional intervention. Dietary, anthropometrical and biochemical data from volunteers of the Food4Me study were collected at baseline and after 6 months. Several genetic variants related to metabolic risk features were also analysed. A Genetic Risk Score (GRS) was derived from risk alleles and a Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), based on validated food intake data, was estimated. At baseline, there were no interactions between GRS and MDS categories for metabolic traits. Linear mixed model repeated measures analyses showed a significantly greater decrease in total cholesterol in participants with a low GRS after a 6-month period, compared to those with a high GRS. Meanwhile, a high baseline MDS was associated with greater decreases in Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference and glucose. There also was a significant interaction between GRS and the MedDiet after the follow-up period. Among subjects with a high GRS, those with a high MDS evidenced a highly significant reduction in total carotenoids, while among those with a low GRS, there was no difference associated with MDS levels. These results suggest that a higher MedDiet adherence induces beneficial effects on metabolic outcomes, which can be affected by the genetic background in some specific markers.
Authors: Albani, V.; Celis-Morales, C.; O'Donovan, C. B.; et al.
Journal: MOLECULAR NUTRITION AND FOOD RESEARCH
ISSN 1613-4125  Vol. 61  Nº 10  2017  pp. 1700142
Scope: Previous work highlighted the potential of odd-chain length saturated fatty acids as potential markers of dairy intake. The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility of these biomarkers and their sensitivity to changes in dairy intake. Methods and results: Fatty acid profiles and dietary intakes from food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) were measured three times over six months in the Food4Me Study. Reproducibility was explored through intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and within-subject coefficients of variation (WCV). Sensitivity to changes in diet was examined using regression analysis. C15:0 blood levels showed high correlation over time (ICC: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.57, 0.68), however, the ICC for C17:0 was much lower (ICC: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 0.46). The WCV for C15:0 was 16.6% and that for C17:0 was 14.6%. There were significant associations between changes in intakes of total dairy, high-fat dairy, cheese and butter and C15:0; and change in intakes of high-fat dairy and cream and C17:0. Conclusion: Results provide evidence of reproducibility of C15:0 levels over time and sensitivity to change in intake of high-fat dairy products with results comparable to the well-established biomarker of fish intake (EPA+DHA).
Authors: Ramos-Lopez, O.; Arpón, A.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; et al.
Journal: APPETITE
ISSN 0195-6663  Vol. 120  2017  pp. 230 - 239
Individual differences in taste perception may influence appetite, dietary intakes, and subsequently, disease risk. Correlations of DNA methylation patterns at taste transducing genes with BMI and dietary intakes were studied. A nutriepigenomic analysis within the Methyl Epigenome Network Association (MENA) project was conducted in 474 adults. DNA methylation in peripheral white blood cells was analyzed by a microarray approach. KEGG pathway analyses were performed concerning the characterization and discrimination of genes involved in the taste transduction pathway. Adjusted FDR values (p < 0.0001) were used to select those CpGs that showed best correlation with BMI. A total of 29 CpGs at taste transducing genes met the FDR criteria. However, only 12 CpGs remained statistically significant after linear regression analyses adjusted for age and sex. These included cg15743657 (TAS1R2), cg02743674 (TRPM5), cg01790523 (SCN9A), cg15947487 (CALHM1), cg11658986 (ADCY6), cg04149773 (ADCY6), cg02841941 (P2RY1), cg02315111 (P2RX2), cg08273233 (HTR1E), cg14523238 (GABBR2), cg12315353 (GABBR1) and cg05579652 (CACNA1C). Interestingly, most of them were implicated in the sweet taste signaling pathway, except CACNA1C (sour taste). In addition, TAS1R2 methylation at cg15743657 was strongly correlated with total energy (p < 0.0001) and carbohydrate intakes (p < 0.0001). This study suggests that methylation in genes related to sweet taste could be an epigenetic mechanism associated with obesity.
Authors: Milton-Laskibar, I.; Aguirre, L.; Macarulla, M. T.; et al.
Journal: BIOFACTORS
ISSN 0951-6433  Vol. 43  Nº 3  2017  pp. 371 - 378
Resveratrol (RSV) has been proposed as an energy restriction mimetic. This study aimed to compare the effects of RSV and energy restriction on insulin resistance induced by an obesogenic diet. Any additive effect of both treatments was also analyzed. Rats were fed a high-fat high-sucrose diet for 6 weeks. They were then distributed in four experimental groups which were either fed a standard control diet (C), or treated with RSV (30 mg/kg/d), or submitted to energy restriction (R, 15%), or treated with RSV and submitted to energy restriction (RR). A glucose tolerance test was performed, and serum glucose, insulin, fructosamine, adiponectin, and leptin concentrations determined. Muscle triacylglycerol content and protein expression of insulin receptor (IRß), protein kinase B (Akt), Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT-4) were measured. In RSV rats, fructosamine concentrations were reduced, HOMA-IR remained unchanged, but glucose tolerance was improved, without changes in phosphorylation of IRß, Akt, and AS160 or in GLUT-4 protein expression. Rats under energy restriction showed an improvement in all the markers related to glycemic control, as well as increased phosphorylation of AS160 and protein expression of GLUT-4. In rats from RR group the results were similar to R group, with the exception of IRß and Akt phosphorylation, which were increased. In conclusion, mild energy restriction is more efficient than intake of RSV within a standard balanced diet, and acts by means of a different mechanism from that of RSV. No additive effects between RSV and energy restriction were observed.
Authors: San Cristóbal Blanco, Rodrigo; Navas Carretero, Santiago; Celis-Morales, C.; et al.
Journal: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
ISSN 1479-5868  Vol. 14  2017  pp. 168
Background: National guidelines emphasize healthy eating to promote wellbeing and prevention of non-communicable diseases. The perceived healthiness of food is determined by many factors affecting food intake. A positive perception of healthy eating has been shown to be associated with greater diet quality. Internet-based methodologies allow contact with large populations. Our present study aims to design and evaluate a short nutritional perception questionnaire, to be used as a screening tool for assessing nutritional status, and to predict an optimal level of personalisation in nutritional advice delivered via the Internet. Methods: Data from all participants who were screened and then enrolled into the Food4Me proof-of-principle study (n = 2369) were used to determine the optimal items for inclusion in a novel screening tool, the Nutritional Perception Screening Questionnaire-9 (NPSQ9). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed on anthropometric and biochemical data and on dietary indices acquired from participants who had completed the Food4Me dietary intervention (n = 1153). Baseline and intervention data were analysed using linear regression and linear mixed regression, respectively. Results: A final model with 9 NPSQ items was validated against the dietary intervention data. NPSQ9 scores were inversely associated with BMI (ss = -0.181, p < 0.001) and waist circumference (B = -0.155, p < 0.001), and positively associated with total carotenoids (ss = 0.198, p < 0.001), omega-3 fatty acid index (ss = 0.155, p < 0.001), Healthy Eating Index (HEI) (ss = 0.299, p < 0.001) and Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) (ss = 0. 279, p < 0.001). Findings from the longitudinal intervention study showed a greater reduction in BMI and improved dietary indices among participants with lower NPSQ9 scores. Conclusions: Healthy eating perceptions and dietary habits captured by the NPSQ9 score, based on nine questionnaire items, were associated with reduced body weight and improved diet quality. Likewise, participants with a lower score achieved greater health improvements than those with higher scores, in response to personalised advice, suggesting that NPSQ9 may be used for early evaluation of nutritional status and to tailor nutritional advice.
Authors: van Baak, M. A., (Autor de correspondencia); Larsen, T. M.; Jebb, S. A.; et al.
Journal: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 9  Nº 12  2017  pp. 1326
An increase in dietary protein intake has been shown to improve weight loss maintenance in the DIOGenes trial. Here, we analysed whether the source of the dietary proteins influenced changes in body weight, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors during the weight maintenance period while following an energy-restricted diet. 489 overweight or obese participants of the DIOGenes trial from eight European countries were included. They successfully lost >8% of body weight and subsequently completed a six month weight maintenance period, in which they consumed an ad libitum diet varying in protein content and glycemic index. Dietary intake was estimated from three-day food diaries. A higher plant protein intake with a proportional decrease in animal protein intake did not affect body weight maintenance or cardiometabolic risk factors. A higher plant protein intake from non-cereal products instead of cereal products was associated with benefits for body weight maintenance and blood pressure. Substituting meat protein for protein from other animal sources increased insulin and HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance). This analysis suggests that not only the amount of dietary proteins, but also the source may be important for weight and cardiometabolic risk management. However, randomized trials are needed to test the causality of these associations.
Authors: Mansego Talavera, María Luisa; García Lacarte, Marcos; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
Journal: PEDIATRIC OBESITY
ISSN 2047-6310  Vol. 12  Nº 1  2017  pp. 19 - 27
Background: Epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in obesity onset and its consequences. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether DNA methylation status in microRNA (miRNA) coding regions is associated with childhood obesity. Material and Methods: DNA isolated from white blood cells of 24 children (identification sample: 12 obese and 12 non-obese) from the Grupo Navarro de Obesidad Infantil study was hybridized in a 450K methylation microarray. Several CpGs whose DNA methylation levels were statistically different between obese and non-obese were validated by MassArray (R) in 95 children (validation sample) from the same study. Results: Microarray analysis identified 16 differentially methylated CpGs between both groups (6 hypermethylated and 10 hypomethylated). DNA methylation levels in miR-1203, miR-412 and miR-216A coding regions significantly correlated with body mass index standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) and explained up to 40% of the variation of BMI-SDS. The network analysis identified 19 well-defined obesity-relevant biological pathways from the KEGG database. MassArray (R) validation identified three regions located in or near miR-1203, miR-412 and miR-216A coding regions differentially methylated between obese and non-obese children. Conclusions: The current work identified three CpG sites located in coding regions of three miRNAs (miR-1203, miR-412 and miR-216A) that were differentially methylated between obese and non-obese children, suggesting a role of miRNA epigenetic regulation in childhood obesity.
Authors: Lopez-Pascual, A.; Bes Rastrollo, Maira; Sayon Orea, María del Carmen; et al.
Journal: FRONTIERS IN PHYSIOLOGY
ISSN 1664-042X  Vol. 7  2017  pp. 658
Living in a geographically higher altitude affects oxygen availability. The possible connection between environmental factors and the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) feature is not fully understood, being the available epidemiological evidence still very limited. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the longitudinal association between altitude and incidence of MetS and each of its components in a prospective Spanish cohort, The Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) project. Our study included 6860 highly educated subjects (university graduates) free from any MetS criteria at baseline. The altitude of residence was imputed with the postal code of each individual subject residence according to the data of the Spanish National Cartographic Institute and participants were categorized into tertiles. MetS was defined according to the harmonized definition. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between the altitude of residence and the risk of MetS during follow-up. After a median follow-up period of 10 years, 462 incident cases of MetS were identified. When adjusting for potential confounders, subjects in the highest category of altitude (>456 m) exhibited a significantly lower risk of developing MetS compared to those in the lowest tertile (<122 m) of altitude of residence [Model 2: Hazard ratio = 0.75 (95% Confidence interval: 0.580.97); p for trend = 0.029]. Living at geographically higher altitude was associated with a lower risk of developing MetS in the SUN project. Our findings suggest that geographical elevation may be an important factor linked to metabolic diseases.
Authors: Bengoetxea Bausela, Xabier; Paternain Markinez, Laura; Martisova, E.; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY
ISSN 0269-8811  Vol. 31  Nº 3  2017  pp. 356 - 364
The present work studies whether chronic prenatal stress (PS) influences the long-term sex-dependent neuropsychological status of offspring and the effects of an early dietary intervention in the dam. In addition, dams were fed with either a high-fat sugar diet (HFSD) or methyl donor supplemented diet (MDSD). PS procedure did not affect body weight of the offspring. MDSD induced decreases in body weight both in male and female offspring (1 month) that were still present in aged rats. HFSD induced an increase in body weight both in male and female offspring that did not persist in aged rats. In the Porsolt forced swimming test, only young males showed increases in immobility time that were reversed by MDSD. In old female rats (20 months), PS-induced cognitive impairment in both the novel object recognition test (NORT) and in the Morris water maze that was reversed by MDSD, whereas in old males, cognitive impairments and reversion by MDSD was evident only in the Morris water maze. HFSD induced cognitive impairment in both control and PS old rats, but there was no additive effect of PS and HFSD. It is proposed here that the diversity of symptoms following PS could arise from programming effects in early brain development and that these effects could be modified by dietary intake of the dam.
Authors: Fogelholm, M.; Larsen, T. M.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.; et al.
Journal: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 9  Nº 6  2017  pp. 632
dType-2 diabetes (T2D) is one of the fastest growing chronic diseases worldwide. The PREVIEW project has been initiated to find the most effective lifestyle (diet and physical activity) for the prevention of T2D, in overweight and obese participants with increased risk for T2D. The study is a three-year multi-centre, 2 x 2 factorial, randomised controlled trial. The impact of a high-protein, low-glycaemic index (GI) vs. moderate protein, moderate-GI diet in combination with moderate or high-intensity physical activity on the incidence of T2D and the related clinical end-points are investigated. The intervention started with a two-month weight reduction using a low-calorie diet, followed by a randomised 34-month weight maintenance phase comprising four treatment arms. Eight intervention centres are participating (Denmark, Finland, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, Spain, Bulgaria, Australia, and New Zealand). Data from blood specimens, urine, faeces, questionnaires, diaries, body composition assessments, and accelerometers are collected at months 0, 2, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36. In total, 2326 adults were recruited. The mean age was 51.6 (SD 11.6) years, 67% were women. PREVIEW is, to date, the largest multinational trial to address the prevention of T2D in pre-diabetic adults through diet and exercise intervention. Participants will complete the final intervention in March, 2018.
Authors: Ramallal, R.; Toledo Atucha, Estefanía; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; et al.
Journal: OBESITY
ISSN 1930-7381  Vol. 25  Nº 6  2017  pp. 997 - 1005
Objective: This study prospectively assessed the association of the inflammatory potential of a diet using the dietary inflammatory index (DII) with average yearly weight changes and incident overweight/obesity. Methods: Seven thousand and twenty-seven university graduates with body mass index <25 from the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort were followed up during a median of 8.1 years. The DII, a validated tool based on scientific evidence to appraise the relationship between dietary parameters and inflammatory biomarkers, was used. A validated food-frequency questionnaire was used to assess intake of total energy, food, and nutrients, from which DII scores were calculated at baseline and after 10 years of follow-up. Results: After a median follow-up of 8.1 years, 1,433 incident cases of overweight or obesity were observed. Hazard ratios for overweight/obesity were calculated, including multivariable time-dependent Cox regression models with repeated measures of diet. The hazard ratio for subjects in the highest quartile (most pro-inflammatory diet) was 1.32 (95% confidence interval 1.08-1.60) compared with participants in the lowest quartile (most anti-inflammatory diet), with a significant linear dose-response relationship (P=0.004). Consistently, increases in average yearly weight gains were significantly associated with proinflammatory diets. Conclusions: A proinflammatory diet was significantly associated with a higher annual weight gain and higher risk of developing new-onset overweight or obesity.
Authors: Aranaz Oroz, Paula; Romo Hualde, Ana; Zabala Navó, María; et al.
Journal: FOOD & FUNCTION
ISSN 2042-6496  2017 
Obesity and type 2-diabetes are becoming a worldwide health problem, remarking the importance of alternative therapies to tackle their progression. Here, we hypothesized that supplementation of diet with 6 % w/w of a freeze-dried strawberry-blueberry (5:1) powder (FDSB) could exert beneficial metabolic effects in Wistar rats. FDSB-supplemented animals experienced significantly reduced body weight gain, food efficiency and visceral adiposity accumulation in two independent experiments. FDSB supplementation also contributed to lower area under the curve after an intraperitoneal GTT and reduced serum insulin levels and insulin resistance index (IR-HOMA) in HFS diet-fed animals, together with reduced plasma MCP-1 inflammation marker concentrations. Gene expression analysis in retroperitoneal adipocytes from experiment 1 and 3T3-L1 cells showed that FDSB inhibited adipogenesis and lipogenesis through down-regulation of Pparg, Cebpa, Lep, Fasn, Scd-1 and Lpl gene expression. Untargeted metabolomics identified the cis isomer ofresveratrol-3-glucoside-sulphate as a metabolite differentially increased in FDSB-treated serum samples, which corresponds to a strawberry metabolite that could be considered a serum biomarker of FDSB-intake. Our results suggest that FDSB powder might be useful for treatment/prevention of obesity-related diseases.
Authors: Celis-Morales, C.; Marsaux, C. F.; Livingstone, K. M.; et al.
Journal: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0002-9165  Vol. 105  Nº 5  2017  pp. 1204 - 1213
Background: There has been limited evidence about whether genotype-tailored advice provides extra benefits in reducing obesity-related traits compared with the benefits of conventional one-size-fits-all advice.Objective: We determined whether the disclosure of information on fat-mass and obesity-associated (FTO) genotype risk had a greater effect on a reduction of obesity-related traits in risk carriers than in nonrisk carriers across different levels of personalized nutrition.Design: A total of 683 participants (women: 51%; age range: 18-73 y) from the Food4Me randomized controlled trial were included in this analysis. Participants were randomly assigned to 4 intervention arms as follows: level 0, control group; level 1, dietary group; level 2, phenotype group; and level 3, genetic group. FTO (single nucleotide polymorphism rs9939609) was genotyped at baseline in all participants, but only subjects who were randomly assigned to level 3 were informed about their genotypes. Level 3 participants were stratified into risk carriers (AA/AT) and nonrisk carriers (TT) of the FTO gene for analyses. Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were self-measured and reported at baseline and months 3 and 6.Results: Changes in adiposity markers were greater in participants who were informed that they carried the FTO risk allele (level 3 AT/AA carriers) than in the nonpersonalized group (level 0) but not in the other personalized groups (level 1 and 2). Mean reductions in weight and WC at month 6 were greater for FTO risk carriers than for noncarriers in the level 3 group [-2.28 kg (95% CI: -3.06, -1.48 kg) compared with -1.99 kg (-2.19, -0.19 kg), respectively (P = 0.037); and -4.34 cm (-5.63, -3.08 cm) compared with -1.99 cm (-4.04, -0.05 cm), respectively, (P = 0.048)].Conclusions: There are greater body weight and WC reductions in risk carriers than in nonrisk carriers of the FTO gene.
Authors: Malafarina, V.; Uriz-Otano, F.; Malafarina, C.; et al.
Journal: MATURITAS
ISSN 0378-5122  Vol. 101  2017  pp. 42 - 50
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Functional deterioration and reduced mobility in elderly patients with a hip fracture are associated with a loss of both muscle mass and function (sarcopenia). The aim of this study was to assess whether oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) improves muscle mass and nutritional markers (BMI, proteins) in elderly patients with hip fracture. METHODS: Patients aged 65 years and over with hip fractures admitted to either of two rehabilitation facilities were included. Patients with diabetes, with Barthel index scores <40 prior to the fracture or with pathological fractures were excluded. A random-numbers generator was used to randomly allocate patients to the intervention group (IG) or the control group (CG). Those in the IG received a standard diet plus ONS in the form of two bottles a day of ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB), while those in the CG received a standard diet only. The intervention was not blinded. In order to assess changes in body mass index (BMI), anthropometric parameters were recorded at both admission and discharge. Patients' functional situation was evaluated using the Barthel index (BI) and the Functional Ambulation Categories (FAC) score. Muscle mass was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis, which allowed us to calculate appendicular lean mass (aLM). The outcome variable was the difference between aLM upon discharge, minus aLM upon admission (¿-aLM). RESULTS: Of the 107 randomised patients (IG n55, CG n52), 49 finished the study in the IG and 43 in the CG. BMI and aLM were stable in IG patients, whilst these parametres decreased in the CG. A significant difference was observed between the two groups (p<0.001, and p=0.020 respectively). The predictive factors for ¿-aLM were ONS (p=0.006), FAC prior to fracture (p<0.001) and BI prior to fracture (p=0.007). The concentration of proteins (p=0.007) and vitamin D (p.001) had increased more in the IG than in the CG. CONCLUSION: A diet enriched in HMB improves muscle mass, prevents the onset of sarcopenia and is associated with functional improvement in elderly patients with hip fractures. Orally administered nutritional supplements can help to prevent the onset of sarcopenic obesity.
Authors: Ramos-Lopez, O.; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Allayee, H.; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF NUTRIGENETICS AND NUTRIGENOMICS
ISSN 1661-6499  Vol. 10  Nº 1 - 2  2017  pp. 43 - 62
Chronic diseases, including obesity, are major causes of morbidity and mortality in most countries. The adverse impacts of obesity and associated comorbidities on health remain a major concern due to the lack of effective interventions for prevention and management. Precision nutrition is an emerging therapeutic approach that takes into account an individual's genetic and epigenetic information, as well as age, gender, or particular physiopathological status. Advances in genomic sciences are contributing to a better understanding of the role of genetic variants and epigenetic signatures as well as gene expression patterns in the development of diverse chronic conditions, and how they may modify therapeutic responses. This knowledge has led to the search for genetic and epigenetic biomarkers to predict the risk of developing chronic diseases and personalizing their prevention and treatment. Additionally, original nutritional interventions based on nutrients and bioactive dietary compounds that can modify epigenetic marks and gene expression have been implemented. Although caution must be exercised, these scientific insights are paving the way for the design of innovative strategies for the control of chronic diseases accompanying obesity. This document provides a number of examples of the huge potential of understanding nutrigenetic, nutrigenomic, and nutriepigenetic roles in precision nutrition.
Authors: Ramos-Lopez, O.; Samblas, M.; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
Journal: NUTRITION RESEARCH
ISSN 0271-5317  Vol. 50  2017  pp. 53 - 62
Folate deficiency has been putatively implicated in the onset of diverse metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance, by altering epigenetic processes on key regulatory genes. The calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CAMKK2) is involved in the regulation of critical metabolic processes such as adiposity and glucose homeostasis. This study hypothesized associations between low folate intakes and lower methylation levels of the CAMKK2 gene, with the presence of metabolic alterations in subjects with obesity. A cross-sectional ancillary study was conducted in obese subjects (n=47) from the RESMENA study (Spain). Fat mass was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intake and metabolic profile were assessed by validated methods. DNA methylation and gene expression in peripheral white blood cells were analyzed by microarray approaches. A total of 51 cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites were associated with folate intake (false discovery rate values < 0.0001), including one located in the 5' untranslated region of the CAMKK2 gene (Illumina ID, cg16942632), which was selected and separately analyzed. Subjects with total folate intake lower than 300¿g/d showed more fat mass (especially trunk fat), as well as statistically higher levels of glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, cortisol, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 than those consuming at least or more than 300¿g/d. Of note, folate deficiency was related to lower CAMKK2 methylation. Interestingly, CAMKK2 methylation negatively correlated with the HOMA-IR index. Furthermore, CAMKK2 expression directly correlated with HOMA-IR values. In summary, this study suggests associations between low folate intakes, lower CAMKK2 gene methylation, and insulin resistance in obese individuals.
Authors: Goñi Mateos, Leticia; Qi, L.; Cuervo Zapatel, Marta; et al.
Journal: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0002-9165  Vol. 106  Nº 3  2017  pp. 902 - 908
Background: Circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and aromatic amino acids (AAAs) have been shown to be associated with insulin resistance and diabetes risk. The common rs1440581 T allele in the protein phosphatase Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent 1K (PPM1K) gene has been related to elevated BCAA concentrations and risk of type 2 diabetes. Objective: In the present study, we tested whether dietary fat and carbohydrate intakes influenced the association between the rs1440581 PPM1K genetic variant and glucose-metabolism traits during weight loss. Design: The rs1440581 PPM1K genetic variant was genotyped in a total of 757 nondiabetic individuals who were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 energy-restricted diets that differed in macronutrient composition (low-fat diet: 20¿25% fat, 15% protein, and 60¿65% carbohydrate; high-fat diet: 40¿45% fat, 15% protein, and 40¿45% carbohydrate). The changes in fasting glucose, fasting insulin, insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) and homeostasis model assessment of ß cell function (HOMA-B) were measured after a mean ± SD weight loss of 6.8 ± 3.4 kg over 10 wk and analyzed according to the presence of the T allele of rs1440581. Results: The rs1440581 T allele was associated with a smaller improvement in glucose concentrations after the 10-wk dietary intervention (ß ± SE: 0.05 ± 0.02 mg/dL; P = 0.03). In addition, significant gene-diet interactions were shown for the rs1440581 PPM1K genetic variant in relation to changes in insulin and HOMA-B (P-interaction = 0.006 and 0.002, respectively). In response to the high-fat diet, the T allele was associated with a higher reduction of insulin (ß ± SE: ¿0.77 ± 0.40 ¿U/mL; P = 0.04) and HOMA-B (ß ± SE: ¿13.2 ± 3.81; P = 0.003). An opposite effect was observed in the low-fat diet group, although in this group the T allele was marginally (P = 0.10) and not significantly (P = 0.24) associated with insulin and HOMA-B, respectively. Conclusion:PPM1K rs1440581 may affect changes in glucose metabolism during weight loss, and this effect is dependent on dietary fat and carbohydrate intakes. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN25867281.
Authors: Martí del Moral, Amelia; Morell Azanza, Lydia; Rendo-Urteaga, T.; et al.
Journal: PEDIATRIC DIABETES
ISSN 1399-543X  Vol. 19  Nº 2  2017  pp. 217 - 222
BACKGROUND: Inflammation related molecules such as tumor necrosis factor-¿ (TNF-¿), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) are highly expressed in obese individuals and could partly explain some comorbidities associated to obesity. In obese children, lifestyle interventions are able to lower inflammation and reduce cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity. The aim of the present work was to study changes in inflammation-related molecules serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) transcript levels after a 10-week lifestyle intervention in obese children and asses their potential association with glucose metabolism. METHODS: Twenty-three obese children (mean age 11.5 years; 48% males) underwent a 10-week lifestyle not controlled intervention trial. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were analyzed. Transcript analysis for CT-1, IL-6, and TNF-¿ in PBMC were performed by RT-PCR. Serum cytokine levels were also measured at baseline and after 10-weeks. RESULTS: Participants achieved a significant reduction in body adiposity (0.34 decrease in body mass index-standard deviation), total cholesterol, and glucose levels after 10-weeks. A Significant decrease in serum TNF-¿ and C reactive protein (CRP) were observed. CT-1 transcript levels were significantly reduced (P = .005) after lifestyle intervention, and these changes were significantly correlated with changes in serum CT-1 levels (r = 0.451; P = .031). In multiple regression analysis baseline CT-1 transcript levels were positively associated with final insulin (R2 = 0.506; P = .035) and HOMA-IR values (R2 = 0.473; P = .034). CONCLUSIONS: We reported that serum CRP, TNF-¿, as well as PBMC CT-1 transcript levels were reduced after lifestyle intervention in obese children. More studies are needed to clarify the role of inflammation-related molecules in glucose metabolism.
Authors: Celis-Morales, C.; Livingstone, K. M.; Marsaux, C. F. M. ; et al.
Journal: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY
ISSN 0300-5771  Vol. 46  Nº 2  2017  pp. 578 - 588
Background: Optimal nutritional choices are linked with better health, but many current interventions to improve diet have limited effect. We tested the hypothesis that providing personalized nutrition (PN) advice based on information on individual diet and lifestyle, phenotype and/or genotype would promote larger, more appropriate, and sustained changes in dietary behaviour. Methods: Adults from seven European countries were recruited to an internet-delivered intervention (Food4Me) and randomized to: (i) conventional dietary advice (control) or to PN advice based on: (ii) individual baseline diet; (iii) individual baseline diet plus phenotype (anthropometry and blood biomarkers); or (iv) individual baseline diet plus phenotype plus genotype (five diet-responsive genetic variants). Outcomes were dietary intake, anthropometry and blood biomarkers measured at baseline and after 3 and 6 months' intervention. Results: At baseline, mean age of participants was 39.8 years (range 18-79), 59% of participants were female and mean body mass index (BMI) was 25.5 kg/m(2). From the enrolled participants, 1269 completed the study. Following a 6-month intervention, participants randomized to PN consumed less red meat [-5.48 g, (95% confidence interval:-10.8,-0.09), P = 0.046], salt [-0.65 g, (-1.1,-0.25), P = 0.002] and saturated fat [-1.14 % of energy, (-1.6,-0.67), P<0.0001], increased folate [29.6 mu g, (0.21,59.0), P = 0.048] intake and had higher Healthy Eating Index scores [1.27, (0.30, 2.25), P = 0.010) than those randomized to the control arm. There was no evidence that including phenotypic and phenotypic plus genotypic information enhanced the effectiveness of the PN advice. Conclusions: Among European adults, PN advice via internet-delivered intervention produced larger and more appropriate changes in dietary behaviour than a conventional approach.
Authors: Grimaldi, K. A. ; van Ommen, B. ; Ordovas, J. M. ; et al.
Journal: GENES AND NUTRITION
ISSN 1555-8932  Vol. 12  2017  pp. 35
Nutrigenetic research examines the effects of inter-individual differences in genotype on responses to nutrients and other food components, in the context of health and of nutrient requirements. A practical application of nutrigenetics is the use of personal genetic information to guide recommendations for dietary choices that are more efficacious at the individual or genetic subgroup level relative to generic dietary advice. Nutrigenetics is unregulated, with no defined standards, beyond some commercially adopted codes of practice. Only a few official nutrition-related professional bodies have embraced the subject, and, consequently, there is a lack of educational resources or guidance for implementation of the outcomes of nutrigenetic research. To avoid misuse and to protect the public, personalised nutrigenetic advice and information should be based on clear evidence of validity grounded in a careful and defensible interpretation of outcomes from nutrigenetic research studies. Evidence requirements are clearly stated and assessed within the context of state-of-the-art 'evidence-based nutrition'. We have developed and present here a draft framework that can be used to assess the strength of the evidence for scientific validity of nutrigenetic knowledge and whether 'actionable'. In addition, we propose that this framework be used as the basis for developing transparent and scientifically sound advice to the public based on nutrigenetic tests. We feel that although this area is still in its infancy, minimal guidelines are required. Though these guidelines are based on semi-quantitative data, they should stimulate debate on their utility. This framework will be revised biennially, as knowledge on the subject increases.
Authors: Etxeberría Aramburu, Usune; Hijona, E.; Aguirre, L.; et al.
Journal: MOLECULAR NUTRITION AND FOOD RESEARCH
ISSN 1613-4125  Vol. 61  Nº 1  2017 
SCOPE: Nutritional interventions based on the use of natural bioactive compounds might offer new possibilities for reshaping obesity-associated bacterial dysregulation or dysbiosis and improving health. We evaluated whether pterostilbene supplementation could induce changes in gut microbiota composition and whether these modifications were associated with improvements in metabolic variables. METHODS AND RESULTS: Zucker (fa/fa) rats were given a standard diet supplemented (n = 10) or not (n = 9) with pterostilbene (15 mg/kg body weight/day) by oral gavage for 6 weeks. Faucal samples at the beginning and at the end of the intervention period were analyzed by Illumina Mi-Seq sequencing approach. Pterostilbene exerted protective antiobesity effects, improved metabolic function (insulin sensitivity), and induced structural changes in gut microbiota composition. A decrease in the levels of Firmicutes and an increase in Verrucomicrobia phyla were detected in the pterostilbene-treated group. Bacterial species belonging to genera Akkermansia and Odoribacter were also increased. A strong inverse correlation between Akkermansia muciniphila and body weight was evidenced. Odoribacter splanchnicus showed a negative correlation with adiposity. CONCLUSION: Pterostilbene modifies intestinal bacteria composition toward a healthier microbial profile and suggests that the antiobesity effects induced in Zucker rats could be associated with an enrichment of the mucin-degrading bacterial members, namely Akkermansia and Odoribacter genus.
Authors: López Yoldi, Miguel; Marcos Gómez, Beatriz; Romero-Lozano, M. A.; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY
ISSN 0021-9541  Vol. 232  Nº 9  2017  pp. 2469 - 2477
Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) belongs to the IL-6 family of cytokines. Previous studies of our group revealed that CT-1 is a key regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism. The aim of the present study was to analyze the in vitro and in vivo effects of CT-1 on the production of several adipokines involved in body weight regulation, nutrient metabolism, and inflammation. For this purpose, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated with recombinant protein CT-1 (rCT-1) (1-40 ng/ml) for 1 and 18 h. Moreover, the acute effects of rCT-1 administration (0.2 mg/kg, i.v.) for 30 min and 3 h on adipokines levels were also evaluated in high-fat fed obese mice. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, rCT-1 treatment downregulated the expression and secretion of leptin, resistin, and visfatin. However, rCT-1 significantly stimulated apelin mRNA and secretion. rCT-1 (18 h) also promoted the activation by phosphorylation of AKT, ERK 1/2, and STAT3. Interestingly, pretreatment with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 reversed the stimulatory effects of rCT-1 on apelin expression, suggesting that this pathway could be mediating the effects of rCT-1 on apelin production. In contrast, acute administration of rCT-1 (30 min and 3 h) to diet-induced obese mice downregulated leptin and resistin, without significantly modifying apelin or visfatin mRNA in adipose tissue. Furthermore, CT-1 null mice exhibited altered expression of adipokines in adipose tissue. The present study demonstrates that rCT-1 modulates the production of adipokines in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that the regulation of the secretory function of adipocytes could be involved in the metabolic actions of this cytokine. (C) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Authors: Crujeiras, A. B.; Gómez-Arbelaez, D.; Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Journal: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY
ISSN 0307-0565  Vol. 41  Nº 10  2017  pp. 1570 - 1578
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has been suggested to be an endocrine signal of nutritional status and an active regulator of metabolism. However, there is no agreement on the effect of weight-loss therapies on circulating levels of FGF21 in humans. OBJECTIVE: To assess FGF21 circulating levels in adiposity excess and after different weight-loss strategies prescribed in five different groups from four independent centers. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Body composition, ketosis, insulin sensitivity and FGF21 were evaluated in 181 excess body weight and 14 normal-weight subjects. From the excess body weight patients, two independent groups (discovery cohort; n = 20 and validation cohort; n = 28) undertook a very low-calorie ketogenic (VLCK) diet, a third group followed a low-calorie (LC) diet (n = 84) and other two groups underwent bariatric surgery (discovery cohort; n = 24 and validation cohort; n = 25). The follow-up was 4 to 6 or 12 months, respectively. RESULTS: FGF21 levels were higher in excess body weight patients than in normal-weight subjects. The energy-restriction therapy to lose weight induced a significant decrease, with respect to baseline, in circulating levels of FGF21 (VLCK: -62.5 pg ml(-1) or -14.8 pg ml(-1) and LC diet: -67.9 pg ml(-1)). There were no differences in FGF21 levels between both energy-restriction treatments. On the contrary, after bariatric surgery morbidly obese patients showed a significant increase in FGF21, especially 1 month after surgery (148.8 pg ml-1 higher than baseline). The FGF21 differential changes occur concomitantly with a non-induced ketosis situation (0.66 +/- 0.56 mM) in bariatric surgery, and an improvement in adiposity and insulin sensitivity induced by the three therapies. CONCLUSIONS: FGF21 levels were reduced after energy-restricted treatments and severely increased after bariatric surgery, independently of the weight reduction magnitude, insulin sensitivity or ketosis. Therefore, FGF21 appears to be a marker of severe nutritional stress.
Authors: Arpón, A.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
ISSN 1138-7548  Vol. 73  Nº 3  2017  pp. 445 - 455
Epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation, might be modulated by environmental factors such as the diet, which in turn have been associated with the onset of several diseases such as obesity or cardiovascular events. Meanwhile, Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has demonstrated favourable effects on cardiovascular risk, blood pressure, inflammation and other complications related to excessive adiposity. Some of these effects could be mediated by epigenetic modifications. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether the adherence to MedDiet is associated with changes in the methylation status from peripheral blood cells. A subset of 36 individuals was selected within the Prevencion con Dieta Mediterranea (PREDIMED)-Navarra study, a randomised, controlled, parallel trial with three groups of intervention in high cardiovascular risk volunteers, two with a MedDiet and one low-fat control group. Changes in methylation between baseline and 5 years were studied. DNA methylation arrays were analysed by several robust statistical tests and functional classifications. Eight genes related to inflammation and immunocompetence (EEF2, COL18A1, IL4I1, LEPR, PLAGL1, IFRD1, MAPKAPK2, PPARGC1B) were finally selected as changes in their methylation levels correlated with adherence to MedDiet and because they presented sensitivity related to a high variability in methylation changes. Additionally, EEF2 methylation levels positively correlated with concentrations of TNF-alph
Authors: Cantero González, Irene; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Monreal Marquiegui, José Ignacio; et al.
Journal: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 9  Nº 7  2017  pp. 667
he prevalence of non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease (NAFLD) is associated with obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome (MS). This study aimed to evaluate the influence of two energy-restricted diets on non-invasive markers and scores of liver damage in obese individuals with features of MS after six months of follow-up and to assess the role of fiber content in metabolic outcomes. Seventy obese individuals from the RESMENA (Reduction of Metabolic Syndrome in Navarra) study were evaluated at baseline and after six months of energy-restricted nutritional intervention (American Heart Association (AHA) and RESMENA dietary groups). Dietary records, anthropometrical data, body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and routine laboratory measurements were analyzed by standardized methods. Regarding liver status, cytokeratin-18 fragments and several non-invasive scores of fatty liver were also assessed. The RESMENA strategy was a good and complementary alternative to AHA for the treatment of obesity-related comorbidities. Participants with higher insoluble fiber consumption (¿7.5 g/day) showed improvements in fatty liver index (FLI), hepatic steatosis index (HIS), and NAFLD liver fat score (NAFLD_LFS), while gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and transaminases evidenced significant improvements as a result of fruit fiber consumption (¿8.8 g/day). Remarkably, a regression model evidenced a relationship between liver status and fiber from fruits. These results support the design of dietary patterns based on the consumption of insoluble fiber and fiber from fruits in the context of energy restriction for the management of obese patients suffering fatty liver disease.
Authors: Guerendiain, M.; Mayneris-Perxachs, J.; Montes, R.; et al.
Journal: CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0261-5614  Vol. 36  Nº 1  2017  pp. 209 - 217
Background & aims: In vivo and in vitro evidence suggests that antioxidant vitamins and carotenoids may be key factors in the treatment and prevention of obesity and obesity-associated disorders. Hence, the objective of the present study was to determine the relationship between plasma lipid-soluble antioxidant vitamin and carotenoid levels and adiposity and cardio-metabolic risk markers in overweight and obese adolescents participating in a multidisciplinary weight loss programme. Methods: A therapeutic programme was conducted with 103 adolescents aged 12-17 years old and diagnosed with overweight or obesity. Plasma concentrations of ¿-tocopherol, retinol, ß-carotene and lycopene, anthropometric indicators of general and central adiposity, blood pressure and biochemical parameters were analysed at baseline and at 2 and 6 months of treatment. Results: Lipid-corrected retinol (P < 0.05), ß-carotene (P = 0.001) and ¿-tocopherol (P < 0.001) plasma levels increased significantly, whereas lipid-corrected lycopene levels remained unaltered during the treatment. Anthropometric indicators of adiposity (P < 0.001), blood pressure (P < 0.01) and biochemical parameters (P < 0.05) decreased significantly, whereas fat free mass increased significantly (P < 0.001). These clinical and biochemical improvements were related to changes in plasma lipid-corrected antioxidant vitamin and carotenoid levels. The adolescents who experienced the greatest weight loss also showed the largest decrease in anthropometric indicators of adiposity and biochemical parameters and the highest increase in fat free mass. Weight loss in these adolescents was related to an increase in plasma levels of lipid-corrected ¿-tocopherol (P = 0.001), ß-carotene (P = 0.034) and lycopene (P = 0.019). Conclusions: Plasma lipid-soluble antioxidant vitamin and carotenoid levels are associated with reduced adiposity, greater weight loss and an improved cardio-metabolic profile in overweight and obese adolescents.
Authors: Guerendiain, M.; Mayneris-Perxachs, J. ; Montes, R. ; et al.
Journal: CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0261-5614  Vol. 36  Nº 1  2017  pp. 209 - 217
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In vivo and in vitro evidence suggests that antioxidant vitamins and carotenoids may be key factors in the treatment and prevention of obesity and obesity-associated disorders. Hence, the objective of the present study was to determine the relationship between plasma lipid-soluble antioxidant vitamin and carotenoid levels and adiposity and cardio-metabolic risk markers in overweight and obese adolescents participating in a multidisciplinary weight loss programme. METHODS: A therapeutic programme was conducted with 103 adolescents aged 12-17 years old and diagnosed with overweight or obesity. Plasma concentrations of ¿-tocopherol, retinol, ß-carotene and lycopene, anthropometric indicators of general and central adiposity, blood pressure and biochemical parameters were analysed at baseline and at 2 and 6 months of treatment. RESULTS: Lipid-corrected retinol (P < 0.05), ß-carotene (P = 0.001) and ¿-tocopherol (P < 0.001) plasma levels increased significantly, whereas lipid-corrected lycopene levels remained unaltered during the treatment. Anthropometric indicators of adiposity (P < 0.001), blood pressure (P < 0.01) and biochemical parameters (P < 0.05) decreased significantly, whereas fat free mass increased significantly (P < 0.001). These clinical and biochemical improvements were related to changes in plasma lipid-corrected antioxidant vitamin and carotenoid levels. The adolescents who experienced the greatest weight loss also showed the largest decrease in anthropometric indicators of adiposity and biochemical parameters and the highest increase in fat free mass. Weight loss in these adolescents was related to an increase in plasma levels of lipid-corrected ¿-tocopherol (P = 0.001), ß-carotene (P = 0.034) and lycopene (P = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: Plasma lipid-soluble antioxidant vitamin and carotenoid levels are associated with reduced adiposity, greater weight loss and an improved cardio-metabolic profile in overweight and obese adolescents.
Authors: Livingstone, K. M.; Celis-Morales, C.; Macready, A. L.; et al.
Journal: PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION
ISSN 1368-9800  Vol. 20  Nº 1  2017  pp. 53 - 63
Attrition did not differ between participants receiving generalised or PN advice but more frequent feedback was related to attrition for those randomised to PN interventions. Better strategies are required to minimise dropouts among younger and obese individuals participating in PN interventions and more frequent feedback may be an unnecessary burden.
Authors: López Yoldi, Miguel; Stanhope, K. L.; Garaulet, M.; et al.
Journal: FASEB JOURNAL
ISSN 0892-6638  Vol. 31  Nº 4  2017  pp. 1639 - 1649
Cardiotrophin (CT)-1 is a regulator of glucose and lipid homeostasis. In the present study, we analyzed whether CT-1 also acts to peripherally regulate metabolic rhythms and adipose tissue core clock genes in mice. Moreover, the circadian pattern of plasma CT-1 levels was evaluated in normal-weight and overweight subjects. The circadian rhythmicity of oxygen consumption rate (Vo(2)) was disrupted in aged obese CT-1-deficient (CT-1(-/-)) mice (12 mo). Although circadian rhythms of Vo(2) were conserved in young lean CT-1(-/-) mice (2 mo), CT-1 deficiency caused a phase shift of the acrophase. Most of the clock genes studied (Clock, Bmal1, and Per2) displayed a circadian rhythm in adipose tissue of both wild-type (WT) and CT-1(-/-) mice. However, the pattern was altered in CT-1(-/-) mice toward a lower percentage of the rhythm or lower amplitude, especially for Bmal1 and Clock. Moreover, CT-1 mRNA levels in adipose tissue showed significant circadian fluctuations in young WT mice. In humans, CT-1 plasma profile exhibited a 24-h circadian rhythm in normal-weight but not in overweight subjects. The 24-h pattern of CT-1 was characterized by a pronounced increase during the night (from 02:00 to 08:00). These observations suggest a potential role for CT-1 in the regulation of metabolic circadian rhythms.-Lopez-Yoldi, M., Stanhope, K. L., Garaulet, M., Chen, X. G., Marcos-Gomez, B., Carrasco-Benso, M. P., Santa Maria, E. M., Escote, X., Lee, V., Nunez, M. V., Medici, V., Martinez-Anso, E., Sainz, N., Huerta, A. E., Laiglesia, L. M., Prieto, J., Martinez, J. A., Bustos, M., Havel, P. J., Moreno-Aliaga, M. J. Role of cardiotrophin-1 in the regulation of metabolic circadian rhythms and adipose core clock genes in mice and characterization of 24-h circulating CT-1 profiles in normal-weight and overweight/obese subjects.
Authors: García Calzón, Sonia; Moleres, A.; Gómez-Martinez, S.; et al.
Journal: PEDIATRIC OBESITY
ISSN 2047-6310  Vol. 12  Nº 3  2017  pp. 257 - 263
BACKGROUND: Shorter telomeres have been associated with elevated risk for age-related diseases. However, little is known about the biomarker role of telomere length (TL) for predicting inflammation and glucose alterations. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research is to evaluate the association between TL, inflammatory markers and glucose levels after a 2-month weight-loss programme in obese adolescents. METHODS: Telomere length was measured using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 66 obese adolescents aged 12-17 years (51% men) from the EVASYON programme. The adolescents were genotyped for the polymorphism -174G/C (rs1800795) in the IL-6gene, and anthropometric and biochemical markers as well as inflammatory cytokines were analysed. RESULTS: Multiple-adjusted models showed that longer telomeres at baseline were associated with a higher reduction in glucose (B¿=¿-4.08, 95% confidence interval: -6.66 to -1.50) and IL-6 (B¿=¿-1.03, 95% confidence interval: -2.01 to -0.05) serum levels after 2¿months of the weight-loss treatment. The -174G/C polymorphism modulated the association between basal TL and changes in IL-6 (P interaction¿=¿0.029). Thus, subjects with the GG¿+¿GC genotype and with longer telomeres showed a higher decrease in IL-6 levels than CC homozygotes. CONCLUSION: Longer telomeres are associated with an improvement in glucose tolerance and inflammation after a weight-loss programme in obese adolescents. Moreover, the -174G/C polymorphism may influence the relationship between TL and IL-6 changes.
Authors: Lopez-Pascual, A.; Lasa, A.; Portillo, M. P.; et al.
Journal: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 71  Nº 1-2  2017  pp. 16 - 25
BACKGROUND: Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation is an epigenetic modification involved in gene expression regulation, usually via gene silencing, which contributes to the risks of many multifactorial diseases. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of resting oxygen consumption on global and gene DNA methylation as well as protein secretion of inflammatory markers in blood cells from obese subjects with sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). METHODS: A total of 44 obese participants with SAHS were categorized in 2 groups according to their resting oxygen consumption. DNA methylation levels were evaluated using a methylation-sensitive high resolution melting approach. RESULTS: The analyzed interleukin 6 (IL6) gene cytosine phosphate guanine (CpG) islands showed a hypomethylation, while serum IL-6 was higher in the low compared to the high oxygen consumption group (p < 0.05). Moreover, an age-related loss of DNA methylation of tumor necrosis factor (B = -0.82, 95% CI -1.33 to -0.30) and long interspersed nucleotide element 1 (B = -0.46; 95% CI -0.87 to -0.04) gene CpGs were found. Finally, studied CpG methylation levels of serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade E member 1 (r = 0.43; p = 0.01), and IL6 (r = 0.41; p = 0.02) were positively associated with fat-free mass. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest a potential role of oxygen in the regulation of inflammatory genes. Oxygen consumption measurement at rest could be proposed as a clinical biomarker of metabolic health.
Authors: Barrington, W. T.; Salvador, A. C.; Hartiala, J. A.; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF NUTRIGENETICS AND NUTRIGENOMICS
ISSN 1661-6499  Vol. 10  2017  pp. 155 - 162
The International Society of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics (ISNN) held its 11th annual Congress in Los Angeles, California, between September 16 and 19, 2017. In addition to 2 keynote lectures, 4 plenary sessions included presentations by internationally renowned speakers on cutting-edge areas of research and new discoveries in genetics/genomics, the microbiome, and nutrition. Scientific topics included multi-omics approaches; diet and the microbiome; cancer, longevity, and metabolism; moving the field forward; and translational/educational aspects and the future of medicine. There was also an accepted oral abstracts session designed specifically to provide young investigators and trainees with the opportunity to present their work, as well as a session focused on industry-academic partnerships, which included a roundtable discussion afterwards. Overall, the 11th ISNN Congress was an exciting and intellectually stimulating meeting focused on understanding the impact of biological interactions between genes and nutrients on health and disease. These efforts continued the decade-long tradition of the annual ISNN Congress to provide an interdisciplinary platform for scientists from various disciplines to discuss research ideas and advance the fields of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics.
Authors: Ojeda Rodríguez, Ana; Morell Azanza, Lydia; Azcona San Julián, María Cristina; et al.
Journal: NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA
ISSN 0212-1611  Vol. 35  Nº 2  2017  pp. 279 - 285
Background: serotonin signaling participates in body weight regulation and glucose metabolism. However, little information is available on circulating serotonin levels in obese subjects after a weight loss program. We aimed to assess the effect of a lifestyle intervention on serotonin levels in obese children and possible associations with anthropometric and blood glucose measurements. Methods: forty-four obese children were enrolled in a ten-week lifestyle intervention consisting of a moderate caloric restriction diet, nutritional education and familial involvement. They were distributed according to the weight loss response. Subjects who lost > 0.5 BMI-SDS were considered as high responders (HR; n = 22) and those who lost 0.5 BMI-SDS, as low responders (LR; n = 22). Anthropometric, biochemical parameters and plasma serotonin levels were measured as pre and post-intervention values. Results: obese children (HR and LR groups) were able to reduce anthropometric indices and to improve glucose profile after the intervention. Interestingly, plasma serotonin levels were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in all subjects (-35.14 nmol/I HR group and -30.63 nmol/I LR group). Moreover, multiple-adjusted regression models showed a significant association between pre-intervention (R-2 = 0.224, B = 0.047; p = 0.004) and post-intervention (R-2 = 0.140; B = 0.055; p = 0.042) plasma serotonin and glucose levels. In addition, in HR subjects changes in plasma serotonin were associated with changes in glucose levels (R-2 = 0.292; b = 0.04; p = 0.045). Interestingly, pre and post-intervention plasma serotonin levels were inversely associated (p < 0.05) with anthropometric measures. Conclusions: serotonin levels were reduced after a lifestyle intervention independently of the program response. Moreover, plasma serotonin levels were associated with glucose and anthropometric measures in obese children.
Authors: Goñi Mateos, Leticia; Cuervo Zapatel, Marta; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
Journal: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 1436-6207  Vol. 56  Nº 4  2017  pp. 1589 - 1596
Purpose: There is controversy about the effect of the rs1799983 nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) genetic variant on hypertension and blood pressure (BP) levels. The aims of the current study were to examine whether rs1799983 affects BP levels and to identify potential interactions between this polymorphism and other non-genetic risk factors. Methods: A total of 705 subjects were examined for anthropometric and body composition measurements, BP, dietary habits and physical activity. Oral epithelial cells were collected for the identification of rs1799983 using Luminex® 100/200TM System. Results: After adjusted for covariates, TT genotype showed a 2.30-fold higher predisposition of hypertension than GG genotype subjects. According to BP levels, for each risk allele diastolic blood pressure (DBP) increased in 1.99 mmHg. Significant interactions between rs1799983 and saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were found. Moreover, an interaction with body weight status was observed. Among overweight individuals, T allele carriers showed higher DBP than GG genotype. Conclusion: The present study evidenced that rs1799983 NOS3 polymorphism could be associated with hypertension and DBP among Southern Europeans, being this association influenced by dietary fat (SFA and MUFA) and body mass index.
Authors: Martínez-Fernández, L.; González Muniesa, Pedro; Laiglesia González, Laura María; et al.
Journal: FASEB JOURNAL
ISSN 0892-6638  Vol. 31  Nº 5  2017  pp. 2135 - 2145
The beneficial actions of n-3 fatty acids on obesity-induced insulin resistance and inflammation have been related to the synthesis of specializedproresolving lipid mediators (SPMs) like resolvins.The aimof this study was to evaluate the ability of one of these SPMs, maresin 1 (MaR1), to reverse adipose tissue inflammation and/or insulin resistance in twomodels of obesity: diet-induced obese (DIO)mice and genetic (ob/ob) obesemice. In DIO mice, MaR1 (2 mg/kg; 10 d) reduced F4/80-positive cells and expression of the proinflammatory M1 macrophage phenotype marker Cd11c in white adipose tissue (WAT). Moreover, MaR1 decreased Mcp-1, Tnf-a, and Il-1b expression, upregulated adiponectin and Glut-4, and increasedAkt phosphorylation inWAT.MaR1 administration (2 mg/kg; 20 d) to ob/ob mice did not modify macrophage recruitment but increased the M2 macrophage markers Cd163 and Il-10.MaR1 reduced Mcp-1, Tnf-a, Il-1b, andDpp-4 and increased adiponectin gene expression inWAT. MaR1treatment also improved the insulin tolerance test of ob/ob mice and increased Akt andAMPKphosphorylation in WAT. These data suggest that treatment with MaR1 can counteract the dysfunctional inflamed WAT and could be useful to improve insulin sensitivity in murine models of obesity.
Authors: O'Donovan, C. B.; Walsh, M. C.; Woolhead, C.; et al.
Journal: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 0007-1145  Vol. 118  Nº 8  2017  pp. 561 - 569
Traditionally, personalised nutrition was delivered at an individual level. However, the concept of delivering tailored dietary advice at a group level through the identification of metabotypes or groups of metabolically similar individuals has emerged. Although this approach to personalised nutrition looks promising, further work is needed to examine this concept across a wider population group. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to: (1) identify metabotypes in a European population and (2) develop targeted dietary advice solutions for these metabotypes. Using data from the Food4Me study (n 1607), k-means cluster analysis revealed the presence of three metabolically distinct clusters based on twenty-seven metabolic markers including cholesterol, individual fatty acids and carotenoids. Cluster 2 was identified as a metabolically healthy metabotype as these individuals had the highest Omega-3 Index (6.56 (sd 1.29) %), carotenoids (2. 15 (sd 0.71) mu m) and lowest total saturated fat levels. On the basis of its fatty acid profile, cluster 1 was characterised as a metabolically unhealthy cluster. Targeted dietary advice solutions were developed per cluster using a decision tree approach. Testing of the approach was performed by comparison with the personalised dietary advice, delivered by nutritionists to Food4Me study participants (n 180). Excellent agreement was observed between the targeted and individualised approaches with an average match of 82 % at the level of delivery of the same dietary message. Future work should ascertain whether this proposed method could be utilised in a healthcare setting, for the rapid and efficient delivery of tailored dietary advice solutions.
Authors: Papadaki, A.; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo
Journal: ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE
ISSN 0003-4819  Vol. 166  Nº 5  2017  pp. 377 - 378
Authors: San Cristóbal Blanco, Rodrigo; Navas Carretero, Santiago; Mathers, J. C. ; et al.
Journal: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY
ISSN 0029-6651  Vol. 76  Nº OCE4  2017  pp. E229 - E229
Authors: Fitó, M.; Melander, O.; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; et al.
Journal: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
ISSN 1422-0067  Vol. 17  Nº 9  2016  pp. 1469
Intervention with Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has provided a high level of evidence in primary prevention of cardiovascular events. Besides enhancing protection from classical risk factors, an improvement has also been described in a number of non-classical ones. Benefits have been reported on biomarkers of oxidation, inflammation, cellular adhesion, adipokine production, and pro-thrombotic state. Although the benefits of the MedDiet have been attributed to its richness in antioxidants, the mechanisms by which it exercises its beneficial effects are not well known. It is thought that the integration of omics including genomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics, and metabolomics, into studies analyzing nutrition and cardiovascular diseases will provide new clues regarding these mechanisms. However, omics integration is still in its infancy. Currently, some single-omics analyses have provided valuable data, mostly in the field of genomics. Thus, several gene-diet interactions in determining both intermediate (plasma lipids, etc.) and final cardiovascular phenotypes (stroke, myocardial infarction, etc.) have been reported. However, few studies have analyzed changes in gene expression and, moreover very few have focused on epigenomic or metabolomic biomarkers related to the MedDiet. Nevertheless, these preliminary results can help to better understand the inter-individual differences in cardiovascular risk and dietary response for further applications in personalized nutrition.
Authors: de la Iglesia González, Rocío; Loria-Kohen, A. K.; Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Journal: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
ISSN 1422-0067  Vol. 17  Nº 11  2016  pp. 1877
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is established as the combination of central obesity and different metabolic disturbances, such as insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. This cluster of factors affects approximately 10%¿50% of adults worldwide and the prevalence has been increasing in epidemic proportions over the last years. Thus, dietary strategies to treat this heterogenic disease are under continuous study. In this sense, diets based on negative-energy-balance, the Mediterranean dietary pattern, n-3 fatty acids, total antioxidant capacity and meal frequency have been suggested as effective approaches to treat MetS. Furthermore, the type and percentage of carbohydrates, the glycemic index or glycemic load, and dietary fiber content are some of the most relevant aspects related to insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance, which are important co-morbidities of MetS. Finally, new studies focused on the molecular action of specific nutritional bioactive compounds with positive effects on the MetS are currently an objective of scientific research worldwide. The present review summarizes some of the most relevant dietary approaches and bioactive compounds employed in the treatment of the MetS to date.
Authors: Etxeberría Aramburu, Usune; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; González Navarro, Carlos Javier; et al.
Journal: ANALES DE LA REAL ACADEMIA NACIONAL DE FARMACIA
ISSN 1697-4271  Vol. 82  2016  pp. 234 - 259
La contribución de la microbiota intestinal al desarrollo de diversas enfermedades, incluyendo la obesidad, se está estudiando minuciosamente. Aunque los mecanismos no están completamente definidos, las perturbaciones en la composición de la microbiota intestinal parecen estar relacionados con el sobrepeso, revelando alteraciones en los niveles de Bacteriodetes y Firmicutes en comparación con individuos delgados. La modulación de la comunidad bacteriana intestinal orientada a favorecer el crecimiento de bacterias "saludables" y reducir las dañinas podría ser una eficaz herramienta terapéutica contra la obesidad. El consumo de dietas con alto contenido en grasa y azúcares afecta notablemente a la composición de la microbiota, alterando su equilibrio hacia patrones asociados a obesidad, siendo un punto de partida para un tratamiento de precisión de esta enfermedad. La interacción entre componentes de la dieta y la microbiota intestinal podría ser, en parte, responsable de sus beneficios para la salud, por lo que la administración de compuestos bioactivos podría promover el crecimiento de bacterias beneficiosas en detrimento de otras patógenas o asociadas a la obesidad. El impacto sobre el metaboloma de las intervenciones dietéticas y la administración de polifenoles se podría identificar mediante metabolómica no dirigida de las heces, permitiendo estratificar los individuos en función de la intervención dietética con el fin de aplicar tratamientos personalizados. Esta revisión pretende proporcionar una instantánea de este sistema complejo que comprende microbiota intestinal, dieta, polifenoles, metabolismo del individuo y obesidad, y cuyo conocimiento se beneficia de tecnologías avanzadas como la secuenciación de última generación y la metabolómica no dirigida.
Authors: Goñi Mateos, Leticia; Cuervo Zapatel, Marta; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 0022-3166  Vol. 146  Nº 4  2016  pp. 905S - 912S
As obesity has become a major global public health challenge, a large number of studies have analyzed different strategies aimed at inducing a negative energy balance and, consequently, body weight loss. However, most existing weight loss programs are generally unsuccessful, so several interventions have been carried out to identify physiologic and behavioral factors concerning this variability in order to implement more personalized treatment. Nowadays, an individualized approach is being proposed through so-called personalized nutrition, whereby not only the phenotype but also the genotype is used for customized nutrition treatment. Regarding body weight regulation, ~70 polymorphisms have been identified in or near genes related to energy expenditure, appetite, adipogenesis, insulin resistance, and lipid metabolism. Although personalized nutrition refers mainly to genetic makeup, recent advances in the investigation of the epigenome and themicrobiome open the door to implementmore personalized recommendations for bodyweightmanagement. In this context, recent studies have demonstrated the existence of several epigeneticmarkers thatmay modify gene expression and could be involved in the outcome of weight loss interventions. Moreover, different studies have shown that dietary interventions could affect the composition of gut microbiota and have an impact on body weight. The integration of nutrigenetic, epigenetic, and metagenomic data may lead to the design of more personalized dietary treatments to prevent chronic diseases and to optimize the individual's response to dietary interventions.
Authors: Sánchez-Íñigo, L.; Navarro-González, D.; Fernández Montero, Alejandro; et al.
Journal: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION
ISSN 0014-2972  Vol. 46  Nº 2  2016  pp. 189 - 197
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the worldwide leading cause of morbidity and mortality. An early risk detection of apparently healthy people before CVD onset has clinical relevance in the prevention of cardiovascular events. We evaluated the association between the product of fasting plasma glucose and triglycerides (TyG index) and CVD. Material and Methods: A total of 5014 patients of the Vascular Metabolic CUN cohort (VMCUN cohort) were followed up during a median period of 10 years. We used a Cox proportional-hazard ratio with repeated measures to estimate the risk of incidence of CVD across quintiles of the TyG index, calculated as ln[fasting triglycerides (mg/dL) × fasting plasma glucose (mg(dL)/2], and plotted a receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve to compare a prediction model fitted on the variables used in the Framingham risk score, a new model containing the Framingham variables with the TyG index, and the risk of coronary heart disease. Results: A higher level of TyG index was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing CVD independent of confounding factors with a value of 2·32 (95% CI: 1·65-3·26) for those in the highest quintile and 1·52 (95% CI: 1·07-2·16) for those in the fourth quintile. The areas under the curve (AUC) of the ROC plots were 0·708 (0·68-0·73) for the Framingham model and 0·719 (0·70-0·74) for the Framingham + TyG index model (P = 0·014). Conclusions: The TyG index, a simple measure reflecting insulin resistance, might be useful to early identify individuals at a high risk of developing a cardiovascular event.
Authors: Gracia, A.; Miranda, J.; Fernández-Quintela, A.; et al.
Journal: FOOD & FUNCTION
ISSN 2042-6496  Vol. 7  Nº 3  2016  pp. 1680 - 1688
The epigenetic mechanisms of action of resveratrol as an anti-obesity molecule have not been fully addressed so far. The aim of the present study was to assess changes produced by resveratrol in the microRNA (miRNA) profile in white adipose tissue (WAT) and to relate these changes to those induced in the expression of genes involved in triacylglycerol metabolism. Male Wistar rats were fed (6 weeks) an obesogenic diet: a control group and a group treated with resveratrol (30 mg kg(-1) d(-1)). A miRNA microarray was carried out in perirenal adipose tissue. The overexpression of miR-539-5p and miR-1224-5p was performed in 3T3-L1 cells. Protein expression was analysed by western-blot and gene expression by qRT-PCR. Associations between variables were assessed by Pearson's correlations. The microarray showed that 3 miRNAs were decreased and 13 were increased after resveratrol treatment. Among those miRNAs increased, miR-129, miR-328-5p and miR-539-5p showed predicted target genes relevant for triacylglycerol metabolism in WAT (ppar¿: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, hsl: hormone sensitive lipase and sp1: SP1 transcription factor) in the miRWalk database. Moreover, the literature shows that miR-1224, another miRNA up-regulated by resveratrol, can also regulate sp1. Among the three targets, only SP1 showed a reduction in protein expression. Correlation and overexpression studies revealed that the decrease in SP1 protein expression was only associated with the increase of miR-539-5p. In addition, significant reductions in SREBP1 protein expression and fasn gene expression were found in resveratrol-treated rats. In conclusion, the up-regulation of miR-539-5p is involved in the inhibition of de novo lipogenesis induced by resveratrol in WAT.
Authors: Ibero Baraibar, Idoia; Suárez, M.; Arola-Arnal, A.; et al.
Journal: FOOD & NUTRITION RESEARCH
ISSN 1654-6628  Vol. 60  2016  pp. 30449
Background: Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations. Objective: To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated. Design: Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention study. Half of the volunteers consumed a test meal enriched with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (415 mg flavanols), while the rest of the volunteers consumed the same meal without the cocoa extract (control group). Glucose and lipid profile, as well as blood pressure and cocoa metabolites in plasma, were assessed before and at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption, at the beginning of the study (Postprandial 1) and after following a 4-week 15% energy-restricted diet including meals containing or not containing the cocoa extract (Postprandial 2). Results: In the Postprandial 1 test, the area under the curve (AUC) of systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly higher in the cocoa group compared with the control group (p=0.007), showing significant differences after 120 min of intake. However, no differences between groups were observed at Postprandial 2. Interestingly, the reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP (AUC_Postprandial 2-AUC_Postprandial 1) was higher in the cocoa group (p=0.016). Furthermore, cocoa-derived metabolites were detected in plasma of the cocoa group, while the absence or significantly lower amounts of metabolites were found in the control group. Conclusions: The daily consumption of cocoa extract within an energy-restricted diet for 4 weeks resulted in a greater reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP compared with the effect of energy-restricted diet alone and independently of body weight loss. These results suggest the role of cocoa flavanols on postprandial blood pressure homeostasis.
Authors: García-Lacarte, M.; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Journal: REDOX REPORT
ISSN 1351-0002  Vol. 21  Nº 2  2016  pp. 67 - 74
OBJECTIVES: Epigenetic markers, and in particular DNA methylation, have come to the fore as new tools in the personalization of the treatment of obesity and its comorbidities. The objectives of the current investigation were to identify epigenetic biomarkers that might be predictive of response to a weight-loss intervention, and to better understand the influence of certain nutrients (particularly antioxidants) on the epigenome. METHODS: Global DNA (LINE-1) methylation levels were assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 96 obese volunteers of the Metabolic Syndrome Reduction in Navarra study, using a methylation-sensitive high resolution melting approach after bisulfite modification. RESULTS: Baseline LINE-1 DNA methylation levels were significantly higher (5.41%) in high responders (>8% of weight loss) as compared to low responders (<8%) to the energy-restricted treatment. Indeed, a LINE-1 methylation higher than 84.15% may be predictive of a high response to the hypocaloric diet. Statistically significant correlations were found between LINE-1 baseline DNA methylation levels and the response to the treatment involving total fat mass and body weight. Furthermore, LINE-1 baseline methylation levels positively correlated with baseline dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC). DISCUSSION: LINE-1 methylation levels in PBMCs might be used to predict response to a dietary weight-loss intervention, and seem to be related to the dietary TAC.
Authors: Solas Zubiaurre, Maite; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Martínez Urbistondo, Diego; et al.
Journal: TRENDS IN PHARMACOLOGICAL SCIENCES
ISSN 0165-6147  Vol. 37  Nº 7  2016  pp. 575-593
Five pharmaceutical strategies are currently approved by the US FDA for the treatment of obesity: orlistat, lorcaserin, liraglutide, phentermine/topiramate, and bupropion/naltrexone. The most effective treatment seems to be the combined administration of phentermine/topiramate followed by lorcaserin and bupropion/naltrexone. In relation to the management of excessive weight, other aspects also need to be considered, including comorbidities accompanying obesity, drug interactions, and the risk of negative collateral effects, as well as individualized treatments based on the genetic make-up. This review aims to provide an overview of the approved anti-obesity drugs and newer molecules that could affect different targets in the central nervous system or peripheral tissues, the molecular mechanisms, emerging dietary treatments and phytogenic compounds, and pharmacogenetic/nutrigenetic approaches for personalized obesity management.
Authors: O'Donovan, C. B.; Walsh, M. C. ; Forster, H.; et al.
Journal: GENES AND NUTRITION
ISSN 1555-8932  Vol. 11  2016  pp. 25
BACKGROUND: It is hypothesised that individuals with knowledge of their genetic risk are more likely to make health-promoting dietary and lifestyle changes. The present study aims to test this hypothesis using data from the Food4Me study. This was a 6-month Internet-based randomised controlled trial conducted across seven centres in Europe where individuals received either general healthy eating advice or varying levels of personalised nutrition advice. Participants who received genotype-based personalised advice were informed whether they had the risk (CT/TT) (n¿=¿178) or non-risk (CC) (n¿=¿141) alleles of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in relation to cardiovascular health and the importance of a sufficient intake of folate. General linear model analysis was used to assess changes in folate intake between the MTHFR risk, MTHFR non-risk and control groups from baseline to month 6 of the intervention. RESULTS: There were no differences between the groups for age, gender or BMI. However, there was a significant difference in country distribution between the groups (p¿=¿0.010). Baseline folate intakes were 412¿±¿172, 391¿±¿190 and 410¿±¿186 ¿g per 10 MJ for the risk, non-risk and control groups, respectively. There were no significant differences between the three groups in terms of changes in folate intakes from baseline to month 6. Similarly, there were no changes in reported intake of food groups high in folate. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that knowledge of MTHFR 677C¿¿¿T genotype did not improve folate intake in participants with the risk variant compared with those with the non-risk variant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01530139.
Authors: Goñi Mateos, Leticia; Aray-Miranda, M.; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; et al.
Journal: NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA
ISSN 0212-1611  Vol. 33  Nº 6  2016  pp. 1391 - 1399
Introduction: The assessment of intake and eating habits become increasingly important to relate them to the risk of disease. In this sense, food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) are a common dietary tool used in both clinical practice and nutritional epidemiological studies. Objective: The aim of the study was the validation of a food groups frequency questionnaire (FGFQ) based on an exchange system, in relation to a 7 days food record (FR) used as reference. Methods: A total of 60 healthy adults (males and females) were recruited. To each one a dietitian applied the FGFQ to be validated and then gave instructions for completing the 7 days FR used as a reference standard. Energy and macronutrient distribution were calculated for both methods and appropriate statistical methods were applied. Results: The correlation coeffi cients comparing methods were found between r = 0.3 and r = 0.6 (p < 0.01), and the intraclass correlation coeffi cient between r = 0.2 and r = 0.6 (p < 0.01). The cross-classifi cation analysis revealed that over 80% of individuals were classifi ed into identical and contiguous quartiles from both dietary methods. Conclusions: The proposed FGFQ, based on an exchange system of 19 groups, has obtained comparable results to other similar models for assessing of energy and macronutrient distribution with a more rapid outcome.
Authors: Díaz-Gutiérrez, J.; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Pons Izquierdo, Juan José; et al.
Journal: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 11  Nº 11  2016  pp. e0164483
BACKGROUND: Residence at high altitude has been associated with lower obesity rates probably due to hypoxia conditions. However, there is no evidence of this association in a free-living population. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the association between the altitude where each participant of a Spanish cohort (the SUN Project) was living and the incidence of overweight/obesity. METHODS: The SUN Project is a dynamic, prospective, multipurpose cohort of Spanish university graduates with a retention rate of 89%. We included in the analysis 9 365 participants free of overweight/obesity at baseline. At the baseline questionnaire, participants reported their postal code and the time they had been living in their city/village. We imputed the altitude of each postal code according to the data of the Spanish National Cartographic Institute and categorized participants in tertiles. We used Cox regression models to adjust for potential confounding variables. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 10 years, we identified 2 156 incident cases of overweight/obesity. After adjusting for sex, age, time of residence at current city, baseline body mass index, physical activity, sedentarism and years of education (¿ 3 years, ¿ 4 years, Master/PhD), those participants in the third tertile (>456 m) exhibited a statistically significant 14% reduction in the risk of developing overweight/obesity in comparison to those in the first tertile (<124 m) (adjusted HR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.96). CONCLUSIONS: Living in cities of higher altitude was inversely associated with the risk of developing overweight/obesity in a cohort of Spanish university graduates.
Authors: Ibero Baraibar, Idoia; Pérez Cornago, Aurora; Ramírez Gil, María Javier; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 0022-3166  Vol. 146  Nº 4  2016  pp. 897S - 904S
BACKGROUND: Obesity has been associated with various health disorders, including psychological alterations. Cocoa consumption and weight management may produce a beneficial effect on these problems. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cocoa extract supplementation as part of an energy-restricted diet on psychological status and peripheral dopaminergic activity in overweight or obese middle-aged subjects. METHODS: In a 4-wk, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled parallel nutritional intervention, 22 men and 25 women [mean ± SD age: 57 ± 5 y; body mass index (kg/m2): 30.6 ± 2.3] were studied. After a 1-wk run-in period, volunteers consumed 15% energy-restricted diets; one-half of the volunteers were randomly assigned to receive ready-to-eat meals supplemented with 1.4 g cocoa extract/d (645 mg total polyphenols/d), whereas the rest of the volunteers received the same meals without cocoa supplementation. Plasma monoamines [dopamine, dopac, and homovanillic acid (HVA)], monoamine oxidase (MAO), and psychological status (anxiety and depressive symptoms) were analyzed in fasting participants at baseline and endpoint. Data were analyzed over time, and regression and correlation analyses were conducted to determine the relation between variables. RESULTS: Depressive symptoms decreased in both groups after the intervention (control: -9.4%, P < 0.001; cocoa: -6.3%, P = 0.008), but anxiety symptoms did not. The increase in plasma HVA was 11.5% greater in the cocoa group than in the control group (P = 0.016), but plasma dopamine, dopac, and MAO changes did not differ between groups. A negative relation between changes in depressive symptoms and changes in plasma HVA was observed in the cocoa group (ß = -0.39, P = 0.029). Moreover, the change in plasma dopamine was positively associated with the change in methyl-catechin-O-glucoronide in the cocoa-supplemented group (r = 0.69, P = 0.019). CONCLUSION: The intake of cocoa extract by participants consuming a 15% energy-restricted diet contributed to an increase in plasma HVA concentrations. This change was associated with a reduction in depressive symptoms, suggesting a potential effect of cocoa extract intake on this relation. The present results are secondary analyses of a clinical trial that was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01596309.
Authors: Livingstone, K. M.; Celis-Morales, C.; Lara, J.; et al.
Journal: PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION
ISSN 1368-9800  Vol. 19  Nº 18  2016  pp. 3296 - 3305
OBJECTIVE: To characterise clusters of individuals based on adherence to dietary recommendations and to determine whether changes in Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores in response to a personalised nutrition (PN) intervention varied between clusters. DESIGN: Food4Me study participants were clustered according to whether their baseline dietary intakes met European dietary recommendations. Changes in HEI scores between baseline and month 6 were compared between clusters and stratified by whether individuals received generalised or PN advice. SETTING: Pan-European, Internet-based, 6-month randomised controlled trial. SUBJECTS: Adults aged 18-79 years (n 1480). RESULTS: Individuals in cluster 1 (C1) met all recommended intakes except for red meat, those in cluster 2 (C2) met two recommendations, and those in cluster 3 (C3) and cluster 4 (C4) met one recommendation each. C1 had higher intakes of white fish, beans and lentils and low-fat dairy products and lower percentage energy intake from SFA (P<0·05). C2 consumed less chips and pizza and fried foods than C3 and C4 (P<0·05). C1 were lighter, had lower BMI and waist circumference than C3 and were more physically active than C4 (P<0·05). More individuals in C4 were smokers and wanted to lose weight than in C1 (P<0·05). Individuals who received PN advice in C4 reported greater improvements in HEI compared with C3 and C1 (P<0·05). CONCLUSIONS: The cluster where the fewest recommendations were met (C4) reported greater improvements in HEI following a 6-month trial of PN whereas there was no difference between clusters for those randomised to the Control, non-personalised dietary intervention.
Authors: Laiglesia González, Laura María; Lorente Cebrián, Silvia; Prieto Hontoria, Pedro Luis; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF NUTRITIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY
ISSN 0955-2863  Vol. 37  2016  pp. 76 - 82
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, has been reported to have beneficial effects in obesity-associated metabolic disorders. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of EPA on the regulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism, and the ability of EPA to induce mitochondrial biogenesis and beiging in subcutaneous adipocytes from overweight subjects. Fully differentiated human subcutaneous adipocytes from overweight females (BMI: 28.1-29.8kg/m2) were treated with EPA (100-200 ¿M) for 24 h. Changes in mRNA expression levels of genes involved in lipogenesis, fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis were determined by qRT-PCR. Mitochondrial content was evaluated using MitoTracker® Green stain. The effects on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, co-activator 1 alpha (PGC-1¿) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were also characterized. EPA down-regulated lipogenic genes expression while up-regulated genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. Moreover, EPA-treated adipocytes showed increased mitochondrial content, accompanied by an up-regulation of nuclear respiratory factor-1, mitochondrial transcription factor A and cytochrome c oxidase IV mRNA expression. EPA also promoted the activation of master regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis such as sirtuin 1, PGC1-¿ and AMPK. In parallel, EPA induced the expression of genes that typify beige adipocytes such as fat determination factor PR domain containing 16, uncoupling protein 1 and cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector A, T-Box protein 1 and CD137. Our results suggest that EPA induces a remodeling of adipocyte metabolism preventing fat storage and promoting fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial biogenesis and beige-like markers in human subcutaneous adipocytes from overweight subjects.
Authors: Navas Carretero, Santiago; Holst, C.; Saris, W. H.; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF NUTRITION
ISSN 0731-5724  Vol. 35  Nº 1  2016  pp. 20 - 30
Objective: Maintenance of weight loss and associated cardiovascular benefits after following energy-restricted diets is still a challenging field, and thorough investigation is needed. The present research aimed to determine the role of protein and gender in relation to two different intervention models related to food supply, in a weight maintenance trial. Subjects and Methods: The DiOGenes trial was a long-term, multicenter, randomized, dietary intervention study, conducted in eight European countries (Clinical Trials.gov, NCT00390637), focusing on assessing the effectiveness of weight maintenance over 6 months. This secondary analysis intended to evaluate the different benefits for weight maintenance and cardiometabolic markers of two dietary advice delivery models: "shop + instruction intervention" vs "instruction-alone intervention," which were further categorized for gender and macronutrient intake. Results: The weight maintenance intervention based on different macronutrient intake showed, independently of the advice delivery model, in both sexes that higher protein consumption was more effective for weight stability, showing better results in obese women (low protein: 1.65 kg in males and 0.73 Kg in females vs high protein: 1.45 kg in males and -0.93 Kg in females) . Measurements concerning cardiovascular risk markers from subjects on both structured models produced similar trends in the subsequent follow-up period, with a lower rebound in women for most of the markers analyzed. Conclusion: The reported dietary benefits for weight sustainability should be ascribed to the macronutrient distribution (higher protein diets) rather than to the structured mode of delivery. Higher weight regain in males was noted, as well as a metabolic divergence attributable to the sex, with a better biochemical outcome in women.
Authors: Livingstone, K. M.; Celis-Morales, C.; Navas Carretero, Santiago; et al.
Journal: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 1436-6207  Vol. 55  Nº 2  2016  pp. 759 - 769
PURPOSE: Personalised interventions may have greater potential for reducing the global burden of non-communicable diseases and for promoting better health and well-being across the lifespan than the conventional "one size fits all" approach. However, the characteristics of individuals interested in personalised nutrition (PN) are unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of European adults interested in taking part in an internet-based PN study. METHODS: Individuals from seven European countries (UK, Ireland, Germany, The Netherlands, Spain, Greece and Poland) were invited to participate in the study via the Food4Me website ( http://www.food4me.org ). Two screening questionnaires were used to collect data on socio-demographic, anthropometric and health-related characteristics as well as dietary intakes. RESULTS: A total of 5662 individuals expressed an interest in the study (mean age 40 ± 12.7; range 15-87 years). Of these, 65 % were female and 97 % were Caucasian. Overall, 13 % were smokers and 47 % reported the presence of a clinically diagnosed disease. Furthermore, 47 % were overweight or obese and 35 % were sedentary during leisure time. Assessment of dietary intakes showed that 54 % of individuals reported consuming at least 5 portions of fruit and vegetables per day, 46 % consumed more than 3 servings of wholegrains and 37 % limited their salt intake to <5.75 g per day. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that individuals volunteering to participate in an internet-based PN study are broadly representative of the European adult population, most of whom had adequate nutrient intakes but could benefit from improved dietary choices and greater physical activity. Future use of internet-based PN approaches is thus relevant to a wide target audience.
Authors: Hernández Ruiz de Eguilaz, María; Batlle, MA; Martínez de Morentin Aldabe, Blanca Esther; et al.
Journal: ANALES DEL SISTEMA SANITARIO DE NAVARRA
ISSN 1137-6627  Vol. 39  Nº 2  2016  pp. 269-289
A high caloric intake in today's nutrition and a sedentary lifestyle are the main causes of the notable increase in obesity in our society. In turn, this results in an increase in associated pathologies, such as metabolic syndrome and diabetes type 2. In the present work we review most recent studies and programs, which are significant due to their sample size and geographical diversity. It clearly shows that changes in alimentation and lifestyles are an effective instrument for combatting or delaying the onset of these diseases. In this sense, prevention is also key to avoiding serious consequences related to diabetes and metabolic syndrome, which can affect the life of the population.
Authors: Kirwan, L. ; Walsh, M. C.; Celis-Morales, C.; et al.
Journal: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 0007-1145  Vol. 116  Nº 12  2016  pp. 2011 - 2019
Individual response to dietary interventions can be highly variable. The phenotypic characteristics of those who will respond positively to personalised dietary advice are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to compare the phenotypic profiles of differential responders to personalised dietary intervention, with a focus on total circulating cholesterol. Subjects from the Food4Me multi-centre study were classified as responders or non-responders to dietary advice on the basis of the change in cholesterol level from baseline to month 6, with lower and upper quartiles defined as responder and non-responder groups, respectively. There were no significant differences between demographic and anthropometric profiles of the groups. Furthermore, with the exception of alcohol, there was no significant difference in reported dietary intake, at baseline. However, there were marked differences in baseline fatty acid profiles. The responder group had significantly higher levels of stearic acid (18 : 0, P= 0.034) and lower levels of palmitic acid (16 : 0, P= 0.009). Total MUFA (P= 0.016) and total PUFA (P= 0.008) also differed between the groups. In a step-wise logistic regression model, age, baseline total cholesterol, glucose, five fatty acids and alcohol intakes were selected as factors that successfully discriminated responders from non-responders, with sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 83%. The successful delivery of personalised dietary advice may depend on our ability to identify phenotypes that are responsive. The results demonstrate the potential use of metabolic profiles in identifying response to an intervention and could play an important role in the development of precision nutrition.
Authors: Ferguson, L. R.; De-Caterina, R.; Görman, U.; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF NUTRIGENETICS AND NUTRIGENOMICS
ISSN 1661-6499  Vol. 9  Nº 1  2016  pp. 12 - 27
Diversity in the genetic profile between individuals and specific ethnic groups affects nutrient requirements, metabolism and response to nutritional and dietary interventions. Indeed, individuals respond differently to lifestyle interventions (diet, physical activity, smoking, etc.). The sequencing of the human genome and subsequent increased knowledge regarding human genetic variation is contributing to the emergence of personalized nutrition. These advances in genetic science are raising numerous questions regarding the mode that precision nutrition can contribute solutions to emerging problems in public health, by reducing the risk and prevalence of nutrition-related diseases. Current views on personalized nutrition encompass omics technologies (nutrigenomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics, foodomics, metabolomics, metagenomics, etc.), functional food development and challenges related to legal and ethical aspects, application in clinical practice, and population scope, in terms of guidelines and epidemiological factors. In this context, precision nutrition can be considered as occurring at three levels: (1) conventional nutrition based on general guidelines for population groups by age, gender and social determinants; (2) individualized nutrition that adds phenotypic information about the person's current nutritional status (e.g. anthropometry, biochemical and metabolic analysis, physical activity, among others), and (3) genotype-directed nutrition based on rare or common gene variation. Research and appropriate translation into medical practice and dietary recommendations must be based on a solid foundation of knowledge derived from studies on nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics. A scientific society, such as the International Society of Nutrigenetics/Nutrigenomics (ISNN), internationally devoted to the study of nutrigenetics/nutrigenomics, can indeed serve the commendable roles of (1) promoting science and favoring scientific communication and (2) permanently working as a 'clearing house' to prevent disqualifying logical jumps, correct or stop unwarranted claims, and prevent the creation of unwarranted expectations in patients and in the general public. In this statement, we are focusing on the scientific aspects of disciplines covering nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics issues. Genetic screening and the ethical, legal, social and economic aspects will be dealt with in subsequent statements of the Society.
Authors: Marinoni, M.; Cordero Sánchez, Paul; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLIC DISORDERS
ISSN 2380-548X  Vol. 2  Nº 1  2016  pp. 1 - 4
Abstract Obesity is now considered to be a global epidemic, impacting a great number of women and leading to a higher risk of obstetrical and gestational complications. One of such possible adverse outcomes in gestating female is placental hypoxia, which has been related to vascular remodeling and hypertension, as well as adaptive phenomena to reduce levels of oxidative stress and damage. A pool of female Sprague Dawley rats (n=63) was first assigned into two dietary groups (Control and High Sugar). Following mating, the pregnant rats (n=39) were again distributed into two oxygen treatment groups (Normoxia and Hypoxia) for 3 weeks, and tissue sampling and biochemical analyses were carried out. The main results of this study are the following: 1) Hypoxia during gestation may lead to a reduction in the average number of pups per mother, 2) Hypoxia during gestation treatment may lead to a decrease in maternal serum TG levels, and consequentially 3) Hypoxia during gestation may lead to a reduction in TyG Index levels. These results suggest that hypoxia could generate a beneficial response in pregnant Sprague Dawley rats to salvage both maternal and fetal viability. Thus, reproducing mild hypoxic conditions could result being a viable therapeutic option in preventing gestational adversities. In conclusion, progress was made in recognizing the possible role of a mild hypoxic environment in stimulating a maternal protective response.
Authors: Livingstone, K. M.; Celis-Morales, C.; Navas Carretero, Santiago; et al.
Journal: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 0007-1145  Vol. 115  Nº 3  2016  pp. 440 - 448
The interplay between the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene variants and diet has been implicated in the development of obesity. The aim of the present analysis was to investigate associations between FTO genotype, dietary intakes and anthropometrics among European adults. Participants in the Food4Me randomised controlled trial were genotyped for FTO genotype (rs9939609) and their dietary intakes, and diet quality scores (Healthy Eating Index and PREDIMED-based Mediterranean diet score) were estimated from FFQ. Relationships between FTO genotype, diet and anthropometrics (weight, waist circumference (WC) and BMI) were evaluated at baseline. European adults with the FTO risk genotype had greater WC (AAv. TT: +1·4 cm; P=0·003) and BMI (+0·9 kg/m2; P=0·001) than individuals with no risk alleles. Subjects with the lowest fried food consumption and two copies of the FTO risk variant had on average 1·4 kg/m2 greater BMI (Ptrend=0·028) and 3·1 cm greater WC (Ptrend=0·045) compared with individuals with no copies of the risk allele and with the lowest fried food consumption. However, there was no evidence of interactions between FTO genotype and dietary intakes on BMI and WC, and thus further research is required to confirm or refute these findings.
Authors: Sala-Vila, A.; Guash-Ferré, M.; Hu, F. B.; et al.
Journal: AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION. JOURNAL. CARDIOVASCULAR AND CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE
ISSN 2047-9980  Vol. 5  Nº 1  2016  pp. e002543
Background Epidemiological evidence suggests a cardioprotective role of ¿¿linolenic acid (ALA), a plant¿derived ¿¿3 fatty acid. It is unclear whether ALA is beneficial in a background of high marine ¿¿3 fatty acids (long¿chain n¿3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) intake. In persons at high cardiovascular risk from Spain, a country in which fish consumption is customarily high, we investigated whether meeting the International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids recommendation for dietary ALA (0.7% of total energy) at baseline was related to all¿cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. We also examined the effect of meeting the society's recommendation for long¿chain n¿3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (¿500 mg/day). Methods and Results We longitudinally evaluated 7202 participants in the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial. Multivariable¿adjusted Cox regression models were fitted to estimate hazard ratios. ALA intake correlated to walnut consumption (r=0.94). During a 5.9¿y follow¿up, 431 deaths occurred (104 cardiovascular disease, 55 coronary heart disease, 32 sudden cardiac death, 25 stroke). The hazard ratios for meeting ALA recommendation (n=1615, 22.4%) were 0.72 (95% CI 0.56¿0.92) for all¿cause mortality and 0.95 (95% CI 0.58¿1.57) for fatal cardiovascular disease. The hazard ratios for meeting the recommendation for long¿chain n¿3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n=5452, 75.7%) were 0.84 (95% CI 0.67¿1.05) for all¿cause mortality, 0.61 (95% CI 0.39¿0.96) for fatal cardiovascular disease, 0.54 (95% CI 0.29¿0.99) for fatal coronary heart disease, and 0.49 (95% CI 0.22¿1.01) for sudden cardiac death. The highest reduction in all¿cause mortality occurred in participants meeting both recommendations (hazard ratio 0.63 [95% CI 0.45¿0.87]). Conclusions In participants without prior cardiovascular disease and high fish consumption, dietary ALA, supplied mainly by walnuts and olive oil, relates inversely to all¿cause mortality, whereas protection from cardiac mortality is limited to fish¿derived long¿chain n¿3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Authors: Navarro-González D; Sánchez-Íñigo L; Pastrana Delgado, Juan Carlos; et al.
Journal: PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
ISSN 0091-7435  Vol. 86  2016  pp. 99-105
Our data suggest that the TyG index is useful for the early identification of individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes. The TyG index seems to be a better predictor than FPG or triglycerides of the potential development of type 2 diabetes in normoglycemic patients.
Authors: Palacios Ortega, Sara; Varela Guruceaga, Maider; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; et al.
Journal: ADIPOCYTE
ISSN 2162-3945  Vol. 5  Nº 1  2016  pp. 65 - 80
Adipocytes exposed to high glucose concentrations exhibit impaired metabolic function, including an increase of oxidative and proinflammatory factors that might favor the development of insulin resistance. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is a key mediator of the insulin transduction pathway whose expression is significantly enhanced during adipocyte differentiation. In this work, we studied the effects of high glucose concentration on the regulation of Cav-1 expression and activation and its relation to the insulin signaling pathway during the adipogenic process and in long-term differentiated adipocytes. Both, long-term high glucose exposure during adipogenesis and short-term glucose incubation of mature adipocytes, promoted triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. The short-term exposure of mature adipocytes to high glucose significantly reduced the sensitivity to insulin of Cav-1, insulin receptor (IR) and potein kinase B (AKT-2) phosphorylation, as well as insulin-induced deoxyglucose uptake. Adipocytes differentiated in the presence of high glucose lost Cav-1 and IR response to insulin-stimulated phosphorylation, but maintained the insulin sensitivity of AKT-2 phosphorylation and deoxyglucose uptake. Although long-term high glucose exposure increased DNA methylation in Cav-1 promoter, Cav-1 expression was not affected. Moreover, these cells showed an increase of Cav-1, IR and AKT-2 protein content, pointing to an adaptive response induced by the long-term high glucose exposure.
Authors: Carraro, J. C.; Hermsdorff, H. H.; Mansego Talavera, María Luisa; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF NUTRIGENETICS AND NUTRIGENOMICS
ISSN 1661-6499  Vol. 9  Nº 2 - 4  2016  pp. 95 - 105
BACKGROUND/AIM: This study hypothesized an association between healthy dietary patterns, hypermethylation of the tumor necrosis factor-¿ (TNF-¿) promoter and decreased risk of metabolic changes. METHODS: Forty normal-weight young women were involved in this cross-sectional study. DNA was isolated from white blood cells, and CpG site methylation in TNF-¿ was analyzed by Sequenom EpiTyper. The quality of the diet was assessed by Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2005). RESULTS: Contradicting our hypothesis, HEI-2005 score was negatively associated with CpG5 (r = -0.460, p = 0.003) and TNF-¿ total methylation (r = -0.355, p = 0.026). A higher intake of fruits was related to lower insulin, HOMA-IR, and TNF-¿ methylation. No other dietary pattern was related to TNF-¿ methylation. TNF-¿ total methylation correlated positively with systolic blood pressure (r = 0.323; p = 0.042) and CpG5 methylation with body mass index (r = 0.333, p = 0.036). Furthermore, fiber intake was negatively associated with the CpG5 (r = -0.324, p = 0.041) and TNF-¿ total methylation (r = -0.434, p = 0.005), whereas vitamin C intake was negatively associated with TNF-¿ total methylation (r = -0.411, p = 0.009). Intakes of apples and citrus fruits were negatively associated with TNF-¿ total methylation. CONCLUSION: A healthy dietary pattern and higher fruit intake (particularly apples and citrus fruits) were related to better glucose tolerance in healthy subjects, which could be mediated by lower TNF-¿ methylation.
Authors: Sánchez Íñigo, L; Navarro González, D; Pastrana Delgado, Juan Carlos; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF HYPERTENSION
ISSN 1473-5598  Vol. 34  Nº 7  2016  pp. 1257-1265
Triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are known to be risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, there has been limited knowledge on the relationship between triglycerides and incident hypertension. The associations of incident hypertension with triglycerides and triglycerides-related indices such as triglycerides to HDL-C ratio (TG/HDL-C) and triglyceride-glucose index (TyG) were evaluated.
Authors: Navarro-González, D.; Sánchez-Íñigo, L.; Fernández Montero, Alejandro; et al.
Journal: MEDICINE (BALTIMORE)
ISSN 0025-7974  Vol. 95  Nº 19  2016  pp. e3646
The risk of type 2 diabetes associated with obesity appears to be influenced by other metabolic abnormalities, and there is controversy about the harmless condition of the metabolically healthy obese (MHO) state. The aim of this study is to assess the risk of diabetes and the impact of changes in weight and in triglyceride-glucose index (TyG index), according to the metabolic health and obesity states.We analyzed prospective data of the Vascular Metabolic CUN cohort, a population-based study among a White European population (mean follow-up, 8.9 years). Incident diabetes was assessed in 1923 women and 3016 men with a mean age at baseline of 55.33¿±¿13.68 and 53.78¿±¿12.98 years old.A Cox proportional-hazard analysis was conducted to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of diabetes on metabolically healthy nonobese (MHNO), metabolically healthy obese, metabolically unhealthy nonobese (MUNO), and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO). A continuous standardized variable (z-score) was derived to compute the HR for diabetes per 1-SD increment in the body mass index (BMI) and the TyG index.MHO, MUNO, and MUO status were associated with the development of diabetes, HR of 2.26 (95% CI: 1.25-4.07), 3.04 (95% CI: 1.69-5.47), and 4.04 (95% CI: 2.14-7.63), respectively. MUNO individuals had 1.82 greater risk of diabetes compared to MHO subjects (95% CI: 1.04-3.22). The HRs for incident diabetes per 1-SD increment in BMI and TyG indexes were 1.23 (95% CI: 1.04-1.44) and 1.54 (95% CI: 1.40-1.68). The increase in BMI did not raise the risk of developing diabetes among metabolically unhealthy subjects, whereas increasing the TyG index significantly affect the risk in all metabolic health categories.Metabolic health is more important determinant for diabetes onset than weight gain. The increase in weight does not raise the risk of developing diabetes among metabolically unhealthy subjects.
Authors: Prieto Hontoria, Pedro Luis; Pérez Matute, Patricia; Fernández Galilea, Marta; et al.
Journal: BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-MOLECULAR AND CELL BIOLOGY OF LIPIDS
ISSN 1388-1981  Vol. 1861  Nº 3  2016  pp. 260 - 268
Chemerin is a novel adipokine associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Alpha-Lipoic acid (alpha-LA) has shown beneficial properties on diabetes and obesity. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of alpha-LA on chemerin production in adipocytes in absence or presence of TNF-alpha, insulin and AICAR. The potential signaling pathways involved in alpha-LA effects on chemerin were also analyzed. Alpha-LA actions on chemerin were tested in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in some cases in human subcutaneous and omental adipocytes. Chemerin mRNA levels were measured by RT-PCR and the amount of chemerin secreted to culture media was determined by ELISA. Alpha-LA induced a concentration-dependent inhibition on both chemerin secretion and mRNA levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The AMPK activator AICAR and the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 dramatically abrogated both chemerin secretion and gene expression, and further potentiated the inhibitory effect of alpha-LA on chemerin secretion. Insulin was able to partially reverse the inhibitory action of alpha-LA on chemerin secretion. Alpha-LA also reduced basal chemerin secretion in both subcutaneous and omental adipocytes from overweight/obese subjects. Moreover, alpha-LA was able to abolish the stimulatory effects of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha on chemerin secretion. Our data demonstrated the ability of alpha-LA to inhibit chemerin production, an adipokine associated to obesity and metabolic syndrome, suggesting that
Authors: Crujeiras Martínez, Ana Belén; Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles; Abete Goñi, Itziar; et al.
Journal: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY
ISSN 0307-0565  Vol. 40  Nº 3  2016  pp. 403 - 410
The present research evaluated circulating betatrophin levels in obese patients with metabolic syndrome features under energy-restricted weight-loss programs and in normal weight in order to stablish the putative interplay between the levels of this hormone, diet and metabolic risk factors linked to obesity and associated comorbidities.
Authors: García Calzón, Sonia; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Razquin Burillo, Cristina; et al.
Journal: CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0261-5614  Vol. 35  Nº 6  2016  pp. 1399 - 1405
Background & aims A healthy lifestyle has been associated with longer telomeres, but whether Mediterranean Diet (MeDiet) affect telomere length (TL) has not been fully elucidated yet. Our aim was to assess the relationship between MeDiet and TL in high cardiovascular risk subjects in the context of a randomized nutritional intervention trial. Methods We assessed 520 participants (55¿80 years, 55% women) from the PREDIMED-NAVARRA trial. Leukocyte TL was measured by qPCR at baseline and after 5 years of a dietary intervention program where subjects were randomly assigned to a low-fat control diet or to two MeDiets, one supplemented with extra virgin olive oil (MeDiet-EVOO) and the other with mixed nuts (MeDiet-nuts). A validated 14-item questionnaire was used to appraise baseline adherence of participants to the MeDiet. Results Better adherence to MeDiet (as appraised by the 14-item score) was associated with longer basal telomeres in women in the baseline cross-sectional analysis, whereas the opposite was observed in men (P interaction = 0.036). Female subjects who scored 10 points had longer basal telomeres (0.27, 95% CI: 0.03¿0.52) than women scoring ¿6 points at the beginning of the study (¿0.46, 95% CI: ¿0.85 to ¿0.7) (P = 0.003). However, allocation to the MeDiet-nuts group (¿0.24, 95% CI: ¿0.38 to ¿0.01) was associated with a higher risk of telomere shortening after 5 years of intervention, whereas no differences were found for the MeDiet-EVOO group (0.14, 95% CI: 0.02¿0.27), in comparison with the Control group (0.07, 95% CI: ¿0.08 to 0.23) (P = 0.003 and P = 0.537, respectively). Conclusion A greater baseline adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was associated with longer telomeres only in women. No beneficial effect of the intervention with the MeDiet for the prevention of telomere shortening in comparison with a low-fat diet was observed.
Authors: Albani, V.; Celis-Morales, C.; Marsaux, C. F.; et al.
Journal: MOLECULAR NUTRITION AND FOOD RESEARCH
ISSN 1613-4125  Vol. 60  Nº 4  2016  pp. 834 - 845
The use of biomarkers in the objective assessment of dietary intake is a high priority in nutrition research. The aim of this study was to examine pentadecanoic acid (C15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) as biomarkers of dairy foods intake. METHODS AND RESULTS: The data used in the present study were obtained as part of the Food4me Study. Estimates of C15:0 and C17:0 from dried blood spots and intakes of dairy from a Food Frequency Questionnaire were obtained from participants (n = 1180) across seven countries. Regression analyses were used to explore associations of biomarkers with dairy intake levels and receiver operating characteristic analyses were used to evaluate the fatty acids. Significant positive associations were found between C15:0 and total intakes of high-fat dairy products. C15:0 showed good ability to distinguish between low and high consumers of high-fat dairy products. CONCLUSION: C15:0 can be used as a biomarker of high-fat dairy intake and of specific high-fat dairy products. Both C15:0 and C17:0 performed poorly for total dairy intake highlighting the need for caution when using these in epidemiological studies.
Authors: Kohlmeier, M.; De Caterina, R.; Ferguson, L. R.; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF NUTRIGENETICS AND NUTRIGENOMICS
ISSN 1661-6499  Vol. 9  Nº 1  2016  pp. 28 - 46
Nutrigenetics considers the influence of individual genetic variation on differences in response to dietary components, nutrient requirements and predisposition to disease. Nutrigenomics involves the study of interactions between the genome and diet, including how nutrients affect the transcription and translation process plus subsequent proteomic and metabolomic changes, and also differences in response to dietary factors based on the individual genetic makeup. Personalized characteristics such as age, gender, physical activity, physiological state and social status, and special conditions such as pregnancy and risk of disease can inform dietary advice that more closely meets individual needs. Precision nutrition has a promising future in treating the individual according to their phenotype and genetic characteristics, aimed at both the treatment and prevention of disease. However, many aspects are still in progress and remain as challenges for the future of nutrition. The integration of the human genotype and microbiome needs to be better understood. Further advances in data interpretation tools are also necessary, so that information obtained through newer tests and technologies can be properly transferred to consumers. Indeed, precision nutrition will integrate genetic data with phenotypical, social, cultural and personal preferences and lifestyles matters to provide a more individual nutrition, but considering public health perspectives, where ethical, legal and policy aspects need to be defined and implemented.
Authors: Ibero Baraibar, Idoia; Romo Hualde, Ana; González Navarro, Carlos Javier; et al.
Journal: FOOD & FUNCTION
ISSN 2042-6496  Vol. 7  Nº 4  2016  pp. 1924 - 1931
Metabolomics is used to assess the compliance and bioavailability of food components, as well as to evaluate the metabolic changes associated with food consumption. This study aimed to analyze the effect of consuming ready-to-eat meals containing a cocoa extract, within an energy restricted diet on urinary metabolomic changes. Fifty middle-aged volunteers [30.6 (2.3) kg m(-2)] participated in a 4-week randomised, parallel and double-blind study. Half consumed meals supplemented with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (645 mg polyphenols) while the remaining subjects received meals without cocoa supplementation. Ready-to-eat meals were included within a 15% energy restricted diet. Urine samples (24 h) were collected at baseline and after 4 weeks and were analyzed by high-performance-liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry (HPLC-TOF-MS) in negative and positive ionization modes followed by multivariate analysis. The relationship between urinary metabolites was evaluated by the Spearman correlation test. Interestingly, the principal component analysis discriminated among the baseline group, control group at the endpoint and cocoa group at the endpoint (p < 0.01), although in the positive ionization mode the baseline and control groups were not well distinguished. Metabolites were related to theobromine metabolism (3-methylxanthine and 3-methyluric acid), food processing (L-beta-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine), flavonoids (2,5,7,3', 4'-pentahydroxyflavanone-5-O-glucoside and 7,4'-dimethoxy-6-C-methylflavanone), catecholamine (3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol-sulphate) and endogenous metabolism (uridine monophosphate). These metabolites were present in higher (p < 0.001) amounts in the cocoa group. 3-Methylxanthine and L-beta-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine were confirmed with standards. Interestingly, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol-sulphate was positively correlated with 3-methylxanthine (rho = 0.552; p < 0.001) and 7,4'-dimethoxy-6-C-methylflavanone (rho = 447; p = 0.002). In conclusion, the metabolomic approach supported the compliance of the volunteers with the intervention and suggested the bioavailability of cocoa compounds within the meals.
Authors: Fallaize, R.; Celis-Morales, C.; Macready , A. L.; et al.
Journal: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0002-9165  Vol. 104  Nº 3  2016  pp. 827 - 836
Background: The apolipoprotein E (APOE) risk allele (epsilon 4) is associated with higher total cholesterol (TC), amplified response to saturated fatty acid (SFA) reduction, and increased cardiovascular disease. Although knowledge of gene risk may enhance dietary change, it is unclear whether epsilon 4 carriers would benefit from gene-based personalized nutrition (PN). Objectives: The aims of this study were to 1) investigate interactions between APOE genotype and habitual dietary fat intake and modulations of fat intake on metabolic outcomes; 2) determine whether gene-based PN results in greater dietary change than do standard dietary advice (level 0) and nongene-based PN (levels 1-2); and 3) assess the impact of knowledge of APOE risk (risk: E4+, nonrisk: E4-) on dietary change after gene-based PN (level 3). Design: Individuals (n = 1466) recruited into the Food4Me pan-European PN dietary intervention study were randomly assigned to 4 treatment arms and genotyped for APOE (rs429358 and rs7412). Diet and dried blood spot TC and omega-3 (n-3) index were determined at baseline and after a 6-mo intervention. Data were analyzed with the use of adjusted general linear models. Results: Significantly higher TC concentrations were observed in E4+ participants than in E4- (P < 0.05). Although there were no significant differences in APOE response to gene-based PN (E4+ compared with E4-), both groups had a greater reduction in SFA (percentage of total energy) intake than at level 0 (mean +/- SD: E4+, -0.72% +/- 0.35% compared with -1.95% +/- 0.45%, P = 0.035; E4-, -0.31% +/- 0.20% compared with -1.68% +/- 0.35%, P = 0.029). Gene-based PN was associated with a smaller reduction in SFA intake than in nongene-based PN (level 2) for E4- participants (-1.68% +/- 0.35% compared with -2.56% +/- 0.27%, P = 0.025). Conclusions: The APOE epsilon 4 allele was associated with higher TC. Although gene -based PN targeted to APOE was more effective in reducing SFA intake than standard dietary advice, there was no difference between APOE "risk" and "nonrisk" groups. Furthermore, disclosure of APOE nonrisk may have weakened dietary response to PN. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01530139.
Authors: Paternain Markinez, Laura; Martisová, Eva; Campión Zabalza, Francisco Javier; et al.
Journal: BEHAVIOURAL BRAIN RESEARCH
ISSN 0166-4328  Vol. 299  2016  pp. 51 - 58
Adverse early life events are associated with altered stress responsiveness and metabolic disturbances in the adult life. Dietary methyl donor supplementation could be able to reverse the negative effects of maternal separation by affecting DNA methylation in the brain. In this study, maternal separation during lactation reduced body weight gain in the female adult offspring without affecting food intake, and altered total and HDL-cholesterol levels. Also, maternal separation induced a cognitive deficit as measured by NORT and an increase in the immobility time in the Porsolt forced swimming test, consistent with increased depression-like behaviour. An 18-week dietary supplementation with methyl donors (choline, betaine, folate and vitamin B12) from postnatal day 60 also reduced body weight without affecting food intake. Some of the deleterious effects induced by maternal separation, such as the abnormal levels of total and HDL-cholesterol, but especially the depression-like behaviour as measured by the Porsolt test, were reversed by methyl donor supplementation. Also, the administration of methyl donors increased total DNA methylation (measured by immunohistochemistry) and affected the expression of insulin receptor in the hippocampus of the adult offspring. However, no changes were observed in the DNA methylation status of insulin receptor and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) promoter regions in the hypothalamus. In summary, methyl donor supplementation reversed some of the deleterious effects of an early life-induced model of depression in rats and altered the DNA methylation profile in the brain.
Authors: Samblas García, Mirian; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Gómez-Abellán, P.; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS
ISSN 0748-7304  Vol. 31  Nº 3  2016  pp. 308 - 317
The circadian clock system has been linked to the onset and development of obesity and some accompanying comorbidities. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, are putatively involved in the regulation of the circadian clock system. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a weight loss intervention based on an energy-controlled Mediterranean dietary pattern in the methylation levels of 3 clock genes, BMAL1, CLOCK, and NR1D1, and the association between the methylation levels and changes induced in the serum lipid profile with the weight loss treatment. The study sample enrolled 61 women (body mass index = 28.6 ± 3.4 kg/m(2); age: 42.2 ± 11.4 years), who followed a nutritional program based on a Mediterranean dietary pattern. DNA was isolated from whole blood obtained at the beginning and end point. Methylation levels at different CpG sites of BMAL1, CLOCK, and NR1D1 were analyzed by Sequenom's MassArray. The energy-restricted intervention modified the methylation levels of different CpG sites in BMAL1 (CpGs 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, and 18) and NR1D1 (CpGs 1, 10, 17, 18, 19, and 22). Changes in cytosine methylation in the CpG 5 to 9 region of BMAL1 with the intervention positively correlated with the eveningness profile (p = 0.019). The baseline methylation of the CpG 5 to 9 region in BMAL1 positively correlated with energy (p = 0.047) and carbohydrate (p = 0.017) intake and negatively correlated with the effect of the weight loss intervention on total cholesterol (p = 0.032) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.005). Similar significant and positive correlations were found between changes in methylation levels in the CpG 5 to 9 region of BMAL1 due to the intervention and changes in serum lipids (p < 0.05). This research describes apparently for the first time an association between changes in the methylation of the BMAL1 gene with the intervention and the effects of a weight loss intervention on blood lipids levels.
Authors: López Yoldi, Miguel; Castilla Madrigal, Rosa María; Lostao Crespo, María del Pilar; et al.
Journal: ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA
ISSN 1748-1708  Vol. 217  Nº 3  2016  pp. 217 - 226
rCT-1 effects on ¿-Methyl-D-glucoside uptake were assessed in everted intestinal rings from wild-type and CT-1(-/-) mice and in Caco-2 cells. rCT-1 actions on SGLT-1 expression in brush border membrane vesicles and the identification of the potential signalling pathways involved were determined by Western blot. RESULTS: In vivo administration (0.2 mg kg(-1) ) of rCT-1 caused a significant decrease on ¿-Methyl-D-glucoside uptake in everted intestinal rings from wild-type and CT-1(-/-) mice after short-term and long-term treatments. Similarly, in vitro treatment (1-50 ng mL(-1) ) with rCT-1 reduced ¿-Methyl-D-glucoside uptake in everted intestinal rings. In Caco-2 cells, rCT-1 treatment (20 ng mL(-1) , 1 and 24 h) lowered apical uptake of ¿-Methyl-D-glucoside in parallel with a decrease on SGLT-1 protein expression. rCT-1 promoted the phosphorylation of STAT-3 after 5 and 15 min treatment, but inhibited the activation by phosphorylation of AMPK after 30 and 60 min. Interestingly, pre-treatment with the JAK/STAT inhibitor (AG490) and with the AMPK activator (AICAR) reversed the inhibitory effects of rCT-1 on ¿-Methyl-D-glucoside uptake. AICAR also prevented the inhibition of SGLT-1 observed in rCT-1-treated cells. CONCLUSIONS: CT-1 inhibits intestinal sugar absorption by the reduction of SGLT-1 levels through the AMPK pathway, which could also contribute to explain the hypoglycaemic and anti-obesity properties of CT-1.
Authors: Hernández Ruiz de Eguilaz, M.; Batlle, M. A.; Martínez de Morentin, B.; et al.
Journal: ANALES DEL SISTEMA SANITARIO DE NAVARRA
ISSN 1137-6627  Vol. 39  Nº 2  2016  pp. 269 - 289
A high caloric intake in today¿s nutrition and a sedentary lifestyle are the main causes of the notable increase in obesity in our society. In turn, this results in an increase in associated pathologies, such as metabolic syndrome and diabetes type 2. In the present work we review most recent studies and programs, which are significant due to their sample size and geographical diversity. It clearly shows that changes in alimentation and lifestyles are an effective instrument for combatting or delaying the onset of these diseases. In this sense, prevention is also key to avoiding serious consequences related to diabetes and metabolic syndrome, which can affect the life of the population.
Authors: San Cristóbal Blanco, Rodrigo; Navas Carretero, Santiago; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
ISSN 1138-7548  Vol. 73  Nº 3  2016  pp. 465 - 474
Epigenetics has an important role in the regulation of metabolic adaptation to environmental modifications. In this sense, the determination of epigenetic changes in non-invasive samples during the development of metabolic diseases could play an important role in the procedures in primary healthcare practice. To help translate the knowledge of epigenetics to public health practice, the present study aims to explore the parallelism of methylation levels between white blood cells and buccal samples in relation to obesity and associated disorders. Blood and buccal swap samples were collected from a subsample of the Spanish cohort of the Food4Me study. Infinium HumanMethylation450 DNA Analysis was carried out for the determination of methylation levels. Standard deviation for ß values method and concordance correlation analysis were used to select those CpG which showed best parallelism between samples. A total of 277 CpGs met the criteria and were selected for an enrichment analysis and a correlation analysis with anthropometrical and clinical parameters. From those selected CpGs, four presented high associations with BMI (cg01055691 in GAP43; r = -0.92 and rho = -0.84 for blood; r = -0.89 and rho = -0.83 for buccal sample), HOMA-IR (cg00095677 in ATP2A3; r = 0.82 and rho = -0.84 for blood; r = -0.8 and rho = -0.83 for buccal sample) and leptin (cg14464133 in ADARB2; r = -0.9182 and rho = -0.94 for blood; r = -0.893 and rho = -0.79 for buccal sample). These findings demonstrate the potential application of non-invasive buccal samples in the identification of surrogate epigenetic biomarkers and identify methylation sites in GAP43, ATP2A3 and ADARB2 genes as potential targets in relation to overweight management and insulin sensibility.
Authors: Goñi Mateos, Leticia; Cuervo Zapatel, Marta; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 0022-3166  Vol. 146  Nº 4  2016  pp. 905S - 912S
As obesity has become a major global public health challenge, a large number of studies have analyzed different strategies aimed at inducing a negative energy balance and, consequently, body weight loss. However, most existing weight loss programs are generally unsuccessful, so several interventions have been carried out to identify physiologic and behavioral factors concerning this variability in order to implement more personalized treatment. Nowadays, an individualized approach is being proposed through so-called personalized nutrition, whereby not only the phenotype but also the genotype is used for customized nutrition treatment. Regarding body weight regulation, similar to 70 polymorphisms have been identified in or near genes related to energy expenditure, appetite, adipogenesis, insulin resistance, and lipid metabolism. Although personalized nutrition refers mainly to genetic makeup, recent advances in the investigation of the epigenome and themicrobiome open the door to implement more personalized recommendations for body weight management. In this context, recent studies have demonstrated the existence of several epigenetic markers that may modify gene expression and could be involved in the outcome of weight loss interventions. Moreover, different studies have shown that dietary interventions could affect the composition of gut microbiota and have an impact on body weight. The integration of nutrigenetic, epigenetic, and metagenomic data may lead to the design of more personalized dietary treatments to prevent chronic diseases and to optimize the individual's response to dietary interventions.
Authors: Navarro-González, D. , (Autor de correspondencia); Sánchez-Íñigo, L.; Fernández Montero, Alejandro; et al.
Journal: OBESITY
ISSN 1930-7381  Vol. 24  Nº 12  2016  pp. 2615 - 2623
Objective: To examine the risk of diabetes and the development of an unhealthy status according to metabolic health. To assess the effect of changes in metabolic health among participants with metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) on the risk of diabetes. Methods: A total of 4,340 subjects were included. Unhealthy metabolic status was defined as having three or more risk factors of the Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria. A Cox proportional-hazard analysis was conducted to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of developing diabetes across the change in the metabolic status of subjects with MHO. Results: After 40,622 person-years of follow-up, the risk of becoming unhealthy was 1.53 times higher for participants with MHO, compared with lean or overweight healthy subjects. A greater risk of diabetes was found in MHO, but it was attributable to those who progressed to an unhealthier status over time: HR of 4.78 (95% CI: 3.38-6.78). The combination of being metabolically unhealthy and obesity heightened the risk of diabetes: HR of 10.09 (95% CI: 4.82-21.55). Conclusions: The increased risk of diabetes in MHO is attributed to the progression to an unhealthier state. "Healthy obesity" is not a permanent situation but a transitory state.
Authors: Marsaux, C. F.; Celis-Morales, C.; Livingstone, K. M.; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF MEDICAL INTERNET RESEARCH
ISSN 1438-8871  Vol. 18  Nº 2  2016  pp. e30
There is evidence that physical activity (PA) can attenuate the influence of the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) genotype on the risk to develop obesity. However, whether providing personalized information on FTO genotype leads to changes in PA is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if disclosing FTO risk had an impact on change in PA following a 6-month intervention. METHODS: The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9939609 in the FTO gene was genotyped in 1279 participants of the Food4Me study, a four-arm, Web-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) in 7 European countries on the effects of personalized advice on nutrition and PA. PA was measured objectively using a TracmorD accelerometer and was self-reported using the Baecke questionnaire at baseline and 6 months. Differences in baseline PA variables between risk (AA and AT genotypes) and nonrisk (TT genotype) carriers were tested using multiple linear regression. Impact of FTO risk disclosure on PA change at 6 months was assessed among participants with inadequate PA, by including an interaction term in the model: disclosure (yes/no) × FTO risk (yes/no). RESULTS: At baseline, data on PA were available for 874 and 405 participants with the risk and nonrisk FTO genotypes, respectively. There were no significant differences in objectively measured or self-reported baseline PA between risk and nonrisk carriers. A total of 807 (72.05%) of the participants out of 1120 in the personalized groups were encouraged to increase PA at baseline. Knowledge of FTO risk had no impact on PA in either risk or nonrisk carriers after the 6-month intervention. Attrition was higher in nonrisk participants for whom genotype was disclosed (P=.01) compared with their at-risk counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: No association between baseline PA and FTO risk genotype was observed. There was no added benefit of disclosing FTO risk on changes in PA in this personalized intervention. Further RCT studies are warranted to confirm whether disclosure of nonrisk genetic test results has adverse effects on engagement in behavior change.
Authors: Marques-Rocha, J. L.; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Mansego Talavera, María Luisa; et al.
Journal: EPIGENETICS
ISSN 1559-2294  Vol. 11  Nº 1  2016  pp. 49 - 60
With the goal of investigating if epigenetic biomarkers from white blood cells (WBC) are associated with dietary, anthropometric, metabolic, inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in young and apparently healthy individuals. We evaluated 156 individuals (91 women, 65 men; age: 23.1±3.5 years; body mass index: 22.0±2.9 kg/m(2)) for anthropometric, biochemical and clinical markers, including some components of the antioxidant defense system and inflammatory response. DNA methylation of LINE-1, TNF-¿ and IL-6 and the expression of some genes related to the inflammatory process were analyzed in WBC. Adiposity was lower among individuals with higher LINE-1 methylation. On the contrary, body fat-free mass was higher among those with higher LINE-1 methylation. Individuals with higher LINE-1 methylation had higher daily intakes of calories, iron and riboflavin. However, those individuals who presented lower percentages of LINE-1 methylation reported higher intakes of copper, niacin and thiamin. Interestingly, the group with higher LINE-1 methylation had a lower percentage of current smokers and more individuals practicing sports. On the other hand, TNF-¿ methylation percentage was negatively associated with waist girth, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-stature ratio. Plasma TNF-¿ levels were lower in those individuals with higher TNF-¿ methylation. This study suggests that higher levels of LINE-1 and TNF-¿ methylation are associated with better indicators of adiposity status in healthy young individuals. In addition, energy and micronutrient intake, as well as a healthy lifestyle, may have a role in the regulation of DNA methylation in WBC and the subsequent metabolic changes may affect epigenetic biomarkers.
Authors: Marsaux, C. F.; Celis-Morales, C.; Hoonhout, J.; et al.
Journal: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 11  Nº 3  2016  pp. e015092
BACKGROUND: Comparisons of objectively measured physical activity (PA) between residents of European countries measured concurrently with the same protocol are lacking. We aimed to compare PA between the seven European countries involved in the Food4Me Study, using accelerometer data collected remotely via the Internet. METHODS: Of the 1607 participants recruited, 1287 (539 men and 748 women) provided at least 3 weekdays and 2 weekend days of valid accelerometer data (TracmorD) at baseline and were included in the present analyses. RESULTS: Men were significantly more active than women (physical activity level = 1.74 vs. 1.70, p < 0.001). Time spent in light PA and moderate PA differed significantly between countries but only for women. Adherence to the World Health Organization recommendation to accumulate at least 150 min of moderate-equivalent PA weekly was similar between countries for men (range: 54-65%) but differed significantly between countries for women (range: 26-49%). Prevalence estimates decreased substantially for men and women in all seven countries when PA guidelines were defined as achieving 30 min of moderate and vigorous PA per day. CONCLUSIONS: We were able to obtain valid accelerometer data in real time via the Internet from 80% of participants. Although our estimates are higher compared with data from Sweden, Norway, Portugal and the US, there is room for improvement in PA for all countries involved in the Food4Me Study.
Authors: Kirwan, L.; Walsh, M. C.; Brennan, L.; et al.
Journal: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0954-3007  Vol. 70  Nº 5  2016  pp. 642 - 644
There are no standardised serving/portion sizes defined for foods consumed in the European Union (EU). Typical serving sizes can deviate significantly from the 100¿g/100¿ml labelling specification required by the EU legislation. Where the nutritional value of a portion is specified, the portion size is determined by the manufacturers. Our objective was to investigate the potential for standardising portion sizes for specific foods, thereby ensuring complementarity across countries. We compared portion size for 156 food items measured using a food frequency questionnaire across the seven countries participating in the Food4me study. The probability of consuming a food and the frequency of consumption differed across countries for 93% and 58% of the foods, respectively. However, the individual country mean portion size differed from the average across countries in only 16% of comparisons. Thus, although dietary choices vary markedly across countries, there is much less variation in portion sizes. Our results highlight the potential for standardisation of portion sizes on nutrition labels in the EU.
Authors: Livingstone, K. M.; Celis-Morales, C. M.; Navas Carretero, Santiago; et al.
Journal: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0002-9165  Vol. 104  Nº 2  2016  pp. 288 - 297
Background: Little is known about the efficacy of personalized nutrition (PN) interventions for improving consumption of a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet). Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effect of a PN intervention on dietary changes associated with the MedDiet. Design: Participants (n = 1607) were recruited into a 6-mo, Internet-based, PN randomized controlled trial (Food4Me) designed to evaluate the effect of PN on dietary change. Participants were randomly assigned to receive conventional dietary advice [control; level 0 (L0)] or PN advice on the basis of current diet [level 1 (L1)], diet and phenotype [level 2 (L2)], or diet, phenotype, and genotype [level 3 (L3)]. Dietary intakes from food-frequency questionnaires at baseline and at 6 mo were converted to a MedDiet score. Linear regression compared participant characteristics between high (>5) and low (<= 5) MedDiet scores. Differences in MedDiet scores between treatment arms at month 6 were evaluated by using contrast analyses. Results: At baseline, high MedDiet scorers had a 0.5 lower body mass index (in kg/m(2); P = 0.007) and a 0.03 higher physical activity level (P = 0.003) than did low scorers. MedDiet scores at month 6 were greater in individuals randomly assigned to receive PN (L1, L2, and L3) than in controls (PN compared with controls: 5.20 +/- 0.05 and 5.48 +/- 0.07, respectively; P = 0.002). There was no significant difference in MedDiet scores at month 6 between PN advice on the basis of L1 compared with L2 and L3. However, differences in MedDiet scores at month 6 were greater in L3 than in L2 (L3 compared with L2: 5.63 +/- 0.10 and 5.38 +/- 0.10, respectively; P = 0.029). Conclusions: Higher MedDiet scores at baseline were associated with healthier lifestyles and lower adiposity. After the intervention, MedDiet scores were greater in individuals randomly assigned to receive PN than in controls, with the addition of DNA-based dietary advice resulting in the largest differences in MedDiet scores. Although differences were significant, their clinical relevance is modest.
Authors: Abete Goñi, Itziar; Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles; Goyenechea, E.; et al.
Journal: NUTRITIONAL NEUROSCIENCE
ISSN 1028-415X  Vol. 21  Nº 1  2016  pp. 70 - 78
BACKGROUND: Lifestyle, including dietary patterns, could involve specific factors participating in inflammation that confer a higher risk of suffering a stroke. However, little attention has been apparently given to habitual food consumption in patients suffering a cerebrovascular event. OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of dietary habits as well as other lifestyle-related variables on the risk of suffering a stroke. DESIGN: A case-control study was designed. Fifty-one cases (age: 59.1¿±¿9.1y.o; BMI; 30.8¿±¿3.4¿kg/m2) and 51 controls (age: 61.1¿±¿9.1y.o; BMI; 30.4¿±¿3.6¿kg/m2) were enrolled in the study. Anthropometric and body composition variables were measured. Dietary information was obtained from a validated food frequency questionnaire. Physical activity and lifestyle-related factors were assessed. Blood samples were drawn. RESULTS: Patients suffering a stroke showed higher prevalence of diabetes (30 vs. 7.7%; P¿=¿0.020) and hypertension (74.5 vs. 40.3%; P¿<¿0.001) and were less physically active (36.7 vs. 66.6%; P¿=¿0.024) than controls. Patients registered worse glucose and lipid profiles, higher levels of hepatic biomarkers, and higher blood cell counts than controls. Stroked patients showed lower adherence to a statistically derived healthy dietary pattern than controls (23.5 vs. 42.3%; P¿=¿0.017). A logistic regression model was built up considering hypertension, diabetes, smoking, physical activity, adherence to a 'healthy dietary pattern' and C-reactive protein concentration. The final model strongly associated with the risk of suffering a stroke (R2: 44.6%; Pmodel¿<¿0.0001). CONCLUSION: Lifestyle variables such as physical activity, smoking habit, and a dietary pattern including foods with low inflammatory potential play an important role in the reduction of the risk of suffering a stroke.
Authors: Marques-Rocha, J. L.; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Mansego Talavera, María Luisa; et al.
Journal: NUTRITION
ISSN 0550-404X  Vol. 32  Nº 1  2016  pp. 48 - 55
Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a dietary strategy for weight loss (the RESMENA [reduction of metabolic syndrome in Navarra, Spain] diet) on the expression of inflammation-related microRNAS (miRNAs) and genes in white blood cells (WBC) from individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods The clinical, anthropometric, and biochemical characteristics of 40 individuals with MetS (20 men and 20 women; age: 48.84 ± 10.02 y; body mass index: 35.41 ± 4.42 kg/m2) were evaluated before and after an 8-wk hypocaloric diet based on the Mediterranean dietary pattern. Nutrient intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire and 48-h weighed food records. Total RNA was isolated from WBC and the expression of some inflammation-related miRNAs and mRNAs (IL-6, TNF-¿, ICAM-1, IL-18, SERPINE1, VCAM-1, GAPDH) was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results The RESMENA nutritional intervention improved most anthropometric and biochemical features. The expression of miR-155-3p was decreased in WBC, whereas Let-7b was strongly upregulated as a consequence of the dietary treatment. However, they were not correlated with the expression of the proinflammatory genes in the same cells. The changes in the expression of let-7b, miR-125b, miR-130a, miR-132-3p, and miR-422b were significantly associated with changes in diet quality when assessed by the Healthy Eating Index. Moreover, low consumption of lipids and saturated fat (g/d) were associated with higher expression of let-7b after the nutritional intervention. Conclusions The Mediterranean-based nutritional intervention was able to induce changes in the expression of let-7b and miR-155-3p in WBC from patients with MetS after 8 wk. Moreover, the quality of the diet has an important effect on the miRNAs expression changes. These results should be highlighted because these miRNAs have been associated with inflammatory gene regulation and important human diseases.
Authors: Celis-Morales, C.; Marsaux, C. F.; Livingstone, K. M.; et al.
Journal: OBESITY
ISSN 1930-7381  Vol. 24  Nº 4  2016  pp. 962 - 969
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the effect of FTO loci on obesity-related traits could be modified by physical activity (PA) levels in European adults. METHODS: Of 1,607 Food4Me participants randomized, 1,280 were genotyped for FTO (rs9939609) and had available PA data. PA was measured objectively using accelerometers (TracmorD, Philips), whereas anthropometric measures [BMI and waist circumference (WC)] were self-reported via the Internet. RESULTS: FTO genotype was associated with a higher body weight [ß: 1.09 kg per risk allele, (95% CI: 0.14-2.04), P¿=¿0.024], BMI [ß: 0.54 kg m(-2) , (0.23-0.83), P¿<¿0.0001], and WC [ß: 1.07 cm, (0.24-1.90), P¿=¿0.011]. Moderate-equivalent PA attenuated the effect of FTO on BMI (P[interaction] ¿=¿0.020). Among inactive individuals, FTO increased BMI by 1.06 kg m(-2) per allele (P¿=¿0.024), whereas the increase in BMI was substantially attenuated among active individuals (0.16 kg m(-2) , P¿=¿0.388). We observed similar effects for WC (P[interaction] ¿=¿0.005): the FTO risk allele increased WC by 2.72 cm per allele among inactive individuals but by only 0.49 cm in active individuals. CONCLUSIONS: PA attenuates the effect of FTO genotype on BMI and WC. This may have important public health implications because genetic susceptibility to obesity in the presence of FTO variants may be reduced by adopting a physically active lifestyle.
Authors: Marshall, S. J.; Livingstone, K. M.; Celis-Morales, C.; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 0022-3166  Vol. 146  Nº 5  2016  pp. 1068 - 1075
BACKGROUND: Accurate dietary assessment is key to understanding nutrition-related outcomes and is essential for estimating dietary change in nutrition-based interventions. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the pan-European reproducibility of the Food4Me food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in assessing the habitual diet of adults. METHODS: Participants from the Food4Me study, a 6-mo, Internet-based, randomized controlled trial of personalized nutrition conducted in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Spain, Netherlands, Germany, Greece, and Poland, were included. Screening and baseline data (both collected before commencement of the intervention) were used in the present analyses, and participants were included only if they completed FFQs at screening and at baseline within a 1-mo timeframe before the commencement of the intervention. Sociodemographic (e.g., sex and country) and lifestyle [e.g., body mass index (BMI, in kg/m(2)) and physical activity] characteristics were collected. Linear regression, correlation coefficients, concordance (percentage) in quartile classification, and Bland-Altman plots for daily intakes were used to assess reproducibility. RESULTS: In total, 567 participants (59% female), with a mean ± SD age of 38.7 ± 13.4 y and BMI of 25.4 ± 4.8, completed both FFQs within 1 mo (mean ± SD: 19.2 ± 6.2 d). Exact plus adjacent classification of total energy intake in participants was highest in Ireland (94%) and lowest in Poland (81%). Spearman correlation coefficients (¿) in total energy intake between FFQs ranged from 0.50 for obese participants to 0.68 and 0.60 in normal-weight and overweight participants, respectively. Bland-Altman plots showed a mean difference between FFQs of 210 kcal/d, with the agreement deteriorating as energy intakes increased. There was little variation in reproducibility of total energy intakes between sex and age groups. CONCLUSIONS: The online Food4Me FFQ was shown to be reproducible across 7 European countries when administered within a 1-mo period to a large number of participants. The results support the utility of the online Food4Me FFQ as a reproducible tool across multiple European populations. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01530139.
Authors: Forster, H.; Walsh, M. C.; O'Donovan, C. B.; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF MEDICAL INTERNET RESEARCH
ISSN 1438-8871  Vol. 18  Nº 6  2016  pp. e150
Background: Despite numerous healthy eating campaigns, the prevalence of diets high in saturated fatty acids, sugar, and salt and low in fiber, fruit, and vegetables remains high. With more people than ever accessing the Internet, Web-based dietary assessment instruments have the potential to promote healthier dietary behaviors via personalized dietary advice. Objective: The objectives of this study were to develop a dietary feedback system for the delivery of consistent personalized dietary advice in a multicenter study and to examine the impact of automating the advice system. Methods: The development of the dietary feedback system included 4 components: (1) designing a system for categorizing nutritional intakes; (2) creating a method for prioritizing 3 nutrient-related goals for subsequent targeted dietary advice; (3) constructing decision tree algorithms linking data on nutritional intake to feedback messages; and (4) developing personal feedback reports. The system was used manually by researchers to provide personalized nutrition advice based on dietary assessment to 369 participants during the Food4Me randomized controlled trial, with an automated version developed on completion of the study. Results: Saturated fatty acid, salt, and dietary fiber were most frequently selected as nutrient-related goals across the 7 centers. Average agreement between the manual and automated systems, in selecting 3 nutrient-related goals for personalized dietary advice across the centers, was highest for nutrient-related goals 1 and 2 and lower for goal 3, averaging at 92%, 87%, and 63%, respectively. Complete agreement between the 2 systems for feedback advice message selection averaged at 87% across the centers. Conclusions: The dietary feedback system was used to deliver personalized dietary advice within a multi-country study. Overall, there was good agreement between the manual and automated feedback systems, giving promise to the use of automated systems for personalizing dietary advice.
Authors: Santiago Neri, Susana; Sayon Orea, María del Carmen; Babio, N.; et al.
Journal: NUTRITION METABOLISM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
ISSN 0939-4753  Vol. 26  Nº 6  2016  pp. 468 - 475
Background and aims Evidence on the association yogurt consumption and obesity is not conclusive. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the association between yogurt consumption, reversion of abdominal obesity status and waist circumference change in elderly. Methods and results 4545 individuals at high cardiovascular risk were prospectively followed. Total, whole-fat and low-fat yogurt consumption were assessed using food frequency questionnaires. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the association between yogurt consumption and waist circumference change (measured at baseline and yearly during the follow-up). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs of the reversion rate of abdominal obesity for each quintile of yogurt consumption compared with the lowest quintile. After multivariable adjustment, the average yearly waist circumference change in the quintiles of whole-fat yogurt consumption was: Q1: 0.00, Q2: 0.00 (¿0.23 to 0.23), Q3: ¿0.15 (¿0.42 to 0.13), Q4: 0.10 (¿0.21 to 0.42), and Q5: ¿0.23 (¿0.46 to ¿0.00) cm; p for trend = 0.05. The ORs for the reversion of abdominal obesity for whole-fat yogurt consumption were Q1: 1.00, Q2: 1.40 (1.04¿1.90), Q3: 1.33 (0.94¿1.89), Q4: 1.21 (0.83¿1.77), and Q5: 1.43 (1.06¿1.93); p for trend = 0.26. Conclusion Total yogurt consumption was not significantly associated with reversion of abdominal obesity status and a lower waist circumference. However, consumption of whole-fat yogurt was associated with changes in waist circumference and higher probability for reversion of abdominal obesity. Therefore, it seems that whole-fat yogurt has more beneficial effects in management of abdominal obesity in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk.
Authors: Carraro, J. C.; Mansego Talavera, María Luisa; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
Journal: BIOMARKERS
ISSN 1354-750X  Vol. 21  Nº 7  2016  pp. 625 - 632
We analyzed whether global and inflammatory genes methylation can be early predictors of metabolic changes and their associations with the diet, in a cross-sectional study (n = 40). Higher global methylation was associated to adiposity, insulin resistance, and lower quality of the diet. Methylation of IL-6, SERPINE1 and CRP genes was related to adiposity traits and macronutrients intake. SERPINE1 hypermethylation was also related to some metabolic alterations. CRP methylation was a better predictor of insulin resistance than CRP plasma concentrations. Global and inflammatory gene promoter hypermethylation can be good early biomarkers of adiposity and metabolic changes and are associated to the quality of the diet.
Authors: Nicoletti, C. F.; Nonino, C. B.; de Oliveira, B. A.; et al.
Journal: OBESITY SURGERY
ISSN 0960-8923  Vol. 26  Nº 3  2016  pp. 603 - 611
Weight loss can be influenced by genetic factors and epigenetic mechanisms that participate in the regulation of body weight. This study aimed to investigate whether the weight loss induced by two different obesity treatments (energy restriction or bariatric surgery) may affect global DNA methylation (LINE-1) and hydroxymethylation profile, as well as the methylation patterns in inflammatory genes. This study encompassed women from three differents groups: 1. control group (n = 9), normal weight individuals; 2. energy restriction group (n = 22), obese patients following an energy-restricted Mediterranean-based dietary treatment (RESMENA); and 3. bariatric surgery group (n = 14), obese patients underwent a hypocaloric diet followed by bariatric surgery. Anthropometric measurements and 12-h fasting blood samples were collected before the interventions and after 6 months. Lipid and glucose biomarkers, global hydroxymethylation (by ELISA), LINE-1, SERPINE-1, and IL-6 (by MS-HRM) methylation levels were assessed in all participants. Baseline LINE-1 methylation was associated with serum glucose levels whereas baseline hydroxymethylation was associated with BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. LINE-1 and SERPINE-1 methylation levels did not change after weight loss, whereas IL-6 methylation increased after energy restriction and decreased in the bariatric surgery group. An association between SERPINE-1 methylation and weight loss responses was found. Global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation might be biomarkers for obesity and associated comorbidities. Depending on the obesity treatment (diet or surgery), the DNA methylation patterns behave differently. Baseline SERPINE-1 methylation may be a predictor of weight loss values after bariatric surgery.
Authors: O'Donovan, C. B.; Walsh, M. C.; Forster, H.; et al.
Journal: GENES AND NUTRITION
ISSN 1555-8932  Vol. 11  2016  pp. 25
BACKGROUND: It is hypothesised that individuals with knowledge of their genetic risk are more likely to make health-promoting dietary and lifestyle changes. The present study aims to test this hypothesis using data from the Food4Me study. This was a 6-month Internet-based randomised controlled trial conducted across seven centres in Europe where individuals received either general healthy eating advice or varying levels of personalised nutrition advice. Participants who received genotype-based personalised advice were informed whether they had the risk (CT/TT) (n¿=¿178) or non-risk (CC) (n¿=¿141) alleles of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in relation to cardiovascular health and the importance of a sufficient intake of folate. General linear model analysis was used to assess changes in folate intake between the MTHFR risk, MTHFR non-risk and control groups from baseline to month 6 of the intervention. RESULTS: There were no differences between the groups for age, gender or BMI. However, there was a significant difference in country distribution between the groups (p¿=¿0.010). Baseline folate intakes were 412¿±¿172, 391¿±¿190 and 410¿±¿186 ¿g per 10 MJ for the risk, non-risk and control groups, respectively. There were no significant differences between the three groups in terms of changes in folate intakes from baseline to month 6. Similarly, there were no changes in reported intake of food groups high in folate. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that knowledge of MTHFR 677C¿¿¿T genotype did not improve folate intake in participants with the risk variant compared with those with the non-risk variant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01530139.
Authors: Ibero Baraibar, Idoia; Suárez, M.; Arola-Arnal, A.; et al.
Journal: FOOD & NUTRITION RESEARCH
ISSN 1654-6628  Vol. 60  2016  pp. 30449
Background: Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations. Objective: To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated. Design: Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention study. Half of the volunteers consumed a test meal enriched with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (415 mg flavanols), while the rest of the volunteers consumed the same meal without the cocoa extract (control group). Glucose and lipid profile, as well as blood pressure and cocoa metabolites in plasma, were assessed before and at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption, at the beginning of the study (Postprandial 1) and after following a 4-week 15% energy-restricted diet including meals containing or not containing the cocoa extract (Postprandial 2). Results: In the Postprandial 1 test, the area under the curve (AUC) of systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly higher in the cocoa group compared with the control group (p = 0.007), showing significant differences after 120 min of intake. However, no differences between groups were observed at Postprandial 2. Interestingly, the reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP (AUC_Postprandial 2-AUC_Postprandial 1) was higher in the cocoa group (p = 0.016). Furthermore, cocoa-derived metabolites were detected in plasma of the cocoa group, while the absence or significantly lower amounts of metabolites were found in the control group. Conclusions: The daily consumption of cocoa extract within an energy-restricted diet for 4 weeks resulted in a greater reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP compared with the effect of energy-restricted diet alone and independently of body weight loss. These results suggest the role of cocoa flavanols on postprandial blood pressure homeostasis.
Authors: Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Moreno Aliaga, María Jesús; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo
Journal: NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE
ISSN 0028-4793  Vol. 374  Nº 2  2016  pp. 190 - 191
Authors: García Calzón, Sonia; Moleres Villares, Adriana; Gómez Martínez, Sara; et al.
Journal: OBESITY FACTS
ISSN 1662-4025  Vol. 9  Nº Supl. 1  2016  pp. 103
Authors: Navarro-González, D. ; Sánchez-Íñigo, L.; Fernández Montero, Alejandro; et al.
Journal: CARDIOLOGY
ISSN 0008-6312  Vol. 134  Nº Supl. 1  2016  pp. 393
While mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) has declined in recent decades, due to reductions in cholesterol levels, blood pressure, and smoking prevalence, these reductions have been offset by increasing rates of obesity and diabetes. Yet, some obese individuals may be at low risk of metabolic related complications, while other, normal-weight individuals are not "healthy." These researchers found that metabolically unhealthy individuals exhibited a greater risk of CVD than metabolically healthy individuals, whether obese or non-obese. Moreover, the researchers noted, the TyG index may be a useful candidate marker to define metabolic health status.
Authors: Sáinz Amillo, Neira; González Navarro, Carlos Javier; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; et al.
Journal: EXPERT OPINION ON THERAPEUTIC TARGETS
ISSN 1472-8222  Vol. 19  Nº 7  2015  pp. 893 - 909
Introduction: Leptin is a hormone with a key role in food intake and body weight homeostasis. Congenital leptin deficiency (CLD) is a rare disease that causes hyperphagia and early severe obesity. However, common obesity conditions are associated with hyperleptinemia and leptin resistance. Areas Covered: The main signaling pathways activated by leptin as well as the mechanisms underlying the regulatory actions of leptin on food intake and on lipid and glucose metabolism are reviewed. The potential mechanisms involving leptin resistance and the main regulatory hormonal and nutritional factors controlling leptin production/functions are also analyzed. The pathophysiology of leptin in human obesity, and especially the trials analyzing effects of leptin replacement therapy in patients with CLD or in subjects with common obesity and in post-obese weight-reduced subjects are also summarized. Expert Opinion: The use of drugs or specific bioactive food components with anti-inflammatory properties to reduce the inflammatory state associated with obesity, especially at the hypothalamus, may help to overcome leptin resistance. Research should also be focused on investigating dietary strategies, food supplements or drugs capable of avoiding or reversing the leptin fall during weight management, in order to promote sustained body weight lowering and weight loss maintenance.
Authors: Lorente Cebrián, Silvia; Vasconcelos Costa, Andre Gustavo; Navas Carretero, Santiago; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
ISSN 1138-7548  Vol. 71  Nº 2  2015  pp. 341 - 349
Inflammation is involved in the pathophysiology of many chronic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and neurodegenerative diseases. Several studies have evidenced important anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs). This review illustrates current knowledge about the efficacy of n-3 LC-PUFAs (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), particularly) in preventing and/or treating several chronic inflammatory conditions (inflammatory bowel diseases and rheumatoid arthritis) as well as their potential benefits on neurodegenerative diseases. It is well established that n-3 LC-PUFAs are substrates for synthesis of novel series of lipid mediators (e.g., resolvins, protectins, and maresins) with potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving properties, which have been proposed to partly mediate the protective and beneficial actions of n-3 LC-PUFAs. Here, we briefly summarize current knowledge from preclinical studies analyzing the actions of EPA- and DHA-derived resolvins and protectins on pathophysiological models of rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer, and irritable bowel syndrome.
Authors: Remely, M.; Lovrecic, L.; de la Garza Hernández, Ana Laura Isabel; et al.
Journal: BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY
ISSN 0007-1188  Vol. 172  Nº 11  2015  pp. 2756 - 2768
Many nutrients are known for a wide range of activities in prevention and alleviation of various diseases. Recently, their potential role in regulating human health through effects on epigenetics has become evident, although specific mechanisms are still unclear. Thus, nutriepigenetics/nutriepigenomics has emerged as a new and promising field in current epigenetics research in the past few years. In particular, polyphenols, as part of the central dynamic interaction between the genome and the environment with specificity at physiological concentrations, are well known to affect mechanisms underlying human health. This review summarizes the effects of dietary compounds on epigenetic mechanisms in the regulation of gene expression including expression of enzymes and other molecules responsible for drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion in cancer, metabolic syndrome, neurodegenerative disorders and hormonal dysfunction.
Authors: Sáinz Amillo, Neira; Barreneche Huici, Jayone; Moreno Aliaga, María Jesús; et al.
Journal: METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL
ISSN 0026-0495  Vol. 64  Nº 1  2015  pp. 35 - 46
Obesity is a chronic disease that represents one of the most serious global health burdens associated to an excess of body fat resulting from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, which is regulated by environmental and genetic interactions. The adipose-derived hormone leptin acts via a specific receptor in the brain to regulate energy balance and body weight, although this protein can also elicit a myriad of actions in peripheral tissues. Obese individuals, rather than be leptin deficient, have in most cases, high levels of circulating leptin. The failure of these high levels to control body weight suggests the presence of a resistance process to the hormone that could be partly responsible of disturbances on body weight regulation. Furthermore, leptin resistance can impair physiological peripheral functions of leptin such as lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and nutrient intestinal utilization. The present document summarizes those findings regarding leptin resistance development and the role of this hormone in the development and maintenance of an obese state. Thus, we focused on the effect of the impaired leptin action on adipose tissue, liver, skeletal muscle and intestinal function and the accompanying relationships with diet-induced obesity. The involvement of some inflammatory mediators implicated in the development of obesity and their roles in leptin resistance development are also discussed.
Authors: Navas Carretero, Santiago; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo
Journal: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCES AND NUTRITION
ISSN 0963-7486  Vol. 66  Nº Suppl. 1  2015  pp. S53 - S61
The growing worldwide interest on functional food research has been accompanied by increasing regulatory guidelines in this area, with the aim of ensuring that any claimed effect in foods, beyond their nutritional role, is based on scientific unequivocal evidence. In order to assess the cause-effect relationship between the regular consumption of a food or a food component and the beneficial outcome for the consumer, an appropriate study design is required. Previous knowledge and research on the specific claimed food or product may be an adequate basis for defining a hypothesis and accurate objectives. Other key factors to take into account are based on the outcomes studied, the length of the trial, sample size and type, as well as the transparency on reporting the results obtained. Based on the Consolidated Standards on Reporting Trials statement (CONSORT), together with the specific guidelines published by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies, the present article aims at summarizing key questions conducting to the most appropriate study design for solid health claim substantiation.
Authors: Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio
Journal: TRENDS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
ISSN 0924-2244  Vol. 42  Nº 2  2015  pp. 97 - 115
A personalized nutritional approach, based not only on phenotypic traits but also on genetic make-up, may help to control body weight and obesity. Recent advances in nutrigenetics, bioinformatics and genome-wide association/metabolomic/metagenomic studies are set to unleash a revolution in personalized nutrition. This article performs a systematic review of nutrigenetic data concerning single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in weight loss that are considered polygenic. SNPs located in or near FTO, MC4R, MC3R, POMC, LEP, LEPR, PLIN1, APOA5, LIPC, FABP2, INSIG2, IRS1, GIPR, ADBR2, ADRB3, UCP1, RETN, ADIPOQ, IL6, PPARG, TCF7L2, and CLOCK, among others, are comprehensively reviewed.
Authors: González Muniesa, Pedro; García-Gerique, L.; Quintero del Rivero, Pablo; et al.
Journal: OXIDATIVE MEDICINE AND CELLULAR LONGEVITY
ISSN 1942-0900  Vol. 2015  2015  pp. 8957827
Several studies have shown a pathological oxygenation (hypoxia/hyperoxia) on the adipose tissue in obese subjects. Additionally, the excess of body weight is often accompanied by a state of chronic low-degree inflammation. The inflammation phenomenon is a complex biological response mounted by tissues to combat injurious stimuli in order to maintain cell homeostasis. Furthermore, it is believed that the abnormal oxygen partial pressure occurring in adipose tissue is involved in triggering inflammatory processes. In this context, oxygen is used in modern medicine as a treatment for several diseases with inflammatory components. Thus, hyperbaric oxygenation has demonstrated beneficial effects, apart from improving local tissue oxygenation, on promoting angiogenesis, wound healing, providing neuroprotection, facilitating glucose uptake, appetite, and others. Nevertheless, an excessive hyperoxia exposure can lead to deleterious effects such as oxidative stress, pulmonary edema, and maybe inflammation. Interestingly, some of these favorable outcomes occur under high and low oxygen concentrations. Hereby, we review a potential therapeutic approach to the management of obesity as well as the oxygen-related inflammation accompanying expanded adipose tissue, based on elevated oxygen concentrations. To conclude, we highlight at the end of this review some areas that need further clarification.
Authors: Marques-Rocha, J. L.; Samblas García, Mirian; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
Journal: FASEB JOURNAL
ISSN 0892-6638  Vol. 29  Nº 9  2015  pp. 3595 - 3611
Chronic inflammation is involved in the onset and development of many diseases, including obesity, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, osteoarthritis, autoimmune and degenerative diseases, asthma, periodontitis, and cirrhosis. The inflammation process is mediated by chemokines, cytokines, and different inflammatory cells. Although the molecules and mechanisms that regulate this primary defense mechanism are not fully understood, recent findings offer a putative role of noncoding RNAs, especially microRNAs (miRNAs), in the progression and management of the inflammatory response. These noncoding RNAs are crucial for the stability and maintenance of gene expression patterns that characterize some cell types, tissues, and biologic responses. Several miRNAs, such as miR-126, miR-132, miR-146, miR-155, and miR-221, have emerged as important transcriptional regulators of some inflammation-related mediators. Additionally, little is known about the involvement of long noncoding RNAs, long intergenic noncoding RNAs, and circular RNAs in inflammation-mediated processes and the homeostatic imbalance associated with metabolic disorders. These noncoding RNAs are emerging as biomarkers with diagnosis value, in prognosis protocols, or in the personalized treatment of inflammation-related alterations. In this context, this review summarizes findings in the field, highlighting those noncoding RNAs that regulate inflammation, with emphasis on recognized mediators such as TNF-alpha, IL-1, IL-6, IL-18, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, VCAM-1, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. The down-regulation or antagonism of the noncoding RNAs and the administration of exogenous miRNAs could be, in the near future, a promising therapeutic strategy in the treatment of inflammation-related diseases.
Authors: González Muniesa, Pedro; Garcia-Gerique, L.; Quintero del Rivero, Pablo; et al.
Journal: OXIDATIVE MEDICINE AND CELLULAR LONGEVITY
ISSN 1942-0900  2015  pp. 8957827
Several studies have shown a pathological oxygenation (hypoxia/hyperoxia) on the adipose tissue in obese subjects. Additionally, the excess of body weight is often accompanied by a state of chronic low-degree inflammation. The inflammation phenomenon is a complex biological response mounted by tissues to combat injurious stimuli in order to maintain cell homeostasis. Furthermore, it is believed that the abnormal oxygen partial pressure occurring in adipose tissue is involved in triggering inflammatory processes. In this context, oxygen is used in modern medicine as a treatment for several diseases with inflammatory components. Thus, hyperbaric oxygenation has demonstrated beneficial effects, apart from improving local tissue oxygenation, on promoting angiogenesis, wound healing, providing neuroprotection, facilitating glucose uptake, appetite, and others. Nevertheless, an excessive hyperoxia exposure can lead to deleterious effects such as oxidative stress, pulmonary edema, and maybe inflammation. Interestingly, some of these favorable outcomes occur under high and low oxygen concentrations. Hereby, we review a potential therapeutic approach to the management of obesity as well as the oxygen-related inflammation accompanying expanded adipose tissue, based on elevated oxygen concentrations. To conclude, we highlight at the end of this review some areas that need further clarification.
Authors: Martínez Hernández, Alfredo
Journal: NATURE
ISSN 0028-0836  Vol. 519  Nº 7544  2015  pp. 423 - 424
Authors: Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio
Journal: NATURE
ISSN 0028-0836  Vol. 518  Nº 7539  2015  pp. 273
Studies of the epigenomic signatures of many healthy and diseased human tissues could provide crucial information to link genetic variation and disease.
Authors: Sayon Orea, María del Carmen; Santiago Neri, Susana; Cuervo Zapatel, Marta; et al.
Journal: MENOPAUSE-THE JOURNAL OF THE NORTH AMERICAN MENOPAUSE SOCIETY
ISSN 1072-3714  Vol. 22  Nº 7  2015  pp. 750 - 757
Objective: This study aims to assess the relationship of adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern, as well as the presence of menopausal symptoms, with overweight/obesity in Spanish perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Methods: Participants in this cross-sectional study were 8,954 Spanish perimenopausal or postmenopausal women. Anthropometric measurements were recorded, and all women were interviewed to assess their adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern, using a validated questionnaire and the Menopause and Health subscale of the validated Cervantes Scale. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the association between categories of adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the odds of being overweight/obese. Multinomial logistic regression was used to study the association between menopausal symptoms and the odds of being overweight/obese (reference categories: participants in the low-adherence category and participants with no menopausal problems). Results: After adjustment for relevant confounders, the odds ratio (95% CI) for being overweight/obese among women in the highest category of adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern was 0.68 (0.60-0.78; P for trend <0.001). The odds ratio (95% CI) for being overweight/obese was 3.05 (1.98-4.71) for the category "severe problems" in comparison with the category "no problems." Conclusions: Higher adherence to a healthy dietary pattern (Mediterranean diet) is inversely associated with overweight/obesity in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. The occurrence of low to severe problems during perimenopause or postmenopause is positively associated with overweight/obesity. Therefore, high adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern and a body mass index of 25kg/m or lower might improve quality of life in women at these stages.
Authors: Etxeberría Aramburu, Usune; Castilla Madrigal, Rosa María; Lostao Crespo, María del Pilar; et al.
Journal: CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
ISSN 0145-5680  Vol. 61  Nº 8  2015  pp. 9 - 16
A DNA microarray analysis was conducted in Caco-2 cells to analyse the protective effects of trans-resveratrol on enterocyte physiology and metabolism in pro-inflammatory conditions. Cells were pre-treated with 50 ¿¿ of trans-resveratrol and, subsequently, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was added for 48 h. The microarray analysis revealed 121 genes differentially expressed between resveratrol-treated and non-treated cells (B> 0, is the odd thatthe gene is differentially expressed). Inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (ID1), histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG), NADPH oxidase (NOX1) and sprouty homolog 1 (SPRY), were upregulated by LPS treatment, but significantly blocked by trans-resveratrol pre-treatment (padj< 0.05, after adjusting for Benjamini-Hocheberg procedure). Moreover, genes implicated in synthesis of lipids (z-score= -1.195) and concentration of cholesterol (z-score= -0.109), were markedly downregulated by trans-resveratrol. Other genes involved in fat turnover, but also in cell death and survival function, such as transcription factors Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) and amphiregulin (AREG), were also significantly inhibited by trans-resveratrol pre-treatment. RT-qPCR-data confirmed the microarray results. Special mention deserves acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 3 (ACSL3) and endothelial lipase (LIPG), which were downregulated by this stilbene and have been previously associated with fatty acid synthesis and obesity in other tissues. This study envisages that trans-resveratrol might exert an important anti-lipogenic effect at intestinal level under pro-inflammatory conditions, which has not been previously described.
Authors: Hoeller, U.; Baur, M.; Roos, F. F.; et al.
Journal: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 0007-1145  Vol. 115  Nº 2  2015  pp. 202 - 211
An efficient and robust method to measure vitamin D (25-hydroxy vitamin D-3 (25(OH)D-3) and 25-hydroxy vitamin D-2 in dried blood spots (DBS) has been developed and applied in the pan-European multi-centre, internet-based, personalised nutrition intervention study Food4Me. The method includes calibration with blood containing endogenous 25(OH)D-3, spotted as DBS and corrected for haematocrit content. The methodology was validated following international standards. The performance characteristics did not reach those of the current gold standard liquid chromatography-MS/MS in plasma for all parameters, but were found to be very suitable for status-level determination under field conditions. DBS sample quality was very high, and 3778 measurements of 25(OH)D-3 were obtained from 1465 participants. The study centre and the season within the study centre were very good predictors of 25(OH)D-3 levels (P<0.001 for each case). Seasonal effects were modelled by fitting a sine function with a minimum 25(OH)D-3 level on 20 January and a maximum on 21 July. The seasonal amplitude varied from centre to centre. The largest difference between winter and summer levels was found in Germany and the smallest in Poland. The model was cross-validated to determine the consistency of the predictions and the performance of the DBS method. The Pearson's correlation between the measured values and the predicted values was r 0.65, and the sd of their differences was 21.2 nmol/l. This includes the analytical variation and the biological variation within subjects. Overall, DBS obtained by unsupervised sampling of the participants at home was a viable methodology for obtaining vitamin D status information in a large nutritional study.
Authors: Martínez-Fernández, L.; Laiglesia González, Laura María; Huerta, A. E.; et al.
Journal: PROSTAGLANDINS AND OTHER LIPID MEDIATORS
ISSN 1098-8823  Vol. 121  Nº Part A  2015  pp. 24 - 41
The n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) have been reported to improve obesity-associated metabolic disorders including chronic inflammation, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. Growing evidence exits about adipose tissue as a target in mediating the beneficial effects of these marine n-3 PUFAs in adverse metabolic syndrome manifestations. Therefore, in this manuscript we focus in reviewing the current knowledge about effects of marine n-3 PUFAs on adipose tissue metabolism and secretory functions. This scope includes n-3 PUFAs actions on adipogenesis, lipogenesis and lipolysis as well as on fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis. The effects of n-3 PUFAs on adipose tissue glucose uptake and insulin signaling are also summarized. Moreover, the roles of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ¿ (PPAR¿) and AMPK activation in mediating n-3 PUFAs actions on adipose tissue functions are discussed. Finally, the mechanisms underlying the ability of n-3 PUFAs to prevent and/or ameliorate adipose tissue inflammation are also revised, focusing on the role of n-3 PUFAs-derived specialized proresolving lipid mediators such as resolvins, protectins and maresins.
Authors: Rendo Urteaga, Tara; García Calzón, Sonia; González Muniesa, Pedro; et al.
Journal: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 0007-1145  Vol. 113  Nº 2  2015  pp. 331 - 342
The present study analyses the gene expression profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from obese boys. The aims of the present study were to identify baseline differences between low responders (LR) and high responders (HR) after 10 weeks of a moderate energy-restricted dietary intervention, and to compare the gene expression profile between the baseline and the endpoint of the nutritional intervention. Spanish obese boys (age 10-14 years) were advised to follow a 10-week moderate energy-restricted diet. Participants were classified into two groups based on the association between the response to the nutritional intervention and the changes in BMI standard deviation score (BMI-SDS): HR group (n 6), who had a more decreased BMI-SDS; LR group (n 6), who either maintained or had an even increased BMI-SDS. The expression of 28 869 genes was analysed in PBMC from both groups at baseline and after the nutritional intervention, using the Affymetrix Human Gene 1.1 ST 24-Array plate microarray. At baseline, the HR group showed a lower expression of inflammation and immune response-related pathways, which suggests that the LR group could have a more developed pro-inflammatory phenotype. Concomitantly, LEPR and SIRPB1 genes were highly expressed in the LR group, indicating a tendency towards an impaired immune response and leptin resistance. Moreover, the moderate energy-restricted diet was able to down-regulate the inflammatory 'mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway' in the HR group, as well as some inflammatory genes (AREG and TNFAIP3). The present study confirms that changes in the gene expression profile of PBMC in obese boys may help to understand the weight-loss response. However, further research is required to confirm these findings.
Authors: Eguaras, S.; Toledo Atucha, Estefanía; Buil-Cosiales, P.; et al.
Journal: NUTRITION METABOLISM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
ISSN 0939-4753  Vol. 25  Nº 6  2015  pp. 569 - 574
BACKGROUND AND AIM: We tested the hypothesis that an intervention with a Mediterranean diet (MeDiet) could mitigate the well-known harmful effects of abdominal obesity on cardiovascular health. METHODS AND RESULTS: We assessed the relationship between baseline waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and major cardiovascular events during a median follow-up of 4.8 years in the Prevention with Mediterranean Diet (PREDIMED) randomized primary prevention trial, which tested a MeDiet against a control diet (advice on a low-fat diet). We also examined whether the MeDiet intervention was able to counteract the detrimental cardiovascular effects of an increased WHtR. The trial included 7447 participants (55-80 years old, 57% women) at high cardiovascular risk but free of cardiovascular disease (CVD) at enrollment. An increased risk of CVD events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death) was apparent for the highest versus the lowest quartile of WHtR (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio: 1.98) (95% confidence interval: 1.10-3.57; linear trend: p = 0.019) only in the control-diet group, but not in the two groups allocated to intervention with MeDiet (p for interaction = 0.034). This apparent interaction suggesting that the intervention counterbalanced the detrimental cardiovascular effects of adiposity was also significant for body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.01) and waist circumference (p = 0.043). CONCLUSIONS: The MeDiet may counteract the harmful effects of increased adiposity on the risk of CVD.
Authors: Valdecantos Jiménez de Andrade, Pilar; Prieto Hontoria, Pedro Luis; Pardo, V.; et al.
Journal: FREE RADICAL BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE
ISSN 0891-5849  Vol. 84  2015  pp. 263 - 278
Excess of saturated free fatty acids, such as palmitic acid (PA), in hepatocytes has been implicated in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. ¿-Lipoic acid (LA) is an antioxidant that protects against oxidative stress conditions. We have investigated the effects of LA in the early activation of oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, lipid accumulation, and Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defenses in hepatocytes treated with PA or in rats fed a high-fat diet. In primary human hepatocytes, a lipotoxic concentration of PA triggered endoplasmic reticulum stress, induced the apoptotic transcription factor CHOP, and increased the percentage of apoptotic cells. Cotreatment with LA prevented these effects. Similar results were found in mouse hepatocytes in which LA attenuated PA-mediated activation of caspase 3 and reduced lipid accumulation by decreasing PA uptake and increasing fatty acid oxidation and lipophagy, thereby preventing lipoapoptosis. Moreover, LA augmented the proliferation capacity of hepatocytes after PA challenge. Antioxidant effects of LA ameliorated reactive oxygen species production and endoplasmic reticulum stress and protected against mitochondrial apoptosis in hepatocytes treated with PA. Cotreatment with PA and LA induced an early nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and activated antioxidant enzymes, whereas reduction of Nrf2 by siRNA abolished the benefit of LA on PA-induced lipoapoptosis. Importantly, posttreatment with LA reversed the established damage induced by PA in hepatocytes, as well as preventing obesity-induced oxidative stress and lipoapoptosis in rat liver. In conclusion, our work has revealed that in hepatocytes, Nrf2 is an essential early player in the rescue of oxidative stress by LA leading to protection against PA-mediated lipoapoptosis.
Authors: Livingstone, K. M.; Celis-Morales, C.; Lara, J.; et al.
Journal: OBESITY REVIEWS
ISSN 1467-7881  Vol. 16  Nº 8  2015  pp. 666 - 678
Risk variants of fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene have been associated with increased obesity. However, the evidence for associations between FTO genotype and macronutrient intake has not been reviewed systematically. Our aim was to evaluate the potential associations between FTO genotype and intakes of total energy, fat, carbohydrate and protein. We undertook a systematic literature search in OVID MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE and Cochrane of associations between macronutrient intake and FTO genotype in adults. Beta coefficients and confidence intervals (CIs) were used for per allele comparisons. Random-effect models assessed the pooled effect sizes. We identified 56 eligible studies reporting on 213,173 adults. For each copy of the FTO risk allele, individuals reported 6.46¿kcal day(-1) (95% CI: 10.76, 2.16) lower total energy intake (P¿=¿0.003). Total fat (P¿=¿0.028) and protein (P¿=¿0.006), but not carbohydrate intakes, were higher in those carrying the FTO risk allele. After adjustment for body weight, total energy intakes remained significantly lower in individuals with the FTO risk genotype (P¿=¿0.028). The FTO risk allele is associated with a lower reported total energy intake and with altered patterns of macronutrient intake. Although significant, these differences are small and further research is needed to determine whether the associations are independent of dietary misreporting.
Authors: Ibero Baraibar, Idoia; Navas Carretero, Santiago; Abete Goñi, Itziar; et al.
Journal: CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0261-5614  Vol. 34  Nº 5  2015  pp. 1010 - 1017
Background & aims: The aim of this study is to further clarify the role of plasma 25(OH)D concentration after a weight-lowering nutritional intervention on body composition, blood pressure and inflammatory biomarkers in overweight/obese middle-aged subjects. Methods: This longitudinal research encompassed a total of 50 subjects [57.26 (5.24) year], who were under a 15% energy restricted diet for 4 weeks. Anthropometric and body composition variables, blood routine, inflammatory markers as well as 25(OH)D were analysed. Results: Circulating 25(OH)D levels [12.13(+/- 17.61%)] increased while anthropometric, body composition, routine blood markers as well as the concentration of TNF-alpha, C-reactive protein and Lp-PLA2 were significantly reduced after the intervention. Multiple linear regression analyses evidenced that Delta 25(OH) D increase was linked to the decrease in weight, adiposity, SBP and IL-6 levels. Moreover, a relationship was found between Delta 25(OH)D, Mat mass (r = -0.405; p = 0.007), ASBP (r = -0.355; p = 0.021) and Delta IL6 (r = -0.386; p = 0.014). On the other hand, a higher increase in 25(OH)D was accompanied by reductions in weight, BMI, SBP, IL-6 and an increase in bone mineral concentration (p < 0.05). Interestingly, higher levels of 25(OH)D at the endpoint, showed a significantly higher decrease in weight, BMI and total fat mass. Conclusions: The increase in plasma 25(OH)D level is linked with the decrease in SBP and adiposity in middle-aged subjects after a weight-loss intervention. Therefore, 25(OH)D assessment is a potential marker to be accounted in metabolic measures related to blood pressure, adiposity and inflammation in obesity management.
Authors: González Muniesa, Pedro; López-Pascual, A.; De-Andrés, J.; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
ISSN 1138-7548  Vol. 71  Nº 3  2015  pp. 589 - 599
Strategies designed to reduce adiposity and cardiovascular-accompanying manifestations have been based on nutritional interventions conjointly with physical activity programs. The aim of this 13-week study was to investigate the putative benefits associated to hypoxia plus exercise on weight loss and relevant metabolic and cardiorespiratory variables, when prescribed to obese subjects with sleep apnea syndrome following dietary advice. The participants were randomly distributed in the following three groups: control, normoxia, and hypoxia. All the subjects received dietary advice while, additionally, normoxia group was trained under normal oxygen concentration and Hypoxia group under hypoxic conditions. There was a statistically significant decrease in fat-free mass (Kg) and water (%) on the control compared to normoxia group (p¿<¿0.05 and p¿<¿0.01, respectively). Body weight, body mass index, and waist circumference decreased in all the groups after the study. Moreover, leukocyte count was increased after the intervention in hypoxia compared to control group (p¿<¿0.05). There were no statistically significant variations within groups in other variables, although changes in appetite were found after the 13-week period. In addition, associations between the variations in the leukocyte count and fat mass have been found. The hypoxia group showed some specific benefits concerning appetite and cardiometabolic-related measurements as exertion time and diastolic blood pressure, with a therapeutical potential.
Authors: García Calzón, Sonia; Zalba Goñi, Guillermo; Ruiz-Canela, M.; et al.
Journal: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0002-9165  Vol. 102  Nº 4  2015  pp. 897 - 904
BACKGROUND: Dietary factors can affect telomere length (TL), a biomarker of aging, through oxidation and inflammation-related mechanisms. A Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) could help to understand the effect of the inflammatory potential of the diet on telomere shortening. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the association of the DII with TL and to examine whether diet-associated inflammation could modify the telomere attrition rate after a 5-y follow-up of a Mediterranean dietary intervention. DESIGN: This was a prospective study of 520 participants at high cardiovascular disease risk (mean ± SD age: 67.0 ± 6.0 y, 45% males) from the PREDIMED-NAVARRA (PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea-NAVARRA) trial. Leukocyte TL was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction at baseline and after 5 y of follow-up. The DII was calculated from self-reported data by using a validated 137-item food-frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: Longer telomeres at baseline were found in participants who had a more anti-inflammatory diet (lowest DII score) (P-trend = 0.012). Longitudinal analyses further showed that a greater anti-inflammatory potential of the diet (i.e., a decrease in the DII) could significantly slow down the rate of telomere shortening. Moreover, the multivariable-adjusted OR for short telomeres (z score ¿20th percentile) was 1.80 (95% CI: 1.03, 3.17) in a comparison between the highest (proinflammatory) and the lowest (anti-inflammatory) DII tertiles. Similarly, a greater DII (greatest proinflammatory values) after a 5-y follow-up was associated with almost a 2-fold higher risk of accelerated telomere attrition compared with the highest decrease in DII (greatest anti-inflammatory values) during this period (P-trend = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed both cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the inflammatory potential of the diet and telomere shortening in subjects with a high cardiovascular disease risk. Our findings are consistent with, but do not show, a beneficial effect of adherence to an anti-inflammatory diet on aging and health by slowing down telomere shortening. These results suggest that diet might play a key role as a determinant of TL through proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory mechanisms. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639. 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Authors: Marsaux, C. F.; Celis-Morales, C.; Fallaize, R.; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF MEDICAL INTERNET RESEARCH
ISSN 1438-8871  Vol. 17  Nº 10  2015  pp. e231
Background: The high prevalence of physical inactivity worldwide calls for innovative and more effective ways to promote physical activity (PA). There are limited objective data on the effectiveness of Web-based personalized feedback on increasing PA in adults. Objective: It is hypothesized that providing personalized advice based on PA measured objectively alongside diet, phenotype, or genotype information would lead to larger and more sustained changes in PA, compared with nonpersonalized advice. Methods: A total of 1607 adults in seven European countries were randomized to either a control group (nonpersonalized advice, Level 0, L0) or to one of three personalized groups receiving personalized advice via the Internet based on current PA plus diet (Level 1, L1), PA plus diet and phenotype (Level 2, L2), or PA plus diet, phenotype, and genotype (Level 3, L3). PA was measured for 6 months using triaxial accelerometers, and self-reported using the Baecke questionnaire. Outcomes were objective and self-reported PA after 3 and 6 months. J Med Internet Res 2015 | vol. 17 | iss. 10 | e231 | http://www.jmir.org/2015/10/e231/p.1 (page number not for citation purposes) JOURNAL OF MEDICAL INTERNET RESEARCH Marsaux et al XSL¿FO RenderX Results: While 1270 participants (85.81% of 1480 actual starters) completed the 6-month trial, 1233 (83.31%) self-reported PA at both baseline and month 6, but only 730 (49.32%) had sufficient objective PA data at both time points. For the total cohort after 6 months, a greater improvement in self-reported total PA (P=.02) and PA during leisure (nonsport) (P=.03) was observed in personalized groups compared with the control group. For individuals advised to increase PA, we also observed greater improvements in those two self-reported indices (P=.006 and P=.008, respectively) with increased personalization of the advice (L2 and L3 vs L1). However, there were no significant differences in accelerometer results between personalized and control groups, and no significant effect of adding phenotypic or genotypic information to the tailored feedback at month 3 or 6. After 6 months, there were small but significant improvements in the objectively measured physical activity level (P<.05), moderate PA (P<.01), and sedentary time (P<.001) for individuals advised to increase PA, but these changes were similar across all groups. Conclusions: Different levels of personalization produced similar small changes in objective PA. We found no evidence that personalized advice is more effective than conventional "one size fits all" guidelines to promote changes in PA in our Web-based intervention when PA was measured objectively. Based on self-reports, PA increased to a greater extent with more personalized advice. Thus, it is crucial to measure PA objectively in any PA intervention study.
Authors: Celis-Morales, C.; Livingstone, K. M.; Marsaux, C. F.; et al.
Journal: GENES AND NUTRITION
ISSN 1555-8932  Vol. 10  Nº 1  2015  pp. 450
Improving lifestyle behaviours has considerable potential for reducing the global burden of non-communicable diseases, promoting better health across the life-course and increasing well-being. However, realising this potential will require the development, testing and implementation of much more effective behaviour change interventions than are used conventionally. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a multi-centre, web-based, proof-of-principle study of personalised nutrition (PN) to determine whether providing more personalised dietary advice leads to greater improvements in eating patterns and health outcomes compared to conventional population-based advice. A total of 5,562 volunteers were screened across seven European countries the first 1,607 participants who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were recruited into the trial. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the following intervention groups for a 6-month period: Level 0--control group--receiving conventional, non-PN advice Level 1--receiving PN advice based on dietary intake data alone Level 2--receiving PN advice based on dietary intake and phenotypic data and Level 3--receiving PN advice based on dietary intake, phenotypic and genotypic data. A total of 1,607 participants had a mean age of 39.8 years (ranging from 18 to 79 years). Of these participants, 60.9 % were women and 96.7 % were from white-European background. The mean BMI for all randomised participants was 25.5 kg m.sup.-2, and 44.8 % of the participants had a BMI a[yen] 25.0 kg m.sup.-2. Food4Me is the first large multi-centre RCT of web-based PN. The main outcomes from the Food4Me study will be submitted for publication during 2015.
Authors: Huerta Hernández, Ana Elsa; Navas Carretero, Santiago; Prieto Hontoria, Pedro Luis; et al.
Journal: OBESITY
ISSN 1930-7381  Vol. 23  Nº 2  2015  pp. 313 - 321
Objective To evaluate the potential body weight-lowering effects of dietary supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and ¿-lipoic acid separately or combined in healthy overweight/obese women following a hypocaloric diet. Methods This is a short-term double-blind placebo-controlled study with parallel design that lasted 10 weeks. Of the randomized participants, 97 women received the allocated treatment [Control, EPA (1.3 g/d), ¿-lipoic acid (0.3 g/d), and EPA¿+¿¿-lipoic acid (1.3 g/d¿+¿0.3 g/d)], and 77 volunteers completed the study. All groups followed an energy-restricted diet of 30% less than total energy expenditure. Body weight, anthropometric measurements, body composition, resting energy expenditure, blood pressure, serum glucose, and insulin and lipid profile, as well as leptin and ghrelin levels, were assessed at baseline and after nutritional intervention. Results Body weight loss was significantly higher (P¿<¿0.05) in those groups supplemented with ¿-lipoic acid. EPA supplementation significantly attenuated (P¿<¿0.001) the decrease in leptin levels that occurs during weight loss. Body weight loss improved lipid and glucose metabolism parameters but without significant differences between groups. Conclusions The intervention suggests that ¿-lipoic acid supplementation alone or in combination with EPA may help to promote body weight loss in healthy overweight/obese women following energy-restricted diets.
Authors: Lopes-Rosado, E.; Bressan, J.; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo
Journal: LIPIDS
ISSN 0024-4201  Vol. 50  Nº 5  2015  pp. 459 - 467
Our aim was to evaluate the influence of the Gln27Glu polymorphism of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (ADR beta(2)) gene, fat intake and physical activity on the energy expenditure (EE) and nutritional status of obese women. Sixty obese women (30-46 years) participated in the study and were assigned to three groups depending on the genotypes: Gln27Gln, Gln27Glu and Glu27Glu. At baseline and after nutritional intervention, the anthropometric and body composition (bioelectrical impedance), dietary, EE (indirect calorimetry) and biochemical variables were measured. All women received a high-fat test meal to determine the postprandial EE (short-term) and an energy-restricted diet for 10 weeks (long term). The frequencies of Gln27Gln, Gln27Glu and Glu27Glu were 36.67, 40.0 and 23.33 %, respectively. Anthropometric and biochemical variables and EE did not differ between groups, although women who had no polymorphism demonstrated decreased carbohydrate oxidation. On the other hand, the Glu27Glu genotype showed a positive relation with EE in physical activity and fat oxidation. The environmental factors and Gln27Glu polymorphism did not influence the nutritional status and EE of obese women, but physical activity in obese women with the polymorphism in the ADR beta(2) gene can promote fat oxidation. The results suggest that encouraging the practice of physical exercise is important considering the high frequency of this polymorphism in obese subjects.
Authors: Smalley, S. V.; Preiss, Y.; Suazo, J.; et al.
Journal: GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
ISSN 1415-4757  Vol. 38  Nº 1  2015  pp. 30 - 36
Authors: Mansego Talavera, María Luisa; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Journal: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
ISSN 1422-0067  Vol. 16  Nº 8  2015  pp. 16816 - 16832
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether genome-wide levels of DNA methylation are associated with age and the health risks of obesity (HRO); defined according to BMI categories as "Low HRO" (overweight and class 1 obesity) versus "High HRO" (class 2 and class 3 obesity). Anthropometric measurements were assessed in a subsample of 48 volunteers from the Metabolic Syndrome Reduction in Navarra (RESMENA) study and 24 women from another independent study, Effects of Lipoic Acid and Eicosapentaenoic Acid in Human Obesity (OBEPALIP study). In the pooled population; the methylation levels of 55 CpG sites were significantly associated with age after Benjamini-Hochberg correction. In addition, DNA methylation of three CpG sites located in ELOVL2; HOXC4 and PI4KB were further negatively associated with their mRNA levels. Although no differentially methylated CpG sites were identified in relation to HRO after multiple testing correction; several nominally significant CpG sites were identified in genes related to insulin signaling; energy and lipid metabolism. Moreover, statistically significant associations between BMI or mRNA levels and two HRO-related CpG sites located in GPR133 and ITGB5 are reported. As a conclusion, these findings from two Spanish cohorts add knowledge about the important role of DNA methylation in the age-related regulation of gene expression. In addition; a relevant influence of age on DNA methylation in white blood cells was found, as well as, on a trend level, novel associations between DNA methylation and obesity.
Authors: Huerta Hernández, Ana Elsa; Prieto Hontoria, Pedro Luis; Fernández Galilea, Marta; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
ISSN 1138-7548  Vol. 71  Nº 3  2015  pp. 547 - 558
Irisin is a myokine/adipokine with potential role in obesity and diabetes. The objectives of the present study were to analyse the relationship between irisin and glucose metabolism at baseline and during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and to determine the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or alpha-lipoic acid treatment on irisin production in cultured human adipocytes and in vivo in healthy overweight/obese women following a weight loss program. Seventy-three overweight/obese women followed a 30 % energy-restricted diet supplemented without (control) or with EPA (1.3 g/day), alpha-lipoic acid (0.3 g/day) or both EPA + alpha-lipoic acid (1.3 + 0.3 g/day) during 10 weeks. An OGTT was performed at baseline. Moreover, human adipocytes were treated with EPA (100-200 mu M) or alpha-lipoic acid (100-250 mu M) during 24 h. At baseline plasma, irisin circulating levels were positively associated with glucose levels; however, serum irisin concentrations were not affected by the increment in blood glucose or insulin during the OGTT. Treatment with alpha-lipoic acid (250 mu M) upregulated Fndc5 messenger RNA (mRNA) and irisin secretion in cultured adipocytes. In overweight/obese women, irisin circulating levels decreased significantly after weight loss in all groups, while no additional differences were induced by EPA or alpha-lipoic acid supplementation. Moreover, plasma irisin levels were positively associated with higher glucose concentrations at beginning and at endp
Authors: San Cristóbal Blanco, Rodrigo; Navas Carretero, Santiago; Celis-Morales, C.; et al.
Journal: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 7  Nº 11  2015  pp. 9523 - 9537
Obesity prevalence is increasing. The management of this condition requires a detailed analysis of the global risk factors in order to develop personalised advice. This study is aimed to identify current dietary patterns and habits in Spanish population interested in personalised nutrition and investigate associations with weight status. Self-reported dietary and anthropometrical data from the Spanish participants in the Food4Me study, were used in a multidimensional exploratory analysis to define specific dietary profiles. Two opposing factors were obtained according to food groups¿ intake: Factor 1 characterised by a more frequent consumption of traditionally considered unhealthy foods; and Factor 2, where the consumption of ¿Mediterranean diet¿ foods was prevalent. Factor 1 showed a direct relationship with BMI (ß = 0.226; r2 = 0.259; p < 0.001), while the association with Factor 2 was inverse (ß = -0.037; r2 = 0.230; p = 0.348). Atotal of four categories were defined (Prudent, Healthy,Western, and Compensatory) through classification of the sample in higher or lower adherence to each factor and combining the possibilities. Western and Compensatory dietary patterns, which were characterized by high-density foods consumption, showed positive associations with overweight prevalence. Further analysis showed that prevention of overweight must focus on limiting the intake of known deleterious foods rather than exclusively enhance healthy products.
Authors: Engberink, M. F.; Geleijnse, J. M.; Bakker, S. J.; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF HUMAN HYPERTENSION
ISSN 0950-9240  Vol. 29  Nº 1  2015  pp. 58 - 63
Randomized trials have shown significant blood pressure (BP) reductions after increased protein compared with carbohydrate intake, but the effect on BP maintenance after initial weight loss is unclear. We examined the effect of a high-protein diet on the maintenance of reduced BP after weight loss in 420 overweight adults from the Diet, Obesity and Genes study. After an 8-week weight-loss period (>8% BW), subjects (42±6 years) were randomized to either a high-protein diet (23-28 en% protein) or a lower-protein control diet (10-15 en% protein) for 26 weeks. BMI after weight loss was 30.3±4.3¿kg¿m(-2), BP was 118/73¿mm¿Hg and 28 subjects (6.5%) used antihypertensive agents. Systolic BP during 26 weeks of weight maintenance dietary intervention increased in both treatment groups, but it was 2.2¿mm¿Hg less (95% CI: -4.6 to 0.2¿mm¿Hg, P=0.08) in the high-protein group than in the lower-protein control group. In 191 (pre)hypertensive subjects (baseline systolic BP¿120¿mm¿Hg), a larger difference was observed (-4.2¿mm¿Hg (-7.7, -0.7), P=0.02). The effect was attenuated after adjustment for initial BP (-3.4¿mm¿Hg (-6.9, -0.03), P=0.048), and after additional adjustment for weight change (-2.7¿mm¿Hg (-6.1, 0.4), P=0.11). Adjustment for 24-h urinary excretion of sodium and potassium did not change the results. Diastolic BP yielded similar results. These findings suggest that a BP reduction after weight loss is better maintained when the intake of protein is increased at the expense of carbohydrates. This effect is partly mediated by body weight.
Authors: Fernández-Fernández, E.; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; Martínez-Suárez, V.; et al.
Journal: NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA
ISSN 0212-1611  Vol. 31  Nº 1  2015  pp. 92 - 101
La leche de vaca es un alimento básico en la alimentación humana en todas las etapas de la vida. Su procesamiento industrial ha permitido el acceso generalizado a su consumo por parte de la población, lo que ha contribuido a mejorar notablemente su nivel de salud. Desde el punto de vista de su composición, la leche es un alimento completo y equilibrado, que proporciona un elevado contenido de nutrientes en relación con su contenido calórico, por lo que su consumo debe considerarse necesario desde la infancia a la tercera edad. Los beneficios de la leche de vaca no se limitan exclusivamente a su valor nutricional, sino que se extienden más allá y constituyen un factor de prevención en determinadas patologías afluentes como son la enfermedad cardiovascular, algunos tipos de cáncer, la hipertensión arterial o en patología ósea o dental. Puede contribuir también en la lucha frente al sobrepeso y la obesidad infantil. En los últimos años hemos asistido a un descenso preocupante en el consumo de leche entre la población española, condicionado al menos en parte por ideas equivocadas sobre su consumo y el de otros derivados lácteos. Este documento de consenso pretende revisar el estado actual de la cuestión en relación con los efectos del consumo de leche sobre la salud, al tiempo que hace una llamada a las instituciones y a las sociedades científicas para elaborar programas y campañas divulgativas sobre los beneficios del consumo de leche y derivados lácteos.
Authors: Santiago Neri, Susana; Zazpe García, Itzíar; Bes Rastrollo, Maira; et al.
Journal: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0954-3007  Vol. 69  Nº 3  2015  pp. 297 - 302
Background/ Objectives: To evaluate the association between the carbohydrate quality (CQI) and weight change or incident overweight/obesity (BMI¿25 kg/m2) in the ¿Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN)¿ cohort. Subjects/ Methods: 8 741 participants initially free of overweight/obesity were followed¿up for a median of 7.9 years. We evaluated at baseline the CQI following 4 criteria: dietary fibre intake, glycemic index (GI), whole grains/total grains ratio and solid carbohydrates/total carbohydrates ratio. Subjects were classified into quintiles according to CQI. Weight was recorded at baseline and updated every 2 years during follow¿up. Results: Increasing CQI of diet was not significantly associated with lower weight gain, although participants in the highest quintile had the lowest average crude weight gain (+211 g/year). We observed 1 862 incident cases of overweight/obesity during followup. CQI was significantly associated (p for trend 0.006) with lower risk of overweight/obesity: adjusted OR for the 4rd and 5th quintiles: 0.81 (95% CI 0.66 to 0.99), and 0.74 (95% CI 0.60 to 0.92), respectively. Conclusions: In this Mediterranean cohort, CQI showed a significant inverse association with the incidence of overweight/obesity, which highlights that carbohydrate intake guidelines related to obesity prevention should be focused in improving the CQI of the diet.
Authors: Etxeberría Aramburu, Usune; Arias, N.; Boqué Terré, Noemi; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF NUTRITIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY
ISSN 0955-2863  Vol. 26  Nº 6  2015  pp. 651 - 660
Diet-induced obesity is associated to an imbalance in the normal gut microbiota composition. Resveratrol and quercetin, widely known for their health beneficial properties, have low bioavailability, and when they reach the colon, they are targets of the gut microbial ecosystem. Hence, the use of these molecules in obesity might be considered as a potential strategy to modulate intestinal bacterial composition. The purpose of this study was to determine whether trans-resveratrol and quercetin administration could counteract gut microbiota dysbiosis produced by high-fat sucrose diet (HFS) and, in turn, improve gut health. Wistar rats were randomised into four groups fed an HFS diet supplemented or not with trans-resveratrol [15 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day], quercetin (30 mg/kg BW/day) or a combination of both polyphenols at those doses. Administration of both polyphenols together prevented body weight gain and reduced serum insulin levels. Moreover, individual supplementation of trans-resveratrol and quercetin effectively reduced serum insulin levels and insulin resistance. Quercetin supplementation generated a great impact on gut microbiota composition at different taxonomic levels, attenuating Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and inhibiting the growth of bacterial species previously associated to diet-induced obesity (Erysipelotrichaceae, Bacillus, Eubacterium cylindroides). Overall, the administration of quercetin was found to be effective in lessening HFS-diet-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis. In contrast, trans-resveratrol supplementation alone or in combination with quercetin scarcely modified the profile of gut bacteria but acted at the intestinal level, altering the mRNA expression of tight-junction proteins and inflammation-associated genes.
Authors: Juanola-Falgarona, M.; Salas-Salvadó, J.; Buil-Cosiales, P.; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY
ISSN 0002-8614  Vol. 63  Nº 10  2015  pp. 1991 - 2000
Objectives To evaluate how glycemic index ( GI) and glycemic load ( GL) are associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its features in middle-aged and elderly adults at high cardiovascular risk. Design Prospective, longitudinal, population-based cohort. Setting PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea study. Participants Men and women (N = 6,606) divided into three age groups (<65, 65-74, ¿75). Measurements Energy and nutrient intake was evaluated using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire. MetS and its features were defined in accordance with the criteria of the American Heart Association and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Results A positive association was observed between GI and MetS prevalence in the youngest and middle age groups for participants without diabetes mellitus, but no relationship was found for those with diabetes mellitus. During the median follow-up of 4.8 years, higher GI and GL were related to greater risk of MetS in the middle age group, independent of the presence of diabetes mellitus. Changes in dietary GI were associated with risk of developing the high fasting glucose component of the MetS in the oldest age category, and changes in dietary GL were associated with risk of developing abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high blood pressure in the youngest age category. Conclusion Dietary GI and GL have a potential role in the development of MetS and associated clinical features, with particular age-dependent considerations.
Authors: Navas Carretero, Santiago; San-Cristobal, R.; Avellaneda, A.; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF FUNCTIONAL FOODS
ISSN 1756-4646  Vol. 12  2015  pp. 319 - 331
The effects on body composition and cardiovascular risk of functional meat products, within a balanced diet, were investigated in a randomized, double-blind, 10-week nutritional intervention. Fifty-four adults were distributed in three groups, consuming 600¿g/week of a reference meat product (RP), optimized nutritional product-1 (ONP-1), lower in fat, or ONP-2, n-3 PUFA enriched. Measures were performed at baseline and the endpoint. All groups lost fat mass, being subjects on the ONP-2 group those with more fat loss (p¿=¿0.042) compared to the other groups. Correlation analyses evidenced significant associations between alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) intake and plasma levels (p¿=¿0.001), as well as between plasma levels and fat mass changes (p¿=¿0.03). The inclusion of optimized meat products, with n-3 PUFA (Polyunsaturated fatty acids) and an improved nutritional profile may be a healthy strategy, as a functional food, within an isocalorically controlled diet. ALA consumption may play a role in body composition changes.
Authors: Gómez Úriz, Ana; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Mansego Talavera, María Luisa; et al.
Journal: HUMAN MOLECULAR GENETICS
ISSN 0964-6906  Vol. 24  Nº 5  2015  pp. 1432 - 1440
Obesity and stroke are multifactorial diseases in which genetic, epigenetic and lifestyle factors are involved. The research aims were, first, the description of genes with differential epigenetic regulation obtained by an 'omics' approach in patients with ischemic stroke and, second, to determine the importance of some regions of these selected genes in biological processes depending on the body mass index. A case-control study using two populations was designed. The first population consisted of 24 volunteers according to stroke/non-stroke and normal weight/obesity conditions. The second population included 60 stroke patients and 55 controls classified by adiposity. DNA from the first population was analyzed with a methylation microarray, showing 80 cytosine-guanine dinucleotides (CpG) sites differentially methylated in stroke and 96 CpGs in obesity, whereas 59 CpGs showed interaction. After validating these data by MassArray Epityper, the promoter region of peptidase M20 domain containing 1 (PM20D1) gene was significantly hypermethylated in stroke patients. One CpG site at Caldesmon 1 (CALD1) gene showed an interaction between stroke and obesity. Two CpGs located in the genes Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) and potassium voltage-gated channel, KQT-like subfamily, member 1 (KCNQ1) were significantly hypermethylated in obese patients. In the second population, KCNQ1 was also hypermethylated in the obese subjects. Two CpGs of this gene were subsequently validated by methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting. Moreover, KCNQ1 methylation levels were associated with plasma KCNQ1 protein concentrations. In conclusion, obesity induced changes in the KCNQ1 methylation pattern which were also dependent on stroke. Furthermore, the epigenetic marks differentially methylated in the stroke patients were dependent on the previous obese state. These DNA methylation patterns could be used as future potential stroke biomarkers.
Authors: Mansego Talavera, María Luisa; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Journal: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 66  Nº 1  2015  pp. 1 - 9
The objective of this study was to examine whether 7 SNPs previously associated with obesity-related traits that add or remove potential sites of DNA methylation are accompanied by differential DNA methylation and subsequently affect adiposity variables or body weight reduction in WBC from obese subjects under an energy-restricted program. Material and Methods: Anthropometric measurements were assessed in 47 volunteers recruited within the RESMENA study (Spain). At baseline, DNA from white blood cells was isolated and 7 obesity-related trait CpG-SNPs were genotyped by TaqMan-PCR. Then, methylation levels of CpG-SNP sites were quantified by MassArray® EpiTyper¿ or MS-HRM approaches. Results: Differential DNA methylation levels were observed by genotypes in all of the CpG-SNPs analyzed. The FTO and BDNF methylation levels were further correlated with baseline body weight and, BDNF mRNA levels and body weight change, respectively. Moreover, the rs7359397 (SH2B1) was associated with the body weight, body mass index, and truncal fat mass reduction. Conclusions: Our results reveal the interaction of epigenetic and genetic variations in CpG-SNPs, especially in BDNF and SH2B1 genes, and how allele-specific methylation may contribute to elucidate the possible molecular mechanisms as these SNPs are affecting the decrease of mRNA levels and contributing to a lower body weight reduction.
Authors: Goñi Mateos, Leticia; Cuervo Zapatel, Marta; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
Journal: GENES AND NUTRITION
ISSN 1555-8932  Vol. 10  Nº 1  2015  pp. 445
There is little evidence about genetic risk score (GRS)-diet interactions in order to provide personalized nutrition based on the genotype. The aim of the study was to assess the value of a GRS on obesity prediction and to further evaluate the interactions between the GRS and dietary intake on obesity. A total of 711 seekers of a Nutrigenetic Service were examined for anthropometric and body composition measurements and also for dietary habits and physical activity. Oral epithelial cells were collected for the identification of 16 SNPs (related with obesity or lipid metabolism) using DNA zip-coded beads. Genotypes were coded as 0, 1 or 2 according to the number of risk alleles, and the GRS was calculated by adding risk alleles with such a criterion. After being adjusted for gender, age, physical activity and energy intake, the GRS demonstrated that individuals carrying >7 risk alleles had in average 0.93 kg/m(2) of BMI, 1.69 % of body fat mass, 1.94 cm of waist circumference and 0.01 waist-to-height ratio more than the individuals with ¿7 risk alleles. Significant interactions for GRS and the consumption of energy, total protein, animal protein, vegetable protein, total fat, saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, total carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates and fiber intake on adiposity traits were found after adjusted for confounders variables. The GRS confirmed that the high genetic risk group showed greater values of adiposity than the low risk group and demonstrated that macronutrient intake modifies the GRS association with adiposity traits.
Authors: González Navarro, Carlos Javier; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo
Journal: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCES AND NUTRITION
ISSN 0963-7486  Vol. 66  Nº Suppl. 1  2015  pp. S1 - S3
During the past years there is a rising demand for improving the quality and nutritional value of foods that has encouraged the research and development of new food ingredients and products. Nevertheless, to date, many of the health claim applications evaluating EFSA have been rejected. Hence, it is critical for companies involved in the development of functional foods to be aware of the full flowchart needed for the scientific support of a health claim from the very beginning. This series of articles summarize the conclusions presented in July 2014 during the workshop INCOMES devoted to clarify methodologies for scientific support of health claims in foods/ingredients, in the framework of the XVI Reunión de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición, and are intended to be a practical tool, outlining the sections that an application for authorization of a health claim should contain.
Authors: Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo
Journal: CURRENT NUTRITION REPORTS
ISSN 2161-3311  Vol. 4  Nº 4  2015  pp. 330 - 339
Epigenetic signatures, which can sometimes be transgenerationally inherited, include DNA methylation, histone covalent modifications, or chromatin folding, as well as microRNAs and other mechanisms that can regulate gene expression without altering the underlying genomic sequence. Maternal malnutrition during perinatal periods has been involved, through fetal or developmental programming, in the susceptibility to excessive adiposity and other non-communicable chronic diseases. Epigenetic encrypts in the adipose tissue of obese subjects, which are affected by nutrition, sedentarism, and age among other factors, can be also reflected in the blood cells. Relationships between obesity and the epigenetic regulation of gene expression have been repeatedly reported, for example. It has been suggested that the obesity status may be mediated by epigenetic marks and that the response to a hypocaloric diet could be related to the methylation profiles of specific gene promoters. This review is focused on the importance of epigenetic regulation, with emphasis on DNA methylation, in the etiology and development of obesity, presenting some target epiobesogenic genes that might be used as biomarkers of weight loss success and weight regain and for preventive and personalized nutrition.
Authors: Hallmann, J.; Kolossa, S.; Gedrich, K.; et al.
Journal: MOLECULAR NUTRITION AND FOOD RESEARCH
ISSN 1613-4125  Vol. 59  Nº 12  2015  pp. 2565 - 2573
Scope: A high intake of n-3 PUFA provides health benefits via changes in the n-6/n-3 ratio in blood. In addition to such dietary PUFAs, variants in the fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) gene are also associated with altered PUFA profiles. Methods and results: We used mathematical modeling to predict levels of PUFA in whole blood, based on multiple hypothesis testing and bootstrapped LASSO selected food items, anthropometric and lifestyle factors, and the rs174546 genotypes in FADS1 from 1607 participants (Food4Me Study). The models were developed using data from the first reported time point (training set) and their predictive power was evaluated using data from the last reported time point (test set). Among other food items, fish, pizza, chicken, and cereals were identified as being associated with the PUFA profiles. Using these food items and the rs174546 genotypes as predictors, models explained 26-43% of the variability in PUFA concentrations in the training set and 22-33% in the test set. Conclusion: Selecting food items using multiple hypothesis testing is a valuable contribution to determine predictors, as our models' predictive power is higher compared to analogue studies. As unique feature, we additionally confirmed our models' power based on a test set.
Authors: Ibero Baraibar, Idoia; Azqueta Oscoz, Amaya; López de Cerain Salsamendi, Adela; et al.
Journal: MUTAGENESIS
ISSN 0267-8357  Vol. 30  Nº 1  2015  pp. 139 - 146
Nutrient excess and unbalanced diets can result in overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are associated with oxidative stress. Cocoa extract contains antioxidants that inhibit the harmful effects of ROS. This trial analysed the effect of cocoa extract consumption integrated as a bioactive compound into ready-to-eat meals, on oxidative stress at the level of DNA in overweight/obese subjects. Fifty volunteers [57.26(5.24) years, 30.59(2.33)kg/m(2)] participated in a 4-week double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled parallel nutritional intervention. Half of the volunteers received meals supplemented with 1.4 g/day cocoa extract, while the other half received control meals, both within a 15% energy restriction diet. Lymphocytes were isolated and endogenous strand breaks, oxidised bases and resistance to H2O2-induced damage were measured by the comet assay. The intake of ready-to-eat meals supplemented with cocoa extract did not show relevant changes in the oxidative status of DNA. However, in the cocoa group, oxidised bases negatively correlated with methyl epicatechin-O-sulphate (r = -0.76; P = -0.007) and epicatechin sulphate (r = -0.61; P = -0.046). When volunteers of both groups were analysed together, a marginal decrease (P = 0.072) in oxidised bases was observed, which attributed to weight loss. Subjects who started the intervention with higher levels of damage showed a greater reduction in oxidised bases after 4 weeks (P = 0.040) compared to those who had lower baseline levels. In conclusion, even if 1.4 g of cocoa supplementation for 4 weeks did not show notable changes in terms of antioxidant status of DNA, the energy restriction showed a slightly decrease in oxidised bases and this was seen to a greater extent in subjects who started the intervention with higher levels of damage. On the other hand, the inverse associations found between oxidised bases and some cocoa-derived metabolites suggest that a protective effect might be seen in a longer period of time or in subjects with higher baseline DNA damage.
Authors: Bondía Pons, Isabel; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; de la Iglesia González, Rocío; et al.
Journal: MOLECULAR NUTRITION AND FOOD RESEARCH
ISSN 1613-4125  Vol. 59  Nº 4  2015  pp. 711 - 728
Adherence to the Mediterranean diet has been associated with a reduced risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Metabolomics approach may contribute to identify beneficial associations of metabolic changes affected by Mediterranean diet-based interventions with inflammatory and oxidative-stress markers related to the etiology and development of the MetS. Methods and Results: Liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time of flight-MS metabolic profiling was applied to plasma from a 6-month randomized intervention with two sequential periods, a 2-month nutritional-learning intervention period, and a 4-month self-control period, with two energy-restricted diets; the RESMENA diet (based on the Mediterranean dietary pattern) and the Control diet (based on the American Heart Association guidelines), in 72 subjects with a high BMI and at least two features of MetS. The major contributing biomarkers of each sequential period were lipids, mainly phospholipids and lysophospholipids. Dependency network analysis showed a different pattern of associations between metabolic changes and clinical variables after 2 and 6 month of intervention, with a highly interconnected network during the nutritional-learning intervention period of the study. Conclusion: The 2-month RESMENA diet produced significant changes in the plasma metabolic profile of subjects with MetS features. However, at the end of the 6-month study, most of the associations between metabolic and clinical variables disappeared; suggesting that adherence to healthy dietary habits had declined during the self-control period.
Authors: García Calzón, Sonia; Moleres Villares, Adriana; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
Journal: CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0261-5614  Vol. 34  Nº 4  2015  pp. 694 - 699
Background & Aims: Oxidative stress and inflammation seem to be potential underlying mechanisms for telomere attrition. A lack of specific antioxidants is believed to increase free radical damage and a greater risk for telomere shortening. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between diet and leukocyte telomere length in a cross-sectional study of children and adolescents. We hypothesized that dietary total antioxidant capacity would be positively associated with telomere length. Methods: Telomere length was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in 287 participants (55% males, 6¿18 years), who were randomly selected from the GENOI study. Results: A positive correlation between dietary total antioxidant capacity and telomere length (r=0.157, p=0.007) was found after adjustment for age and energy intake. However, higher white bread consumption was associated with shorter telomeres (ß=-0.204, p=0.002) in fully-adjusted models. Interestingly, those individuals who had simultaneously higher dietary total antioxidant capacity and lower white bread consumption significantly presented the longest telomeres. Moreover, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for very short telomeres was 0.30 for dietary total antioxidant capacity (p=0.023) and 1.37 for white bread (p=0.025). Conclusion: It was concluded that longer telomeres were associated with higher dietary total antioxidant capacity and lower white bread consumption in S2panish children and adolescents. These findings might open a new line of investigation about the potential role of an antioxidant diet in maintaining telomere length.
Authors: Etxeberría Aramburu, Usune; Arias, N.; Boqué Terré, Noemi; et al.
Journal: FOOD & FUNCTION
ISSN 2042-6496  Vol. 6  Nº 8  2015  pp. 2758 - 2767
Faecal non-targeted metabolomics deciphers metabolic end-products resulting from the interactions among food, host genetics, and gut microbiota. Faeces from Wistar rats fed a high-fat sucrose (HFS) diet supplemented with trans-resveratrol and quercetin (separately or combined) were analysed by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Metabolomics in faeces are categorised into four clusters based on the type of treatment. Tentative identification of significantly differing metabolites highlighted the presence of carbohydrate derivatives or conjugates (3-phenylpropyl glucosinolate and dTDP-D-mycaminose) in the quercetin group. The trans-resveratrol group was differentiated by compounds related to nucleotides (uridine monophosphate and 2,4-dioxotetrahydropyrimidine D-ribonucleotide). Marked associations between bacterial species (Clostridium genus) and the amount of some metabolites were identified. Moreover, trans-resveratrol and resveratrol-derived microbial metabolites (dihydroresveratrol and lunularin) were also identified. Accordingly, this study confirms the usefulness of omics-based techniques to discriminate individuals depending on the physiological effect of food constituents and represents an interesting tool to assess the impact of future personalized therapies.
Authors: Cordero Sánchez, Paul; González Muniesa, Pedro; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND ANIMAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0931-2439  Vol. 99  Nº 5  2015  pp. 834 - 840
Maternal nutrition during pregnancy and lactation influences offspring development and health. Novel studies have described the effects on next generation obesity-related features depending on maternal macro- and micro-nutrient perinatal feeding. We hypothesized that the maternal obesogenic diet during pregnancy and lactation programs an obese phenotype, while maternal micronutrient supplementation at these stages could partially prevent these features. Thus, the aim was to assess the influence of a perinatal maternal feeding with an obesogenic diet enriched in fat and sucrose and a micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy and lactation on offspring growth and obese phenotypical features during life course. Female Wistar rats were assigned to four dietary groups during pregnancy and lactation: control, control supplemented with micronutrients (choline, betaine, folic acid and vitamin B12 ), high-fat sucrose (HFS) and HFS supplemented. At weaning, the offspring were transferred to a chow diet, and weight and fat mass were measured at weeks 3, 12 and 20. At birth, both male and female offspring from mothers fed the obesogenic diet showed lower body weight (-5 and -6%, respectively), while only female offspring weight decreased by maternal micronutrient supplementation (-5%). During lactation, maternal HFS diet was associated with increased body weight, while micronutrient supplementation protected against body weight gain. Whole body fat mass content increased at weeks 3, 12 and 20 (from 16 to 65%) due to maternal HFS diet. Maternal micronutrient supplementation decreased offspring fat mass content at week 3 (-8%). Male offspring showed higher adiposity than females at weeks 12 and 20. In conclusion, maternal HFS feeding during pregnancy and lactation was associated with a low offspring weight at birth and obese phenotypical features during adult life in a sex- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, maternal methyl donor supplementation protected against body weight gain in male offspring during lactation and in female offspring also during juvenile period.
Authors: Fernández Galilea, Marta; Pérez Matute, Patricia; Prieto Hontoria, Pedro Luis; et al.
Journal: BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-MOLECULAR AND CELL BIOLOGY OF LIPIDS
ISSN 1388-1981  Vol. 1851  Nº 3  2015  pp. 273 - 281
Alpha-Lipoic acid (¿-Lip) is a natural occurring antioxidant with beneficial anti-obesity properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the putative effects of alpha-Lip on mitochondrial biogenesis and the acquirement of brown-like characteristics by subcutaneous adipocytes from overweight/obese subjects. Thus, fully differentiated human subcutaneous adipocytes were treated with alpha-Lip (100 and 250 ¿M) for 24 h for studies on mitochondrial content and morphology, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, fatty acid oxidation enzymes and brown/beige characteristic genes. The involvement of the Sirtuin1/Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha (SIRT1/PGC-1alpha) pathway was also evaluated. Our results showed that alpha-Lip increased mitochondrial content in cultured human adipocytes as revealed by electron microscopy and by mitotracker green labeling. Moreover, an enhancement in mtDNA content was observed. This increase was accompanied by an up-regulation of SIRT1 protein levels, a decrease in PGC-1alpha acetylation and up-regulation of Nuclear respiratory factor 1 (Nrf1) and Mitochondrial transcription factor (Tfam) transcription factors. Enhanced oxygen consumption and fatty acid oxidation enzymes, Carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 and Acyl-coenzyme A oxidase (CPT-1 and ACOX) were also observed. Mitochondria from alpha-Lip-treated adipocytes exhibited some morphological characteristics of brown mitochondria, and alpha-Lip also induced up-regulation of some brown/beige adipocytes markers such as cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector a (Cidea) and T-box 1 (Tbx1). Moreover, alpha-Lip up-regulated PR domain containing 16 (Prdm16) mRNA levels in treated adipocytes. Therefore, our study suggests the ability of alpha-Lip to promote mitochondrial biogenesis and brown-like remodeling in cultured white subcutaneous adipocytes from overweight/obese donors.
Authors: Pérez Cornago, Aurora; Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo
Journal: NUTRITIONAL NEUROSCIENCE
ISSN 1028-415X  Vol. 18  Nº 3  2015  pp. 137 - 144
Background/objective The interplay between individual's mood fluctuations and nutrition has important health implications. However, little information is available on the relationship between dietary intake and mood state in a population with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between dietary intake and mood state in subjects with MetS. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on the baseline data of 84 volunteers (mean age 49 ± 1 years) recruited into the Metabolic Syndrome Reduction in Navarra-Spain (RESMENA-S) study. Mood state was determined using a mood thermometer visual analogue scale. The dietary intake was assessed with a 48-hours weighted food record, from which a Healthy Eating Index (HEI) score was obtained. Anthropometrical measurements and biochemical parameters were also analysed. Results At baseline, a positive association between mood thermometer and HEI was observed. Among the 10 HEI components, vegetables, fruits, calories from lipids, saturated fatty acids, and dietary variety were related with higher mood. Moreover, those participants who consumed more water, fibre, vitamin B6, ascorbic acid, tryptophan, magnesium, and selenium have higher mood. Discussion In conclusion, an association between both the overall dietary pattern and isolated nutrients with mood state was observed. The analyses of both dietary patterns and specific nutrients are important to determine the association between mental disorders and dietary intake.
Authors: Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Zazpe García, Itzíar; Shivappa, N.; et al.
Journal: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 0007-1145  Vol. 113  Nº 6  2015  pp. 984 - 995
The dietary inflammatory index (DII) is a new tool to assess the inflammatory potential of the diet. In the present study, we aimed to determine the association between the DII and BMI, waist circumference and waist:height ratio (WHtR). We conducted a cross-sectional study of 7236 participants recruited into the PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea trial. Information from a validated 137-item FFQ was used to calculate energy, food and nutrient intakes. A fourteen-item dietary screener was used to assess adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeDiet). Sex-specific multivariable linear regression models were fitted to estimate differences (and 95% CI) in BMI, waist circumference and WHtR across the quintiles of the DII. All nutrient intakes, healthy foods and adherence to the MeDiet were higher in the quintile with the lowest DII score (more anti-inflammatory values) except for intakes of animal protein, saturated fat and monounsaturated fat. Although an inverse association between the DII and total energy was apparent, the DII was associated with higher average BMI, waist circumference and WHtR after adjusting for known risk factors. The adjusted difference in the WHtR for women and men between the highest and lowest quintiles of the DII was 1·60% (95% CI 0·87, 2·33) and 1·04% (95% CI 0·35, 1·74), respectively. Pro-inflammatory scores remained associated with obesity after controlling for the effect that adherence to a MeDiet had on inflammation. In conclusion, the present study shows a direct association between the DII and indices of obesity, and supports the hypothesis that diet may have a role in the development of obesity through inflammatory modulation mechanisms.
Authors: García-Arellano, A.; Ramallal, R.; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; et al.
Journal: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 7  Nº 6  2015  pp. 4124 - 4138
Previous studies have reported an association between a more pro-inflammatory diet profile and various chronic metabolic diseases. The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) was used to assess the inflammatory potential of nutrients and foods in the context of a dietary pattern. We prospectively examined the association between the DII and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD: myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death) in the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study including 7216 high-risk participants. The DII was computed based on a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals of CVD risk were computed across quartiles of the DII where the lowest (most anti-inflammatory) quartile is the referent. Risk increased across the quartiles (i.e., with increasing inflammatory potential): HRquartile2 = 1.42 (95%CI = 0.97¿2.09); HRquartile3 = 1.85 (1.27¿2.71); and HRquartile4 = 1.73 (1.15¿2.60). When fit as continuous the multiple-adjusted hazard ratio for each additional standard deviation of the DII was 1.22 (1.06¿1.40). Our results provide direct prospective evidence that a pro-inflammatory diet is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular clinical events.
Authors: Celis-Morales, C.; Livingstone, K. M.; Woolhead, C.; et al.
Journal: GENES AND NUTRITION
ISSN 1555-8932  Vol. 10  Nº 5  2015  pp. 476
In e-health intervention studies, there are concerns about the reliability of internet-based, self-reported (SR) data and about the potential for identity fraud. This study introduced and tested a novel procedure for assessing the validity of internet-based, SR identity and validated anthropometric and demographic data via measurements performed face-to-face in a validation study (VS). Participants (n = 140) from seven European countries, participating in the Food4Me intervention study which aimed to test the efficacy of personalised nutrition approaches delivered via the internet, were invited to take part in the VS. Participants visited a research centre in each country within 2 weeks of providing SR data via the internet. Participants received detailed instructions on how to perform each measurement. Individual's identity was checked visually and by repeated collection and analysis of buccal cell DNA for 33 genetic variants. Validation of identity using genomic information showed perfect concordance between SR and VS. Similar results were found for demographic data (age and sex verification). We observed strong intra-class correlation coefficients between SR and VS for anthropometric data (height 0.990, weight 0.994 and BMI 0.983). However, internet-based SR weight was under-reported (¿ -0.70 kg [-3.6 to 2.1], p < 0.0001) and, therefore, BMI was lower for SR data (¿ -0.29 kg m(-2) [-1.5 to 1.0], p < 0.0001). BMI classification was correct in 93 % of cases. We demonstrate the utility of genotype information for detection of possible identity fraud in e-health studies and confirm the reliability of internet-based, SR anthropometric and demographic data collected in the Food4Me study.
Authors: García Calzón, Sonia; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Razquin Burillo, Cristina; et al.
Journal: CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR GENETICS
ISSN 1942-325X  Vol. 8  Nº 1  2015  pp. 91 - 99
García-Calzón S, Martinez-González MA, Razquin C, Corella D, Salas-Salvadó J, Martinez JA, Zalba G, Marti A. Background: The gene variant Pro/Ala (rs1801282) in the PPAR¿2 has been associated with lower cardiovascular risk and greater benefit from lifestyle interventions. This polymorphism also seems to be associated with longer lifespan, but no information on telomere length (TL) is available. Our aim was to study the association between the Ala allele and changes in TL in high cardiovascular risk subjects, and the potential interaction with a Mediterranean Diet (MeDiet) pattern. Methods and Results: A total of 521 subjects (55-80 years) participating in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) randomized trial were genotyped. Changes in TL, measured by quantitative real-time PCR, were assessed over 5 years of a nutritional intervention which promoted adherence to the MeDiet. Interestingly, Ala carriers showed lower telomere shortening after 5 years, compared with the Pro/Pro genotype (P=0.031). This association was modulated by MeDiet since those Ala carriers who reported better conformity to the MeDiet exhibited increased TL (P<0.001). Moreover, a reduction in carbohydrate intake (¿9.5 g/d) resulted in increased TL among Ala carriers. Notably, an apparent gene-diet interaction was found through the observed changes in the MUFA+PUFA/Carbohydrates ratio: as this ratio increased, TL lengthening was detected to a greater extent in the Ala carriers compared with the Pro/Pro subjects (P for interaction <0.001). Conclusions: The Pro12Ala polymorphism is associated with TL homeostasis after 5 years follow-up in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. In addition, a higher adherence to the MeDiet
Authors: Etxeberría Aramburu, Usune; de la Garza Hernández, Ana Laura Isabel; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; et al.
Journal: NATURAL PRODUCT COMMUNICATIONS
ISSN 1934-578X  Vol. 10  Nº 8  2015  pp. 1417 - 1420
The use of biocompounds as agents with potential anti-obesity effects might be a feasible alternative to the prescription of traditional drugs in the near future. The goal of the present study was to screen five different compounds in relation to their ability to prevent body weight gain and ameliorate obesity-associated metabolic impairments, namely insulin resistance. For this purpose, seventy Wistar rats were randomly assigned into seven experimental groups. A standard diet-fed control group (control, n=10); a high-fat, high-sucrose diet-fed group (BPS, n=10) and five experimental groups which were fed the I-IFS diet supplemented with one of the following biocompounds; curcumin (100 mg/kg bw, n=10), chlorogenic acid (50 mg/kg bw, n=10), coumaric acid (100 mg/kg bw, n=10), naringin (100 mg/kg bw, n=10) and leucine (1 % of diet, n=10). These results confirm the effectiveness of all the compounds to reduce significantly food efficiency, despite the significant higher food intake. Moreover, visceral fat mass percentage was significantly decreased after naringin and coumaric acid supplementation. In fact, this finding might be related to the considerable amelioration of HOMA-IR index detected in naringin-treated animals. A significant reduction in serum insulin levels and an improvement in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and AUC were found in leucine- and coumaric acid-treated rats, respectively. In summary, the tested biocompounds, particularly naringin, coumaric acid and leucine, showed potential benefits in the prevention of obesity-related complications in rats, at least at the proved doses.
Authors: Cardoso-Carraro, J. C.; Hermsdorff, H. H.; Puchau de Lecea, María Blanca; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
ISSN 1138-7548  Vol. 71  Nº 3  2015  pp. 527 - 535
Authors: de la Garza Hernández, Ana Laura Isabel; Etxeberría Aramburu, Usune; Haslberger, A.; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL FOOD
ISSN 1096-620X  Vol. 18  Nº 8  2015  pp. 890 - 898
Obesity is characterized by an increased production of inflammatory markers. High levels of circulating free fatty acids and chronic inflammation lead to increased oxidative stress, contributing to the development of insulin resistance (IR). Recent studies have focused on the potential use of flavonoids for obesity management due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of helichrysum and grapefruit extracts in overweight insulin-resistant rats. Thirty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly distributed in two groups: control group (n=8) and high-fat sucrose (HFS) group (n=30). After 22 days of ad libitum water and food access, the rats fed HFS diet changed to standard diet and were reassigned into three groups (n=10 each group): nonsupplemented, helichrysum extract (2g/kg bw), and grapefruit extract (1g/kg bw) administered for 5 weeks. Rats supplemented with both extracts gained less body weight during the 5-week period of treatment, showed lower serum insulin levels and liver TBARS levels. Leptin/adiponectin ratio, as an indicator of IR, was lower in both extract-administered groups. These results were accompanied by a reduction in TNFalpha gene expression in epididymal adipose tissue and intestinal mucosa, and TLR2 expression in intestinal mucosa. Helichrysum and grapefruit extracts might be used as complement hypocaloric diets in weight loss treatment. Both extracts helped to reduce weight gain, hyperinsulinemia, and IR, improved inflammation markers, and decreased the HFS diet-induced oxidative stress in insulin-resistant rats.
Authors: Abete Goñi, Itziar; Gómez Úriz, Ana; Mansego Talavera, María Luisa; et al.
Journal: CURRENT NEUROVASCULAR RESEARCH
ISSN 1567-2026  Vol. 12  Nº 4  2015  pp. 321 - 333
Ischemic stroke patients often show high concentrations of circulating inflammatory markers that are associated with increased risk of recurrence. Epigenetic mechanisms could be involved in obesity, inflammation and stroke. The objective of this research was to investigate, in obese patients suffering a previous stroke, the effects of a nutritional program on anthropometric and biochemical variables, and on the methylation patterns of two stroke-related genes (KCNQ1: potassium channel, voltage gated KQT-like subfamily Q, member 1; and WT1: Wilms tumor 1). Twenty-two ischemic stroke patients were compared with a control group composed of eighteen obese subjects with similar age and body mass index ranges. Both groups followed a 20-week nutritional program based on an energy-restricted balanced diet with high adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern. The intervention significantly improved anthropometric and metabolic variables, such as the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) and C-reactive protein concentration, in ischemic stroke patients, and was accompanied by changes in the methylation patterns of both stroke-related genes, which correlated with anthropometric and biochemical variables.
Authors: Babio, N.; Becerra-Tomás, N.; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 0022-3166  Vol. 145  Nº 10  2015  pp. 2308 - 2316
Background: The association between consumption of dairy products and the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) is unclear. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between consumption of dairy products (total and different subtypes) and incident MetS in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular disease risk. Methods: We prospectively analyzed 1868 men and women (55-80 y old) without MetS at baseline, recruited from different PREDIMED (Prevencion con Dieta Mediterranea) centers between October 2003 and June 2009 and followed up until December 2010. MetS was defined according to updated, harmonized criteria. At baseline and yearly thereafter, we determined anthropometric variables, dietary habits by a 137-item validated food-frequency questionnaire, and blood biochemistry. Multivariable-adjusted HRs of MetS or its components were estimated for each of the 2 upper tertiles (vs. the lowest one) of mean consumption of dairy products during the follow-up. Results: During a median follow-up of 3.2 y, we documented 930 incident MetS cases. In the multivariable-adjusted model, HRs (95% CIs) of MetS for the comparison of extreme tertiles of dairy product consumption were 0.72 (0.61,0.86) for low-fat dairy, 0.73 (0.62, 0.86) for low-fat yogurt, 0.78 (0.66, 0.92) for whole-fat yogurt, and 0.80 (0.67, 0.95) for low-fat milk. The respective HR for cheese was 1.31 (1.10, 1.56). Conclusions: Higher consumption of low-fat dairy products, yogurt (total, low-fat, and whole-fat yogurt) and low-fat milk was associated with a reduced risk of MetS in individuals at high cardiovascular disease risk from a Mediterranean population. Conversely, higher consumption of cheese was related to a higher risk of MetS.
Authors: García-de-Diego, L.; Cuervo Zapatel, Marta; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo
Journal: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 10  Nº 5  2015  pp. e0126345
Computer assisted instruction (CAI) is an effective tool for evaluating and training students and professionals. In this article we will present a learning-oriented CAI, which has been developed for students and health professionals to acquire and retain new knowledge through the practice. A two-phase pilot evaluation was conducted, involving 8 nutrition experts and 30 postgraduate students, respectively. In each training session, the software developed guides users in the integral evaluation of a patient's nutritional status and helps them to implement actions. The program includes into the format clinical tools, which can be used to recognize possible patient's needs, to improve the clinical reasoning and to develop professional skills. Among them are assessment questionnaires and evaluation criteria, cardiovascular risk charts, clinical guidelines and photographs of various diseases. This CAI is a complete software package easy to use and versatile, aimed at clinical specialists, medical staff, scientists, educators and clinical students, which can be used as a learning tool. This application constitutes an advanced method for students and health professionals to accomplish nutritional assessments combining theoretical and empirical issues, which can be implemented in their academic curriculum.
Authors: Palacios Ortega, Sara; Varela Guruceaga, Maider; Algarabel, M.; et al.
Journal: CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
ISSN 1015-8987  Vol. 36  Nº 4  2015  pp. 1499 - 1516
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Tumor necrosis factor-¿ (TNF-¿)-mediated chronic low-grade inflammation of adipose tissue is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is the central component of adipocyte caveolae and has an essential role in the regulation of insulin signaling. The effects of TNF-¿ on Cav-1 expression and insulin signaling during adipocyte differentiation and in mature adipocytes were studied. METHODS: 3T3-L1 cells were differentiated (21 days) in the presence TNF-¿ (10 ng/mL) and mature adipocytes were also treated with TNF-¿ for 48 hours. Cav-1 and insulin receptor (IR) gene methylation were determined as well as Cav-1, IR, PKB/AKT-2 and Glut-4 expression and activation by real time RT-PCR and western blot. Baseline and insulin-induced glucose uptake was measured by the 2-[C14]-deoxyglucose uptake assay. RESULTS: TNF-¿ slowed down the differentiation program, hindering the expression of some insulin signaling intermediates without fully eliminating insulin-mediated glucose uptake. In mature adipocytes, TNF-¿ did not compromise lipid-storage capacity, but downregulated the expression of the insulin signaling intermediates, totally blocking insulin-mediated glucose uptake. Insulin sensitivity correlated with the level of activated phospho-Cav-1 in both situations, strongly suggesting the direct contribution of Cav-1 to the maintenance of this physiological response. CONCLUSION: Cav-1 activation by phosphorylation seems to be essential for the maintenance of an active and insulin-sensitive glucose uptake.
Authors: González Muniesa, Pedro; Quintero del Rivero, Pablo; De Andrés, J.; et al.
Journal: SLEEP AND BREATHING
ISSN 1520-9512  Vol. 19  Nº 1  2015  pp. 7 - 8
Authors: Garcia-Diaz, D. F.; Lopez-Legarrea, P.; Quintero, P.; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE AND VITAMINOLOGY
ISSN 0301-4800  Vol. 60  Nº 6  2014  pp. 367 - 379
Obesity has emerged as one of the major health threats worldwide. Moreover, an excessive body fat accumulation, which defines this disease, could lead to several associated clinical manifestations such as cardiovascular events, type 2 diabetes, inflammation, and some types of cancer. The appearance of these co-morbidities has been often related to an unbalanced oxidative stress. Therefore, antioxidant-based treatments could be considered as interesting approaches to possibly counteract obesity fat accumulation complications. In this context, it has been observed that vitamin C intake (ascorbic acid) is negatively associated with the occurrence of several conditions such as hypertension, gallbladder disease, stroke, cancers, and atherosclerosis, and also with the onset of obesity in humans and animals. Among the possible beneficial effects of ascorbic acid on obesity-related mechanisms, it has been suggested that this vitamin may: (a) modulate adipocyte lipolysis; (b) regulate the glucocorticoid release from adrenal glands; (c) inhibit glucose metabolism and leptin secretion on isolated adipocytes; (d) lead to an improvement in hyperglycemia and decrease glycosylation in obese-diabetic models; and (e) reduce the inflammatory response. Possibly, all these features could be related with the outstanding antioxidant characteristics of this vitamin. Thus, the present article reviews the up-to-date evidence regarding in vitro and in vivo effects of vitamin C in obesity and its co-morbidities.
Authors: Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; Navas Carretero, Santiago; Saris, W. H.; et al.
Journal: NATURE REVIEWS ENDOCRINOLOGY
ISSN 1759-5029  Vol. 10  Nº 12  2014  pp. 749 - 760
A large number of different dietary approaches have been studied in an attempt to achieve healthy, sustainable weight loss among individuals with overweight and obesity. Restriction of energy intake is the primary method of producing a negative energy balance leading to weight loss. However, owing to the different metabolic roles of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids in energy homeostasis, diets of similar overall energy content but with different macronutrient distribution can differentially affect metabolism, appetite and thermogenesis. Evidence increasingly suggests that the fuel values of calories provided by distinct macronutrients should be considered separately, as metabolism of specific molecular components generates differences in energy yield. The causes of variation in individual responses to various diets are currently under debate, and some evidence suggests that differences are associated with specific genotypes. This Review discusses all available systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and summarizes the results of relevant randomized controlled intervention trials assessing the influence of macronutrient composition on weight management. The initial findings of research into personalized nutrition, based on the interactions of macronutrient intake and genetic background and its potential influence on dietary intervention strategies, are also discussed.
Authors: Goñi Mateos, Leticia; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Cuervo Zapatel, Marta; et al.
Journal: NUTRITION REVIEWS
ISSN 0029-6643  Vol. 72  Nº 11  2014  pp. 673 - 690
Visceral fat is strongly associated with the development of specific obesity-related metabolic alterations. Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms seem to be involved in the development of obesity and visceral adiposity. The aims of this review are to identify the single-nucleotide polymorphisms related to central obesity and to summarize the main findings on DNA methylation and obesity. A search of the MEDLINE database was conducted to identify genome-wide association studies, meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies, and gene-diet interaction studies related to central obesity, and, in addition, studies that analyzed DNA methylation in relation to body weight regulation. A total of 8 genome-wide association studies and 9 meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies reported numerous single-nucleotide polymorphisms to be associated with central obesity. Ten studies analyzed gene-diet interactions and central obesity, while 2 epigenome-wide association studies analyzed DNA methylation patterns and obesity. Nine studies investigated the relationship between DNA methylation and weight loss, excess body weight, or adiposity outcomes. Given the development of new sequencing and omics technologies, significantly more knowledge on genomics and epigenomics of obesity and body fat distribution will emerge in the near future.
Authors: Martínez Hernández, Alfredo
Journal: JOURNAL OF NUTRIGENETICS AND NUTRIGENOMICS
ISSN 1661-6499  Vol. 7  Nº 1  2014  pp. I - III
Authors: García Calzón, Sonia; Gea, A.; Razquin Burillo, Cristina; et al.
Journal: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY
ISSN 0307-0565  Vol. 38  2014  pp. 177 - 182
Background:Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures that protect the ends of eukaryote chromosomes. Shorter telomere length (TL) is associated with some age-related human disorders, but its relationship with obesity or adiposity parameters remains unclear.Objective:The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between TL and changes in adiposity indices after a 5-year nutritional intervention.Design and subjects:TL was measured by quantitative real-time PCR in 521 subjects (55-80 years, 55% women). Participants were randomly selected from the PREDIMED-NAVARRA centre after they completed a 5-year intervention programme. Anthropometric parameters were directly measured by trained personnel at baseline and on a yearly basis thereafter. TL at baseline and changes in TL after a 5-year intervention were assessed.Results:Higher baseline TL significantly predicted a greater decrease in body weight (B=-1.09¿kg, 95% confidence interval (CI): -2.01 to -0.16), body mass index (BMI) (B=-0.47¿kg¿m(-2), 95% CI: -0.83 to -0.11), waist circumference (B=-1.15¿cm, 95% CI: -2.28 to -0.01) and waist to height ratio (B=-0.008, 95% CI: -0.010 to -0.001) in multiple-adjusted models. In addition, changes in TL during the 5-year intervention were inversely associated with changes in the four anthropometric variables. The reduction in adiposity indices during the intervention, associated with increasing TL, was even higher among subjects with the longest telomeres at baseline. Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of remaining obese after 5 years was lower in those participants who initially had the longest telomeres and increased their TL after intervention (odds ratio=0.27, 95% CI: 0.03-2.03).Conclusions:Our research suggests that TL is inversely associated with changes in obesity parameters. The assessment of TL can provide further insights for biological pathways leading to adiposity. We show for the first time an improvement of obesity indices when an increase in TL is observed after a 5-year Mediterranean diet intervention.
Authors: Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Claycombe, K. J.; et al.
Journal: ADVANCES IN NUTRITION
ISSN 2161-8313  Vol. 5  2014  pp. 71 - 81
Given the role that diet and other environmental factors play in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes, the implication of different epigenetic processes is being investigated. Although it is well known that external factors can cause cell type-dependent epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation, histone tail modifications, and chromatin remodeling, the regulation of these processes, the magnitude of the changes and the cell types in which they occur, the individuals more predisposed, and the more crucial stages of life remain to be elucidated. There is evidence that obese and diabetic people have a pattern of epigenetic marks different from nonobese and nondiabetic individuals. The main long-term goals in this field are the identification and understanding of the role of epigenetic marks that could be used as early predictors of metabolic risk and the development of drugs or diet-related treatments able to delay these epigenetic changes and even reverse them. But weight gain and insulin resistance/diabetes are influenced not only by epigenetic factors; different epigenetic biomarkers have also been identified as early predictors of weight loss and the maintenance of body weight after weight loss. The characterization of all the factors that are able to modify the epigenetic signatures and the determination of their real importance are hindered by the following factors: the magnitude of change produced by dietary and environmental factors is small and cumulative; there are great differences among cell types; and there are many factors involved, including age, with multiple interactions between them.
Authors: de la Iglesia González, Rocío; López Legarrea, Patricia; Abete Goñi, Itziar; et al.
Journal: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 0007-1145  Vol. 111  Nº 4  2014  pp. 643 - 652
The long-term effects of dietary strategies designed to combat the metabolic syndrome (MetS) remain unknown. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a new dietary strategy based on macronutrient distribution, antioxidant capacity and meal frequency (MEtabolic Syndrome REduction in NAvarra (RESMENA) diet) for the treatment of the MetS when compared with the American Heart Association guidelines, used as Control. Subjects with the MetS (fifty-two men and forty-one women, age 49 (se 1) years, BMI 36·11 (se 0·5) kg/m2) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary groups. After a 2-month nutritional-learning intervention period, during which a nutritional assessment was made for the participants every 15 d, a 4-month self-control period began. No significant differences were found between the groups concerning anthropometry, but only the RESMENA group exhibited a significant decrease in body weight ( - 1·7 %; P= 0·018), BMI ( - 1·7 %; P= 0·019), waist circumference ( - 1·8 %; P= 0·021), waist:hip ratio ( - 1·4 %; P= 0·035) and android fat mass ( - 6·9 %; P= 0·008). The RESMENA group exhibited a significant decrease in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations ( - 26·8 %; P= 0·008 and - 14·0 %; P= 0·018, respectively), while the Control group exhibited a significant increase in glucose (7·9 %; P= 0·011), AST (11·3 %; P= 0·045) and uric acid (9·0 %; P< 0·001) concentrations. LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations were increased (Control group: 34·4 %; P< 0·001 and RESMENA group: 33·8 %; P< 0·001), but interestingly so were the LDL-C:apoB ratio (Control group: 28·7 %; P< 0·001, RESMENA group: 17·1 %; P= 0·009) and HDL-cholesterol concentrations (Control group: 21·1 %; P< 0·001, RESMENA group: 8·7; P= 0·001). Fibre was the dietary component that most contributed to the improvement of anthropometry, while body-weight loss explained changes in some biochemical markers. In conclusion, the RESMENA diet is a good long-term dietary treatment for the MetS.
Authors: Bendtsen, L. Q.; Lorenzen, J. K.; Larsen, T. M.; et al.
Journal: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 0007-1145  Vol. 111  Nº 5  2014  pp. 944 - 953
Dairy products have previously been reported to be associated with beneficial effects on body weight and metabolic risk markers. Moreover, primary data from the Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) study indicate a weight-maintaining effect of a high-protein-low-glycaemic index diet. The objective of the present study was to examine putative associations between consumption of dairy proteins and changes in body weight and metabolic risk markers after weight loss in obese and overweight adults. Results were based on secondary analyses of data obtained from overweight and obese adults who completed the DiOGenes study. The study consisted of an 8-week weight-loss phase and a 6-month weight-maintenance (WM) phase, where the subjects were given five different diets varying in protein content and glycaemic index. In the present study, data obtained from all the subjects were pooled. Dairy protein intake was estimated from 3 d dietary records at two time points (week 4 and week 26) during the WM phase. Body weight and metabolic risk markers were determined at baseline (week - 9 to - 11) and before and at the end of the WM phase (week 0 and week 26). Overall, no significant associations were found between consumption of dairy proteins and changes in body weight and metabolic risk markers. However, dairy protein intake tended to be negatively associated with body weight gain (P= 0·08; ß = - 0·17), but this was not persistent when controlled for total protein intake, which indicates that dairy protein adds no additional effect to the effect of total protein. Therefore, the present study does not report that dairy proteins are more favourable than other proteins for body weight regulation.
Authors: Crujeiras Martínez, Ana Belén; Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles; López Legarrea, Patricia; et al.
Journal: METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL
ISSN 0026-0495  Vol. 63  Nº 4  2014  pp. 520 - 531
Objective Weight regain is associated with the promotion of insulin resistance. The newly discovered myokine irisin, which was proposed to be involved in the management of insulin sensitivity, could play a role in this process. This study aimed to investigate the association between irisin and reduced insulin sensitivity induced by weight regain. Materials/Methods Insulin sensitivity was evaluated according to the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in 136 obese patients who followed an eight-week hypocaloric diet (30% reduced energy expenditure) to lose weight and was re-evaluated four or six months after treatment. Irisin plasma levels, as well as the levels of leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin and TNF-¿, were quantified in a sub-cohort (n=73) from the initially studied patients at baseline (T0), at the diet endpoint (T1) and after the follow-up period (T2). Results After a successful dietary intervention to lose weight, 50% of the patients who regained the lost weight during the follow-up period were categorized as insulin resistant (HOMA-IR¿2.5) compared with only 25% of patients who maintained the weight loss (p=0.018). Importantly, in addition to the well-studied hormones leptin and adiponectin, irisin plasma levels were statistically associated with several risk factors for insulin resistance. Indeed, the increased risk of insulin resistance during the follow-up period was related to high irisin levels at baseline (odds ratio=4.2; p=0.039). Conclusions Circulating irisin predicts the insulin resistance onset in association with weight regain. Therefore, irisin could be secreted as an adaptive response to counteract the deleterious effect of excess adiposity on glucose homeostasis.
Authors: Tresserra-Rimbau, A; Rimm, EB; Medina-Remón , A; et al.
Journal: NUTRITION METABOLISM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
ISSN 0939-4753  Vol. 24  Nº 6  2014  pp. 639 - 647
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Epidemiologic and biological evidence supports an inverse association between polyphenol consumption and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, no previous studies have prospectively evaluated the relationship between polyphenol intake and the incidence of CVD in such a comprehensive way. The aim was to evaluate the association between intakes of total polyphenol and polyphenol subgroups, and the risk of major cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke or death from cardiovascular causes) in the PREDIMED study. METHODS AND RESULTS: The present work is an observational study within the PREDIMED trial. Over an average of 4.3 years of follow-up, there were 273 confirmed cases of CVD among the 7172 participants (96.3%) who completed a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline. Polyphenol consumption was calculated by matching food consumption data from the FFQ with the Phenol-Explorer database on polyphenol content of each reported food. After multivariate adjustment, a 46% reduction in risk of CVD risk was observed comparing Q5 vs. Q1 of total polyphenol intake (HR = 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.33-0.91; P-trend = 0.04). The polyphenols with the strongest inverse associations were flavanols (HR = 0.40; CI 0.23-0.72; P-trend = 0.003), lignans (HR = 0.51; CI 0.30-0.86; P-trend = 0.007), and hydroxybenzoic acids (HR = 0.47; CI 0.26-0.86; P-trend 0.02). CONCLUSION: Greater intake of polyphenols, especially from lignans, flavanols, and hydroxybenzoic acids, was associated with decreased CVD risk. Clinical trials are needed to confirm this effect and establish accurate dietary recommendations.
Authors: Zazpe García, Itzíar; Sánchez Tainta, Ana; Santiago Neri, Susana; et al.
Journal: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 0007-1145  Vol. 111  Nº 11  2014  pp. 2000 - 2009
Epidemiological research confirms that the prevalence of suboptimal micronutrient intakes across Europe is an emerging concern in terms of public health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between a new index of carbohydrate (CHO) quality and micronutrient intake adequacy in the `Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN)¿ cohort. The baseline assessment extended from 1999 to March 2012. We assessed 16 841 participants who completed a validated 136-item semi-quantitative FFQ at baseline. We created a new index to evaluate CHO quality for the following four criteria: dietary fibre intake; glycaemic index; whole grains:total grains ratio; solid CHO:total CHO ratio. The subjects were classified into quintiles according to this index. We evaluated the intakes of Zn, I, Se, Fe, Ca, K, P, Mg, Cr and vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, C, A, D, E and folic acid. The probability of intake adequacy was evaluated using the estimated average requirement cut-point approach and the probabilistic approach. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the nutritional adequacy according to the CHO quality index (CQI). Participants in the highest quintile of CQI were found to have the lowest prevalence of inadequacy. A higher quality of CHO intake was found to be associated with a lower risk of nutritional inadequacy in comparison with the lowest quintile of CQI (adjusted OR 0·06, 95 % CI 0·02, 0·16; P for trend < 0·001). A higher CQI was found to be strongly associated with better micronutrient intake adequacy in the young Mediterranean cohort, stressing the importance of focusing nutritional education not only on CHO quantity, but also on quality.
Authors: Bondía Pons, Isabel; Savolainen, O. ; Törrönen, R.; et al.
Journal: FOOD RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL
ISSN 0963-9969  Vol. 63  Nº Part B  2014  pp. 132 - 138
The fruit of Lycium barbarum (Solanaceae), known as Goji berry, or wolfberry, has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine, and is increasingly becoming popular in Western diets due to its potential health benefits. The majority of commercially produced Goji berries come from certain regions in Asia. In this study we explored the discrimination of phytochemical content between four different geographic origins of Goji berries by applying non-targeted liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC¿qTOF¿MS) metabolite profiling. Principal component analysis was able to clearly distinguish the berries by the geographic origin when applied to the non-targeted profiling data of Mongolian, Chinese and two Tibetan origin Goji berry extracts. Furthermore, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) provided indicative markers of discrimination between the different origins, and quality threshold cluster analysis classified the most discriminative compounds according to their occurrence between the different origins. The largest cluster included the most discriminative metabolites in the Mongolian variety, which was also seen as the most distant group in the PCA analysis as compared to the other countries of origin. Mongolian Goji berries were mainly characterized by significantly higher levels of several flavonol glycosides, such as quercetin and kaempferol glycosides; isomers of dicaffeoylquinic acid and phenolic acids such as coumaric acid. In addition to the various phytochemical metabolites identified, a pesticide compound was found especially in the extracts of Goji berries from China. The present non-targeted metabolite profiling proved to be a useful approach of the Foodomics field for assessment of geographical origin of berries.
Authors: López Legarrea, Patricia; Fuller, N. R. ; Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Journal: ASIA PACIFIC JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0964-7058  Vol. 23  Nº 3  2014  pp. 360 - 368
The role of the gut microbiota in understanding the onset and development of obesity is gaining importance. Dietary strategies are the main tool employed to counteract obesity, and nowadays they are focused on a wide range of different aspects of diet and not only on calorie restriction. Additionally, diet is known to be a major factor influencing modification of the gut microbiota. Therefore the influence of both macronutrient and micronutrient content of any dietary strategy to treat obesity on gut bacterial composition should now be taken into consideration, in addition to energy restriction. This review aims to collect the available data regarding the influence of different dietary components on gut microbiota in relation to obesity and inflammatory states in humans. Although more work is needed, specific dietary factors (carbohydrate, protein and Mediterranean foods) have been shown to have an influence on the gut microbiome composition, meaning that there is an opportunity to prevent and treat obesity based on microbiota outcomes.
Authors: Cordero Sánchez, Paul; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Campión Zabalza, Francisco Javier; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL ORIGINS OF HEALTH AND DISEASE
ISSN 2040-1744  Vol. 5  Nº 5  2014  pp. 385 - 395
Methyl donor supplementation has been reported to prevent obesity-induced liver fat accumulation in adult rats. We hypothesized that this protection could be mediated by perinatal nutrition. For this purpose, we assessed the response to an obesogenic diet (high-fat-sucrose, HFS) during adulthood depending on maternal diet during lactation. Female Wistar rats fed control diet during pregnancy were assigned to four postpartum dietary groups: control, control supplemented with methyl donors (choline, betaine, folic acid, vitamin B12), HFS and HFS supplemented with methyl donors. At weaning, the male offspring was transferred to a chow diet and at week 12th assigned to a control or a HFS diet during 8 weeks. The offspring whose mothers were fed HFS during lactation showed increased adiposity (19%, P<0.001). When fed the HFS diet as adults, offspring whose mothers were HFS supplemented had more body fat (23%, P<0.001) than those from HFS non-supplemented. However, they showed lower liver fat accumulation (¿18%, P<0.001). Srebf1, Dnmt1 and Lepr liver mRNA levels increased after adulthood HFS feeding. In those animals HFS fed during adulthood, previous maternal HFS decreased Lepr and Dnmt1 expression levels when compared with c-HFS offspring, while the supplementation of control and HFS-fed dams, respectively, induced higher hepatic Mme and Lepr mRNA levels after adult HFS intake compared with hfs-HFS offspring. In conclusion, maternal HFS diet during lactation influenced the response to an obesogenic diet in the adult progeny. Interestingly, dietary methyl donor supplementation in lactating mothers fed an obesogenic diet reduced liver fat accumulation, but increased adipose tissue storage in adult HFS-fed offspring.
Authors: Pérez Cornago, Aurora; de la Iglesia González, Rocío; López Legarrea, Patricia; et al.
Journal: NUTRITION JOURNAL
ISSN 1475-2891  Vol. 13  Nº 1  2014  pp. 36
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and depression have become two prevalent diseases worldwide, whose interaction needs further investigation. Dietary treatment for weight loss in patients with MetS may improve depressive manifestations, however, the precise interactive pathways remain uncertain. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of a hypocaloric diet designed to reduce MetS features on self-perceived depression and the possible underlying factors. METHODS: Sixty subjects (Age: 50 ± 1 y; BMI: 36.1 ± 0.6 kg/m(2)) with MetS were selected from the RESMENA study (control and intervention) after they completed the 6-months hypocaloric treatment and rated for depressive symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Anthropometric and biochemical measurements including leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and insulin levels were evaluated. RESULTS: Depressive symptoms decreased during the weight loss intervention, with no differences between both dietary groups (control group -4.2 ± 0.8 vs RESMENA group -3.2 ± 0.6, P = 0.490). The number of criteria of the MetS was higher among subjects with more somatic-related depressive symptoms at baseline (B = 1.032, P-trend = 0.017). After six months of dietary treatment, body weight decreased in all subjects (-8.7%; confidence interval (95% CI)¿= 7.0-9.7) and also self-perceived depression (-37.9%; 95% CI = 2.7-4.9), as well as circulating leptin (-20.1%; 95% CI = 1.8-6.8), CRP (-42.8%; 95% CI = 0.6-3.0) and insulin (-37.7%; 95% CI = 4.1-7.2) concentrations. The decrease in BDI was significantly associated with declines in body fat mass (B = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.11-0.56) and also with the decrease in leptin (B = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.04-0.28) and CRP (B = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.01-0.46) concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in depressive manifestations after a weight loss intervention was related with adiposity, CRP and leptin in subjects with MetS.
Authors: Mansego Talavera, María Luisa; Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles; Campión Zabalza, Francisco Javier; et al.
Journal: ANALES DE LA REAL ACADEMIA NACIONAL DE FARMACIA
ISSN 1697-4271  Vol. 80  Nº 3  2014  pp. 614 - 623
Mediante una aproximación epigenómica, se analizaron las posibles asociaciones entre los niveles basales en la metilación del ADN y una mejor respuesta a la pérdida de peso después de un programa de intervención nutricional en la población obesa del estudio RESMENA. Esta investigación ha identificado 3 regiones de ADN (genes RGS6, A2BP1 y RASGRF1) que se encuentran diferencialmente metiladas entre sujetos con alta y baja respuesta a la pérdida de peso. Además, estos genes están implicados en la misma ruta metabólica y habían sido previamente significativamente asociados con la obesidad.
Authors: Gómez Úriz, Ana; Goyenechea Soto, Estíbaliz; Campión Zabalza, Francisco Javier; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
ISSN 1138-7548  Vol. 70  Nº 2  2014  pp. 603 - 614
Some causal bases of stroke remain unclear, but the nutritional effects on the epigenetic regulation of different genes may be involved. The aim was to assess the impact of epigenetic processes of human tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) and paraoxonase (PON) promoters in the susceptibility to stroke when considering body composition and dietary intake. Twenty-four patients (12 non-stroke/12 stroke) were matched by sex (12 male/12 female), age (mean 7012years old), and BMI (12 normal-weight/12 obese; mean 28.16.7kg/m(2)). Blood cell DNA was isolated and DNA methylation levels of TNF-alpha (-186 to +349bp) and PON (-231 to +250bp) promoters were analyzed by the Sequenom EpiTYPER approach. Histone modifications (H3K9ac and H3K4me3) were analyzed also by chromatin immunoprecipitation in a region of TNF-alpha (-297 to -185). Total TNF-alpha promoter methylation was lower in stroke patients (p<0.001) and showed no interaction with body composition (p=0.807). TNF-alpha and PON total methylation levels correlated each other (r=0.44; p=0.031), especially in stroke patients (r=0.72; p=0.008). The +309 CpG methylation site from TNF-alpha promoter was related to body weight (p=0.027) and the region containing three CpGs (from -170 to -162bp) to the percentage of lipid intake and dietary indexes (p<0.05) in non-stroke patients. The methylation of PON +15 and +241 CpGs was related to body weight (p=0.021), waist circumference (p=0.020), and energy intake (p=0.018), whereas +214 was associated to the quality of the diet (p<0.05) in non-stroke patients. When comparing stroke vs non-stroke patients regarding the histone modifications analyzed at TNF-alpha promoter, no changes were found, although a significant association was identified between circulating TNF-alpha level and H3K9ac with H3K4me3. TNF-alpha and PON promoter methylation levels could be involved in the susceptibility to stroke and obesity outcome, respectively. The dietary intake and body composition may influence this epigenetic regulation in non-stroke patients.
Authors: Martí del Moral, Amelia; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo
Journal: ANALES DEL SISTEMA SANITARIO DE NAVARRA
ISSN 1137-6627  Vol. 37  Nº 1  2014  pp. 5 - 8
Authors: Pérez Cornago, Aurora; López Legarrea, Patricia; de la Iglesia González, Rocío; et al.
Journal: CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0261-5614  Vol. 33  Nº 6  2014  pp. 1061 - 1067
Background & aim Metabolic syndrome and depression seem to share some common underlying mechanisms, although less is known about the impact of metabolic syndrome dietary treatments on depression. This study examined the association between a hypocaloric treatment designed to reduce metabolic syndrome features in self-perceived depression and the potential involvement of dietary components and oxidative stress changes. Methods Analyses were based on volunteers (n = 55) with metabolic syndrome (age 50 ± 1 y.o.; 38M/17F), where depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory. Participants followed two hypocaloric diets (control diet and RESMENA diet) with the same energy restriction (¿30% TCV) for six months. Depressive symptoms, dietary records, anthropometrical measurements, biochemical parameters and oxidative stress levels were analysed. Results Both diets improved self-perceived depression similarly (p = 0.528). Participants with lower depressive symptoms at baseline reported a significantly higher intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (p trend = 0.002). Interestingly, after adjusting for potential confounders, the increase in folate consumption (p = 0.011) and the decrease in plasma malondialdehyde levels (p = 0.012) throughout the intervention, were associated with the improvement in depressive symptoms. Conclusions A higher intake of folate and a decline in malondialdehyde plasma levels during a weight loss intervention, were related to improvements in manifestations of depression
Authors: Aguado-Barrios, A.; Navas Carretero, Santiago; Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Journal: ANALES DE LA REAL ACADEMIA DE FARMACIA
ISSN 0034-0618  Vol. 80  Nº 3  2014  pp. 624 - 636
El objetivo del trabajo fue estudiar en adultos sanos los efectos de una cuajada con perfil lipídico modificado sobre marcadores de riesgo cardiovascular. El estudio consistió en una intervención nutricional posprandial, doble ciego, aleatorizada, en 20 adultos sanos. En cada visita los participantes consumían la cuajada asignada y se obtuvieron muestras de sangre basales y durante 6 horas, para analizar variables relacionadas con riesgo cardiovascular. Los niveles posprandiales de Apolipoproteína-B fueron significativamente inferiores (p=0.008), mientras que los valores de colesterol total y LDL-colesterol también se redujeron modestamente (ns), observándose una tendencia (p<0.10) a mejorar la sensibilidad a la insulina tras consumir la cuajada experimental frente al control. Estos resultados permiten atribuir un posible efecto beneficioso sobre la salud, asociado al consumo de un postre con perfil lipídico modificado.
Authors: López Yoldi, Miguel; Fernández Galilea, Marta; Laiglesia, L. M.; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH
ISSN 0022-2275  Vol. 55  Nº 12  2014  pp. 2634 - 2643
Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) is a cytokine with antiobesity properties and with a role in lipid metabolism regulation and adipose tissue function. The aim of this study was to analyze the molecular mechanisms involved in the lipolytic actions of CT-1 in adipocytes. Recombinant CT-1 (rCT-1) effects on the main proteins and signaling pathways involved in the regulation of lipolysis were evaluated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in mice. rCT-1 treatment stimulated basal glycerol release in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. rCT-1 (20 ng/ml for 24 h) raised cAMP levels, and in parallel increased protein kinase (PK)A-mediated phosphorylation of perilipin and hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) at Ser660. siRNA knock-down of HSL or PKA, as well as pretreatment with the PKA inhibitor H89, blunted the CT-1-induced lipolysis, suggesting that the lipolytic action of CT-1 in adipocytes is mainly mediated by activation of HSL through the PKA pathway. In ob/ob mice, acute rCT-1 treatment also promoted PKA-mediated phosphorylation of perilipin and HSL at Ser660 and Ser563, and increased adipose triglyceride lipase (desnutrin) content in adipose tissue. These results showed that the ability of CT-1 to regulate the activity of the main lipases underlies the lipolytic action of this cytokine in vitro and in vivo, and could contribute to CT-1 antiobesity effects.
Authors: Aller, E. E.; Larsen, T. M.; Claus, H.; et al.
Journal: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY
ISSN 0307-0565  Vol. 38  Nº 12  2014  pp. 1511 - 1517
A high dietary protein (P) content and low glycemic index (LGI) have been suggested to be beneficial for weight management, but long-term studies are scarce. OBJECTIVE: The DIOGENES randomized clinical trial investigated the effect of P and GI on weight loss maintenance in overweight or obese adults in eight centers across Europe. This study reports the 1-year results in two of the centers that extended the intervention to 1 year. METHOD: After an 8-week low-calorie diet (LCD), 256 adults (body mass index >27¿kg¿m(-)(2)) were randomized to five ad libitum diets for 12 months: high P/LGI (HP/LGI), HP/high GI (HP/HGI), low P/LGI (LP/LGI), LP/HGI and a control diet. During the first 6 months, foods were provided for free through a shop system and during the whole 12-month period, subjects received guidance by a dietician. Primary outcome variable was the change in body weight over the 12-month intervention period. RESULTS: During the LCD period, subjects lost 11.2 (10.8, 12.0) kg (mean (95% confidence interval (CI))). Average weight regain over the 12-month intervention period was 3.9 (95% CI 3.0-4.8) kg. Subjects on the HP diets regained less weight than subjects on the LP diets. The difference in weight regain after 1 year was 2.0 (0.4, 3.6) kg (P=0.017) (completers analysis, N=139) or 2.8 (1.4, 4.1) kg (P<0.001) (intention-to-treat analysis, N=256). No consistent effect of GI on weight regain was found. There were no clinically relevant differences in changes in cardiometabolic risk factors among diet groups. CONCLUSION: A higher protein content of an ad libitum diet improves weight loss maintenance in overweight and obese adults over 12 months.
Authors: García Calzón, Sonia; Moleres Villares, Adriana; Marcos, Ascensión ; et al.
Journal: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 9  Nº 2  2014  pp. e89828
Context: Telomeres are biomarkers of biological aging. Shorter telomeres have been associated with increased adiposity in adults. However, this relationship remains unclear in children and adolescents. Objective: To evaluate the association between telomere length (TL) and adiposity markers in overweight/obese adolescents after an intensive program. We hypothesize that greater TL at baseline would predict a better response to a weight loss treatment. Design, Setting, Patients and Intervention: The EVASYON is a multidisciplinary treatment program for adolescents with overweight and obesity that is aimed at applying the intervention to all possibly involved areas of the individual, such as dietary habits, physical activity and cognitive and psychological profiles. Seventy-four participants (36 males, 38 females, 12-16 yr) were enrolled in the intervention program: 2 months of an energy-restricted diet and a follow-up period (6 months). Main Outcome: TL was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction at baseline and after 2 months; meanwhile, anthropometric variables were also assessed after 6 months of follow-up. Results: TL lengthened in participants during the intensive period (+1.9±1.0, p<0.001) being greater in overweight/obese adolescents with the shortest telomeres at baseline (r = -0.962, p<0.001). Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that higher baseline TL significantly predicted a higher decrease in body weight (B = -1.53, p = 0.005; B = -2.25, p = 0.047) and in standard deviation score for body mass index (BMI-SDS) (B = -0.22, p = 0.010; B = -0.47, p = 0.005) after the intensive and extensive period treatment respectively, in boys. Conclusion: Our study shows that a weight loss intervention is accompanied by a significant increase in TL in overweight/obese adolescents. Moreover, we suggest that initial longer TL could be a potential predictor for a better weight loss response.
Authors: López Legarrea, Patricia; de la Iglesia González, Rocío; Crujeiras Martínez, Ana Belén; et al.
Journal: NUTRITION AND DIABETES
ISSN 2044-4052  Vol. 4  2014  pp. e110
Irisin is assumed to be a relevant link between muscle and weight maintenance as well as to mediate exercise benefits on health. The aim of this study was to assess the possible associations between irisin levels and glucose homeostasis in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) following an energy-restricted treatment. Ninety-six adults with excessive body weight and MetS features underwent a hypocaloric dietary pattern for 8 weeks, within the RESMENA randomized controlled trial (www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01087086). After the intervention, dietary restriction significantly reduced body weight and evidenced a dietary-induced decrease in circulating levels of irisin in parallel with improvements on glucose homeostasis markers. Interestingly, participants with higher irisin values at baseline (above the median) showed a greater reduction on glucose (P=0.022) and insulin (P=0.021) concentrations as well as on the homeostasis model assessment index (P=0.008) and triglycerides (P=0.006) after the dietary intervention, compared with those presenting low-irisin baseline values (below the median). Interestingly, a positive correlation between irisin and carbohydrate intake was found at the end of the experimental period. In conclusion, irisin appears to be involved in glucose metabolism regulation after a dietary-induced weight loss.
Authors: Esteban Fernández, Alberto; Salterain González, Nahikari; Buades Mateu, Juan Sebastián; et al.
Journal: EXPERIMENTAL AND CLINICAL CARDIOLOGY
ISSN 1205-6626  Vol. 20  Nº 10   2014  pp. 6176 - 6186
The conjoint consumption of food with beer has an interactive influence on metabolic oxidative fates and may have impact on alcoholaemia. The objective of this is study is to characterize the impact of alcohol in macronutrient oxidation and blood alcohol oncentrations in healthy people, depending on sex, age, body mass and ¿tapas¿ different nutrient composition, as well as the relationship with alcohol in breath test and respiratory quotient. The trial included seventy-one people who drank a beer jointly with some food (bread, nuts or ham) in controlled conditions, where macronutrients oxidation during 3 hours and the behavior of other parameters such as glucose and lipids, blood pressure and heart rate were assessed. The analysis of the experimental groups concluded that there are not differences in blood alcohol levels according to the food consumed with beer, but there are depending on sex and body composition (p<0.05). Also, there are differences in blood glucose levels at 120 minutes in bread group compared with the rest of the groups (p<0.01). Finally, there is a strong correlation between respiratory quotient and alcohol in breath test which may be useful for practical purposes.
Authors: Hernández Ruiz de Eguilaz, María; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; San-Cristobal, R.; et al.
Journal: EL FARMACEUTICO
ISSN 0213-7283  Vol. 499  2014  pp. 12 - 24
Authors: Alves, R.; Esteves-de-Oliveira, F. C.; Hermsdorff, H. H. M.; et al.
Journal: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 1436-6207  Vol. 53  Nº 1  2014  pp. 49 - 60
Purpose: To evaluate the effects of two dietary patterns in which carbohydrates and proteins were eaten mostly at lunch or dinner on body weight and composition, energy metabolism, and biochemical markers in overweight/obese men. Methods: Fifty-eight men (30.0 ± 7.4 years; 30.8 ± 2.4 kg/m) followed a covert hypocaloric balanced diet (¿10 % of daily energy requirements) during 8 weeks. Subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: control diet (CT); diurnal carbohydrate/nocturnal protein (DCNP); and nocturnal carbohydrate/diurnal protein (NCDP). Main analyzed outcomes were weight loss, body composition, diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), and glucose/lipid profile. Results: In all groups, a significant decrease in body weight, BMI, and fat mass (kg and %) was verified, without differences between groups. Interestingly, within group analyses showed that the fat-free mass (kg) significantly decreased in NCDP and in CT after 8-week intervention, but not in DCNP. A detrimental increase in fasting glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA) was verified only in DCNP, while NCDP and CT groups presented a non-significant reduction. Moreover, significant differences between DCNP and the other groups were detected for fasting insulin and HOMA. After the adjustments, NCDP presented a significantly higher DIT and energy expenditure after lunch, compared with DCNP, but after dinner, there were no differences among groups. Conclusion: Eating carbohydrates mostly at dinner and protein mostly at lunch within a hypocaloric balanced diet had similar effect on body composition and biochemical markers, but higher effect on DIT compared with control diet. Moreover, eating carbohydrates mostly at lunch and protein mostly at dinner had a deleterious impact on glucose homeostasis.
Authors: Crujeiras Martínez, Ana Belén; Pardo, M.; Roca-Rivada, A.; et al.
Title: Longit