Nuestros investigadores

Eduardo Ansorena Artieda


Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: Ruiz de Galarreta Martínez, Marina; Navarro, A., ; Ansorena Artieda, Eduardo; et al.
ISSN 0167-4889  Vol. 1863  Nº 8  2016  págs. 2115 - 2123
Unfolded protein response (UPR) triggered as a consequence of ER stress has been shown to be involved in the development of different pathologies, including fibrotic disorders. In the present paper we explore the role played by UPR on a key fibrogenic parameter in the liver: collagen type I levels in activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC). Using Brefeldin A (BFA) as an ER stress inducer we found that UPR correlated with enhanced mRNA and protein levels of collagen type I in a cell line of immortalized non-tumoral rat HSC. Analysis of the three branches of UPR revealed the activation of IRE1¿, PERK and ATF6 in response to BFA, although PERK activation was shown not to be involved in the fibrogenic action of BFA. BFA also activated p38 MAPK in an IRE1¿-dependent way and the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 prevented the increase in collagen type I mRNA and protein levels caused by BFA, suggesting the involvement of this kinase on this effect. Analysis of Smad activation showed that phosphorylated nuclear levels of Smad2 and 3 were increased in response to BFA treatment. Inhibition of Smad3 phosphorylation by SIS3 prevented the enhancement of collagen type I levels caused by BFA. Pretreatment with IRE1¿ and p38 MAPK inhibitors also prevented the increased p-Smad3 accumulation in the nucleus, suggesting an IRE1¿-p38 MAPK-Smad pathway to be responsible for the fibrogenic action of BFA on HSC.
Autores: Garbayo Atienza, Elisa; Ansorena Artieda, Eduardo; Lana Vega, Hugo; et al.
ISSN 0142-9612  Vol. 110  2016  págs. 11-23
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) remains the most potent neurotrophic factor for dopamine neurons. Despite its potential as treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), its clinical application has been hampered by safety and efficacy concerns associated with GDNF's short in vivo half-life and with significant brain delivery obstacles. Drug formulation systems such as microparticles (MPs) may overcome these issues providing protein protection from degradation and sustained drug release over time. We therefore sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of GDNF delivered via injectable biodegradable MPs in a clinically relevant model of PD and to investigate the mechanism contributing to their beneficial effects. MPs were injected unilaterally into the putamen of parkinsonian monkeys with severe nigrostriatal degeneration. Notably, a single administration of the microencapsulated neurotrophic factor achieved sustained GDNF levels in the brain, providing motor improvement and dopaminergic function restoration. This was reflected by a bilateral increase in the density of striatal dopaminergic neurons 9 months after treatment. Moreover, GDNF was retrogradely transported to the substantia nigra increasing bilaterally the number of dopaminergic and total neurons, regardless of the severe degeneration. GDNF-MP injection within the putamen elicited no adverse effects such as immunogenicity, cerebellar degeneration or weight loss. MPs are therefore a safe, efficient vehicle for sustained protein delivery to the brain, supporting the therapeutic benefit of GDNF when encapsulated within MPs for brain repair. Overall, these findings constitute important groundwork for GDNF-MP clinical development.
Autores: Andueza, A., ; García Garzón, María Antonia; Ruiz de Galarreta, M., ; et al.
ISSN 0891-5849  Vol. 87  2015  págs. 169 - 180
Apigenin, a natural flavone, is emerging as a promising compound for the treatment of several diseases. One of the hallmarks of apigenin is the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), as judged by the oxidation of reduced dichlorofluorescein derivatives seen in many cell types. This study aimed to reveal some mechanisms by which apigenin can be oxidized and how apigenin-derived radicals affect the oxidation of 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichloroclihydrolluorescein (H2DCF), a probe usually employed to detect intracellular ROS. Apigenin induced a rapid oxidation of H2DCF in two different immortalized cell lines derived from rat and human hepatic stellate cells. However, apigenin did not generate ROS in these cells, as judged by dihydroethidium oxidation and extracellular hydrogen peroxide production. In cell -free experiments we found that oxidation of apigenin leads to the generation of a phenoxyl radical, which directly oxidizes H2DCF with catalytic amounts of hydrogen peroxide. The net balance of the reaction was the oxidation of the probe by molecular oxygen due to redox cycling of apigenin. This flavonoid was also able to deplete NADH and glutathione by a similar mechanism. InLeresLingly, H2DCF oxidation was significantly accelerated by apigenin in the presence of horseradish peroxidase and xarahine oxidase, but not with other enzymes showing peroxiclase-like activity, such as cylochrome c or calalase. We conclude that in cells treated with apigenin oxidation of reduced clichlorofluorescein derivatives does not measure intracellular ROS and that pro- and antioxidant effects of flavonoids deduced from these experiments are inconclusive and must be confirmed by other techniques.
Autores: des Rieux, A., ; De Berdt, P., ; Ansorena Artieda, Eduardo; et al.
ISSN 1549-3296  Vol. 102  Nº 7  2014  págs. 2345 - 2355
We hypothesized that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-containing hydrogels that gelify in situ after injection into a traumatized spinal cord, could stimulate spinal cord regeneration. Injectable hydrogels composed of 0.5% Pronova UPMVG MVG alginate, supplemented or not with fibrinogen, were used. The addition of fibrinogen to alginate had no effect on cell proliferation in vitro but supported neurite growth ex vivo. When injected into a rat spinal cord in a hemisection model, alginate supplemented with fibrinogen was well tolerated. The release of VEGF that was incorporated into the hydrogel was influenced by the VEGF formulation [encapsulated in microspheres or in nanoparticles or in solution (free)]. A combination of free VEGF and VEGF-loaded nanoparticles was mixed with alginate:fibrinogen and injected into the lesion of the spinal cord. Four weeks post injection, angiogenesis and neurite growth were increased compared to hydrogel alone. The local delivery of VEGF by injectable alginate:fibrinogen-based hydrogel induced some plasticity in the injured spinal cord involving fiber growth into the lesion site.
Autores: Garbayo Atienza, Elisa; Ansorena Artieda, Eduardo; Blanco Prieto, María José
ISSN 0378-5122  Vol. 76  Nº 3  2013  págs. 272 - 278
Current treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD) are aimed at addressing motor symptoms but there is no therapy focused on modifying the course of the disease. Successful treatment strategies have been so far limited and brain drug delivery remains a major challenge that restricts its treatment. This review provides an overview of the most promising emerging agents in the field of PD drug discovery, discussing improvements that have been made in brain drug delivery for PD. It will be shown that new approaches able to extend the length of the treatment, to release the drug in a continuous manner or to cross the blood-brain barrier and target a specific region are still needed. Overall, the results reviewed here show that there is an urgent need to develop both symptomatic and disease-modifying treatments, giving priority to neuroprotective treatments. Promising perspectives are being provided in this field by rasagiline and by neurotrophic factors like glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. The identification of disease-relevant genes has also encouraged the search for disease-modifying therapies that function by identifying molecularly targeted drugs. The advent of new molecular and cellular targets like ¿-synuclein, leucine-rich repeat serine/threonine protein kinase 2 or parkin, among others, will require innovative delivery therapies. In this regard, drug delivery systems (DDS) have shown great potential for improving the efficacy of conventional and new PD therapy and reducing its side effects. The new DDS discussed here, which include microparticles, nanoparticles and hydrogels among others, will probably open up possibilities that extend beyond symptomatic relief. However, further work needs to be done before DDS become a therapeutic option for PD patients.
Autores: Ansorena Artieda, Eduardo; Casales Zoco, Erkuden; Tamayo Revuelta, Esther; et al.
ISSN 0378-5173  Vol. 440  Nº 1  2013  págs. 19-26
Human glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (hGDNF) is a very promising protein for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. The present work describes a quick and simple method to obtain a high amount of purified hGDNF using a mammalian cell-derived system. The method is based on the high expression level provided by a Semliki Forest virus vector and its ability to induce a strong shut-off of host-cell protein synthesis in mammalian cells. As a result, hGDNF is the only protein present in the supernatant and can be efficiently purified by a single chromatographic step. Using this system it was possible to eliminate other secreted proteins from the culture medium, like insulin-like growth factor-5, which are hard to remove using other hGDNF production methods. Purified hGDNF presents a complex glycosylation pattern typical of mammalian expression systems and is biologically active. This protocol could be extended to other secreted proteins and could be easily scaled up for industrial purposes. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Autores: Ansorena Artieda, Eduardo; De-Berdt, P., ; Ucakar, B., ; et al.
ISSN 0378-5173  Vol. 455  Nº 1-2  2013  págs. 148 - 158
We hypothesized that local delivery of GDNF in spinal cord lesion via an injectable alginate hydrogel gelifying in situ would support spinal cord plasticity and functional recovery. The GDNF release from the hydrogel was slowed by GDNF encapsulation in microspheres compared to non-formulated GDNF (free GDNF). When injected in a rat spinal cord hemisection model, more neurofilaments were observed in the lesion when the rats were treated with free GDNF-loaded hydrogels. More growing neurites were detected in the tissues surrounding the lesion when the animals were treated with GDNF microsphere-loaded hydrogels. Intense GFAP (astrocytes), low betaIII tubulin (neural cells) and RECA-1 (endothelial cells) stainings were observed for non-treated lesions while GDNF-treated spinal cords presented less GFAP staining and more endothelial and nerve fiber infiltration in the lesion site. The animals treated with free GDNF-loaded hydrogel presented superior functional recovery compared with the animals treated with the GDNF microsphere-loaded hydrogels and non-treated animals.
Autores: Danhier, F., ; Ansorena Artieda, Eduardo; Silva, J. M., ; et al.
ISSN 0168-3659  Vol. 161  Nº 2  2012  págs. 505 - 522
Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is one of the most successfully developed biodegradable polymers. Among the different polymers developed to formulate polymeric nanoparticles, PLGA has attracted considerable attention due to its attractive properties: (i) biodegradability and biocompatibility, (ii) FDA and European Medicine Agency approval in drug delivery systems for parenteral administration, (iii) well described formulations and methods of production adapted to various types of drugs e.g. hydrophilic or hydrophobic small molecules or macromolecules, (iv) protection of drug from degradation, (v) possibility of sustained release, (vi) possibility to modify surface properties to provide stealthness and/or better interaction with biological materials and (vii) possibility to target nanoparticles to specific organs or cells. This review presents why PLGA has been chosen to design nanoparticles as drug delivery systems in various biomedical applications such as vaccination, cancer, inflammation and other diseases. This review focuses on the understanding of specific characteristics exploited by PLGA-based nanoparticles to target a specific organ or tissue or specific cells.
Autores: Garbayo Atienza, Elisa; Ansorena Artieda, Eduardo; Blanco Prieto, María José
ISSN 1389-2010  Vol. 13  Nº 12  2012  págs. 2388 - 2402
Neurodegenerative disorders (NDs) are rapidly increasing as population ages. However, successful treatments for NDs have so far been limited and drug delivery to the brain remains one of the major challenges to overcome. There has recently been growing interest in the development of drug delivery systems (DDS) for local or systemic brain administration. DDS are able to improve the pharmacological and therapeutic properties of conventional drugs and reduce their side effects. The present review provides a concise overview of the recent advances made in the field of brain drug delivery for treating neurodegenerative disorders. Examples include polymeric micro and nanoparticles, lipidic nanoparticles, pegylated liposomes, microemulsions and nanogels that have been tested in experimental models of Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and Hungtinton's disease. Overall, the results reviewed here show that DDS have great potential for NDs treatment.
Autores: Garbayo Atienza, Elisa; Ansorena Artieda, Eduardo; Lanciego Pérez, José Luis; et al.
ISSN 0885-3185  Vol. 26  Nº 10  2011  págs. 1943 - 1947
Background: Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor is a survival factor for dopaminergic neurons and a promising candidate for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. However, the delivery issue of the protein to the brain still remains unsolved. Our aim was to investigate the effect of long-term delivery of encapsulated glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor within microspheres. Methods: A single dose of microspheres containing 2.5 mu g of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor was implanted intrastriatally in animals 2 weeks after a 6-hydroxydopamine lesion. Results: The amphetamine test showed a complete behavioral recovery after 16 weeks of treatment, which was maintained until the end of the study (week 30). This effect was accompanied by an increase in dopaminergic striatal terminals and neuroprotection of dopaminergic neurons. Conclusions: The main achievement was the long-term neurorestoration in parkinsonian animals induced by encapsulated glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor, suggesting that microspheres may be considered as a means to deliver glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor for Parkinson's disease treatment.
Autores: Ansorena Artieda, Eduardo; Garbayo Atienza, Elisa; Lanciego Pérez, José Luis; et al.
ISSN 0378-5173  Vol. 385  Nº 1-2  2010  págs. 6 - 11
The administration of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has emerged as a promising strategy for the treatment of several diseases of the nervous system as Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal cord injury and nerve regeneration as well as ocular diseases and drug addictions. A procedure for the purification of human recombinant glycosylated GDNF using a mammalian expression system as the source of the protein is discussed in the present paper. The neurotrophic factor was purified using cation exchange chromatography and gel filtration. A human cell line was chosen as the source of therapeutic protein, since a recombinant protein with a structure and glycosylation pattern equivalent to the native form is desirable for its prospective therapeutic utilization. The activity of the highly pure protein obtained was confirmed with a cell-based bioassay. The purified protein is suitable for its in vivo evaluation in animals and for possible subsequent clinical application.