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Ana Belén Alcaide Ocaña

Most recent scientific publications (since 2010)

Authors: González, Jéssica; Rodríguez-Fraile, M; et al.
Journal: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 14  Nº 2  2019  pp. e0209777
BACKGROUND: Smoking is a recognized risk factor for osteoporosis. Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a novel texture parameter to evaluate bone microarchitecture. TBS and their main determinants are unknown in active and former smokers. OBJECTIVE: To assess TBS in a population of active or former smokers with and without Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and to determine its predictive factors. METHODS: Active and former smokers from a pulmonary clinic were invited to participate. Clinical features were recorded and bone turnover markers (BTMs) measured. Lung function, low dose chest Computed Tomography scans (LDCT), dual energy absorptiometry (DXA) scans were performed and TBS measured. Logistic regression analysis explored the relationship between measured parameters and TBS. RESULTS: One hundred and forty five patients were included in the analysis, 97 (67.8%) with COPD. TBS was lower in COPD patients (median 1.323; IQR: 0.13 vs 1.48; IQR: 0.16, p = 0.003). Regression analysis showed that a higher body mass index (BMI), younger age, less number of exacerbations and a higher forced expiratory volume-one second (FEV1%) was associated with better TBS (ß = 0.005, 95% CI:0.000-0.011, p = 0.032; ß = -0.003, 95% CI:-0.007(-)-0.000, p = 0.008; ß = -0.019, 95% CI:-0.034(-)-0.004, p = 0.015; ß = 0.001, 95% CI:0.000-0.002, p = 0.012 respectively). The same factors with similar results were found in COPD patients. CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of active and former smokers with and without COPD have an affected TBS. BMI, age, number of exacerbations and the degree of airway obstruction predicts TBS values in smokers with and without COPD. This important information should be considered when evaluating smokers at risk of osteoporosis.
Authors: González, Jéssica; Henschke, C. I.; Yankelevitz, D. F. ; et al.
Journal: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 14  Nº 7  2019 
Background To assess the relationship between lung cancer and emphysema subtypes. Objective Airflow obstruction and emphysema predispose to lung cancer. Little is known, however, about the lung cancer risk associated with different emphysema phenotypes. We assessed the risk of lung cancer based on the presence, type and severity of emphysema, using visual assessment. Methods Seventy-two consecutive lung cancer cases were selected from a prospective cohort of 3,477 participants enrolled in the Clinica Universidad de Navarra's lung cancer screening program. Each case was matched to three control subjects using age, sex, smoking history and body mass index as key variables. Visual assessment of emphysema and spirometry were performed. Logistic regression and interaction model analysis were used in order to investigate associations between lung cancer and emphysema subtypes. Results Airflow obstruction and visual emphysema were significantly associated with lung cancer (OR = 2.8, 95%CI: 1.6 to 5.2; OR = 5.9, 95%CI: 2.9 to 12.2; respectively). Emphysema severity and centrilobular subtype were associated with greater risk when adjusted for confounders (OR = 12.6, 95%CI: 1.6 to 99.9; OR = 34.3, 95%CI: 25.5 to 99.3, respectively). The risk of lung cancer decreases with the added presence of paraseptal emphysema (OR = 4.0, 95%CI: 3.6 to 34.9), losing this increased risk of lung cancer when it occurs alone (OR = 0.7, 95%CI: 0.5 to 2.6). Conclusions Visual scoring of emphysema predicts lung cancer risk. The centrilobular phenotype is associated with the greatest risk.
Authors: de Torres, Juan Pablo; Ezponda, A; et al.
Journal: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 13  Nº 4  2018  pp. e0195640
In this prospective observational study of COPD patients with mild to moderate airflow limitation, PAE was the best predictor of long-term survival along with age.
Authors: González, Jéssica; Ortega, P. R.; Varo, N; et al.
Journal: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE
ISSN 1073-449X  Vol. 197  2018 
Authors: González, Jéssica; Restituto, Patricia; et al.
Journal: EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL
ISSN 0903-1936  Vol. 52  Nº Supl. 62  2018 
Authors: González, Jéssica; et al.
Journal: EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL
ISSN 0903-1936  Vol. 52  Nº Supl. 62  2018 
Authors: Campo, Arantza; Hernandez, A. M. ; González, Jéssica; et al.
Journal: EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL
ISSN 0903-1936  Vol. 52  Nº Supl. 62  2018 
Authors: Bastarrika, Gorka; et al.
Journal: CHEST
ISSN 0012-3692  Vol. 151  Nº 2  2017  pp. 358 - 365
BACKGROUND: The clinical characteristics of patients with emphysema but without airway limitations remain unknown. The goal of this study was to compare the clinical features of current and former smokers without airflow limitation who have radiologic emphysema on chest CT scans vs a control group of current and ex-smokers without emphysema. METHODS: Subjects enrolled had anthropometric characteristics recorded, provided a medical history, and underwent low-dose chest CT scanning. The following parameters were also evaluated: pulmonary function tests including diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (D-LCO), the modified Medical Research Council dyspnea score, COPD assessment test (CAT), and 6-min walk test (6MWT). Acomparison was conducted between those with and withoutCT-confirmedemphysema. RESULTS: Of the 203 subjects, 154 had emphysema, and 49 did not. Adjusted group comparisons revealed that a higher proportion of patients with emphysema according to low-dose chest CT scanning had an abnormal DLCO value (< 80%) (46% vs 19%; P = .02), a decrease in percentage of oxygen saturation > 4% during the 6MWT (8.5% vs 0; P = .04), and an altered quality of life (CAT score >= 10) (32% vs 14%; P = .01). A detailed analysis of the CAT questionnaire items revealed that more patients with emphysema had a score >= 1 in the "chest tightness" (P = .05) and "limitation when doing activities at home" (P < .01) items compared with those with no emphysema. They also experienced significantly more exacerbations in the previous year (0.19 vs 0.04; P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of smokers with emphysema according to low-dose chest CT scanning but without airway limitation had alterations in their quality of life, number of exacerbations, DLCO values, and oxygen saturation during the 6MWT test.
Authors: Bastarrika, Gorka; Zulueta, Javier J; et al.
Journal: RESPIRATORY RESEARCH
ISSN 1465-993X  Vol. 18  Nº 1  2017  pp. 175
Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) disease, one of the most frequent causes of death in COPD patients. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic value of non-invasive CV risk markers in COPD patients. Methods: CV risk was prospectively evaluated in 287 COPD patients using non-invasive markers including the Framingham score, the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) charts, coronary arterial calcium (CAC), epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), as well as clinical, biochemical and physiological variables. The predictive power of each parameter was explored using CV events as the main outcome. Results: During a median follow up of 65 months (ICR: 36-100), 44 CV events were recorded, 12 acute myocardial infarctions (27.3%), 10 ischemic heart disease/angina (22.7%), 12 peripheral artery disease events requiring surgery (27.3%) and 10 strokes (22.7%). A total of 35 CV deaths occurred during that period. Univariable analysis determined that age, hypertension, CRP, total Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, Framingham score and CAC were independently associated with CV events. Multivariable analysis identified CAC as the best predictor of CV events (HR; 95%CI: 1.32; 1.19-1.46, p < 001). Conclusions: In COPD patients attending pulmonary clinics, CAC was the best independent non-invasive predictor of CV events. This tool may help evaluate the risk for a CV event in patients with COPD. Larger studies should reproduce and validate these findings.
Authors: González, Jéssica; Henschke, C. ; Yankelevitz, D. ; et al.
Journal: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE
ISSN 1073-449X  Vol. 195  2017  pp. A7682
Authors: González, Jéssica; et al.
Journal: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE
ISSN 1073-449X  Vol. 195  2017  pp. A5742
Authors: Zulueta, Javier J; Cervera, J.; et al.
Journal: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE
ISSN 1073-449X  Vol. 195  2017  pp. A7057
Authors: Garcia-Velloso, Maria Jose; Bastarrika, Gorka; de Torres, Juan Pablo; et al.
Journal: LUNG CANCER
ISSN 0169-5002  Vol. 97  2016  pp. 81-86
A major drawback of lung cancer screening programs is the high frequency of false-positive findings on computed tomography (CT). We investigated the accuracy of selective 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) scan in assessing radiologically indeterminate lung nodules detected in lung cancer screening. Methods: FDG PET/CT was performed to characterize 64 baseline lung nodules >10 mm and 36 incidence nodules detected on low-dose CT screening in asymptomatic current or former smokers (83 men, age range 40¿83 years) at high risk for lung cancer. CT images were acquired without intravenous contrast. Nodules were analyzed by size, density, and metabolic activity and visual scored on a 5-point scale for FDG uptake. Nodules were classified as negative for malignancy when no FDG uptake was observed, or positive when focal uptake was observed in the visual analysis, and the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was measured. Final diagnosis was based on histopathological evaluation or at least 24 months of follow-up. Results: A total of 100 nodules were included. The prevalence of lung cancer was 1%. The sensitivity, specificity, NPV and PPV of visual analysis to detect malignancy were 84%, 95%, 91%, and 91%, respectively, with an accuracy of 91% (AUC 0.893). FDG PET/CT accurately detected 31 malignant tumors (diameters 9¿42 mm, SUVmax range 0.6¿14.2) and was falsely negative in 6 patients. With SUVmax threshold
Authors: González, Jéssica; Restituto, Patricia; et al.
Journal: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE
ISSN 1073-449X  Vol. 193  2016  pp. A3554
Authors: Wilson, D. O.; de Torres, Juan Pablo; et al.
Journal: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE
ISSN 1073-449X  Vol. 191  Nº 8  2015  pp. 924 - 931
Rationale: Lung cancer (LC) screening using low-dose chest computed tomography is now recommended in several guidelines using the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) entry criteria (age, 55-74; ¿30 pack-years; tobacco cessation within the previous 15 yr for former smokers). Concerns exist about their lack of sensitivity. Objectives: To evaluate the performance of NLST criteria in two different LC screening studies from Europe and the United States, and to explore the effect of using emphysema as a complementary criterion. Methods: Participants from the Pamplona International Early Lung Action Detection Program (P-IELCAP; n = 3,061) and the Pittsburgh Lung Screening Study (PLuSS; n = 3,638) were considered. LC cumulative frequencies, incidence densities, and annual detection rates were calculated in three hypothetical cohorts, including subjects whometNLST criteria alone, those withcomputed tomography-detected emphysema, and those who met NLST criteria and/or had emphysema. Measurements and Main Results: Thirty-six percent and 59% of P-IELCAP and PLuSS participants, respectively, met NLST criteria. Among these, higher LC incidence densities and detection rates were observed. However, applying NLST criteria to our original cohorts would miss asmany as 39% of all LC. Annual screening of subjects meeting either NLST criteria or having emphysema detected most cancers (88% and 95% of incident LC of P-IELCAP and PLuSS, respectively) despite reducing the number of screened participants by as much as 52%. Conclusions: LC screening based solely on NLST criteria could miss a significant number of LC cases. Combining NLST criteria and emphysema to select screening candidates results in higher LC detection rates and a lower number of cancers missed.
Authors: de Torres, Juan Pablo; et al.
Journal: ARCHIVOS DE BRONCONEUMOLOGIA
ISSN 0300-2896  Vol. 51  Nº 4  2015  pp. 169 - 176
The experience in Spain's longest lung cancer screening program is comparable to what has been described in the rest of Europe, and confirms the feasibility and efficacy of lung cancer screening using LDCT.
Authors: de Torres, Juan Pablo; Wilson DO; et al.
Journal: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE
ISSN 1073-449X  Vol. 191  Nº 3  2015  pp. 285-91
The COPD-LUCSS is a good predictor of LC risk in patients with COPD participating in LC screening programs. Validation in two different populations adds strength to the findings.
Authors: Zulueta, Javier J; Bastarrika, Gorka; et al.
Journal: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 8  Nº 6  2013  pp. e65593
Authors: de Torres, Juan Pablo; Casanova, C; Marín, JM; et al.
Journal: RESPIRATORY MEDICINE
ISSN 0954-6111  Vol. 107  Nº 5  2013  pp. 702-707
From an initial sample of 410 (SG) and 735 (CG) patients we were able to match 333 patients from each group. At the same follow-up time lung cancer incidence density was 1.79/100 person-years in the SG and 4.14/100 person-years in the CG (p = 0.004). The most frequent histological type was adenocarcinoma in both SG and CG (65% and 46%, respectively), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (25% and 37%, respectively). Eighty percent of lung cancers in the SG (16/20) were diagnosed in stage I, and all of CG cancers (35/35) were in stage III or IV. Mortality incidence density from lung cancer (0.08 vs. 2.48/100 person-years, p < 0.001) was lower in the SG.
Authors: de Torres, Juan Pablo; et al.
Journal: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 8  Nº 4  2013  pp. e60260
Current or former smokers expressing a well-defined disease characteristic such as emphysema, has a specific plasma cytokine profile. This includes a decrease of cytokines mainly implicated in activation of apoptosis or decrease of immunosurveillance. This information should be taken into account when evaluated patients with tobacco respiratory diseases
Authors: de Torres, Juan Pablo; Bastarrika, Gorka; Zagaceta Guevara, J.L.; et al.
Journal: CHEST
ISSN 0012-3692  Vol. 139  Nº 1  2011  pp. 36 - 42
Phenotypic characterization of patients with COPD may have potential prognostic and therapeutic implications. Available information on the relationship between emphysema and the clinical presentation in patients with COPD is limited to advanced stages of the disease. The objective of this study was to describe emphysema presence, severity, and distribution and its impact on clinical presentation of patients with mild to moderate COPD. METHODS: One hundred fifteen patients with COPD underwent clinical and chest CT scan evaluation for the presence, severity, and distribution of emphysema. Patients with and without emphysema and with different forms of emphysema distribution (upper/lower/core/peel) were compared. The impact of emphysema severity and distribution on clinical presentation was determined. RESULTS: Fifty percent of the patients had mild homogeneously distributed emphysema (1.84; 0.76%-4.77%). Upper and core zones had the more severe degree of emphysema. Patients with emphysema were older, more frequently men, and had lower FEV(1)%, higher total lung capacity percentage, and lower diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide. No differences were found between the clinical or physiologic parameters of the different emphysema distributions. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with mild to moderate COPD, although the presence of emphysema has an impact on physiologic presentation, its severity and distribution seem to have little impact on clinical presentation.
Authors: Campo, Arantza; de Torres, Juan Pablo; et al.
Journal: JOURNAL OF BRONCHOLOGY & INTERVENTIONAL PULMONOLOGY
ISSN 1944-6586  Vol. 18  Nº 1  2011  pp. 7 - 14
Objective: The objective of our study was to investigate whether fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography scanning uptake impacts the yield of transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA). Methods: We carried out a retrospective analysis of data from 140 consecutive patients (178 lymph nodes) undergoing positron emission tomography-computed tomography scanning and subsequent TBNA with rapid onsite cytologic evaluation of the specimen. Patient and lymph node characteristics, including nodal station, size, FDG uptake, number of passes with the needle, sample adequacy, and the final diagnosis were recorded. Results: The diagnostic yield of TBNA was 75%. Themean short axis lymph node diameter was 18.7+/-9 mm and mean maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was 7.7+/-4. The diagnostic yield depended on the lymph node size [odds ratio (OR)=1.07 (1.00-1.14); P=0.04], clinical suspicion of malignancy [OR=5.13 (1.95-13.52); P=0.001], malignant diagnosis [OR=4.91 (1.71-14.09); P=0.003], and FDG uptake [for SUVmax cutoff of 3.0: OR=33.8 (9.2-124); P<0.001]. Only clinical suspicion of cancer [OR=6.2 (2.2-17.2); P=0.001] and FDG uptake [for SUVmax cutoff of 3.0: OR=33.8 (9.2-123.8); P<0.001] remained significant on multivariate analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curves combining 3 key variables (lymph node size, clinical suspicion of malignancy, and SUVmax) showed an area of 0.83 under the curve for a 2.5 SUVmax cutoff and 0.84 for a 3.0 cutoff. Conclusions: FDG uptake is the single most important variable impacting the TBNA yield. TBNA of lymph nodes with an SUVmax less than 3.0 is rarely diagnostic.
Authors: de Torres, Juan Pablo; Lozano, María D; et al.
Journal: CHEST
ISSN 0012-3692  Vol. 138  Nº 6  2010  pp. 1316 - 1321