Nuestros investigadores

Arantza Azpilicueta Lusarreta

Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: Alfaro, Carlos; et al.
Revista: CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH
ISSN 1078-0432  Vol. 22  Nº 15  2016  págs. 3924-36
BACKGROUND: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are considered an important T-cell immunosuppressive component in cancer-bearing hosts. The factors that attract these cells to the tumor microenvironment are poorly understood. IL-8 (CXCL8) is a potent chemotactic factor for neutrophils and monocytes. METHODS: MDSC were characterized and sorted by multicolor flow cytometry on ficoll-gradient isolated blood leucokytes from healthy volunteers (n=10) and advanced cancer patients (n=28). In chemotaxis assays, sorted granulocytic and monocytic MDSC were tested in response to recombinant IL-8, IL-8 derived from cancer cell lines and patient sera. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation was assessed by confocal microscopy, fluorimetry and time-lapse fluorescence confocal microscopy on short term MDSC cultures. RESULTS: IL-8 chemoattracts both granulocytic (GrMDSC) and monocytic (MoMDSC) human MDSC. Monocytic but not granulocytic MDSC exerted a suppressor activity on the proliferation of autologous T cells isolated from the circulation of cancer patients. IL-8 did not modify the T-cell suppressor activity of human MDSC. However, IL-8 induced the formation of NETs in the GrMDSC subset. CONCLUSIONS: IL-8 derived from tumors contributes to the chemotactic recruitment of MDSC and to their functional control.
Autores:  et al.
Revista: ONCOIMMUNOLOGY
ISSN 2162-4011  Vol. 5  Nº 1  2015  págs. e1062967
Hypoxia is a common feature in solid tumors that has been implicated in immune evasion. Previous studies from our group have shown that hypoxia upregulates the co-stimulatory receptor CD137 on activated T lymphocytes and on vascular endothelial cells. In this study, we show that exposure of mouse and human tumor cell lines to hypoxic conditions (1% O2) promotes CD137 transcription. However, the resulting mRNA is predominantly an alternatively spliced form that encodes for a soluble variant, lacking the transmembrane domain. Accordingly, soluble CD137 (sCD137) is detectable by ELISA in the supernatant of hypoxia-exposed cell lines and in the serum of tumor-bearing mice. sCD137, as secreted by tumor cells, is able to bind to CD137-Ligand (CD137L). Our studies on primed T lymphocytes in co-culture with stable transfectants for CD137L demonstrate that tumor-secreted sCD137 prevents co-stimulation of T lymphocytes. Such an effect results from preventing the interaction of CD137L with the transmembrane forms of CD137 expressed on T lymphocytes undergoing activation. Indeed, silencing CD137 with shRNA renders more immunogenic tumor-cell variants upon inoculation to immunocompetent mice but which readily grafted on immunodeficient or CD8+ T-cell-depleted mice. These mechanisms are interpreted as a molecular strategy deployed by tumors to repress lymphocyte co-stimulation via CD137/CD137L.
Autores: Melero, Ignacio Javier; et al.
Revista: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 9  Nº 1  2014  págs. e85432
The immune system poses obstacles to viral vectors, even in the first administration to preimmunized hosts. We have observed that the livers of B cell-deficient mice were more effectively transduced by a helper-dependent adenovirus serotype-5 (HDA) vector than those of WT mice. This effect was T-cell independent as shown in athymic mice. Passive transfer of the serum from adenovirus-naive WT to Rag1KO mice resulted in a reduction in gene transfer that was traced to IgM purified from serum of adenovirus-naive mice. To ascribe the gene transfer inhibition activity to either adenoviral antigen-specific or antigen-unspecific functions of IgM, we used a monoclonal IgM antibody of unrelated specificity. Both the polyclonal and the irrelevant monoclonal IgM inhibited gene transfer by the HDA vector to either cultured hepatocellular carcinoma cells or to the liver of mice in vivo. Adsorption of polyclonal or monoclonal IgMs to viral capsids was revealed by ELISAs on adenovirus-coated plates. These observations indicate the existence of an inborn IgM mechanism deployed against a prevalent virus to reduce early post-infection viremia. In conclusion, innate IgM binding to adenovirus serotype-5 capsids restrains gene-transfer and offers a mechanism to be targeted for optimization of vector dosage in gene therapy with HDA vectors.
Autores:  et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY
ISSN 0022-1767  Vol. 190  Nº 12  2013  págs. 6694 - 6706
Agonist anti-CD137 (4-1BB) mAbs enhance CD8-mediated antitumor immunity. Agonist anti-human CD137 mAbs binding to four distinct epitopes on the CD137 glycoprotein costimulated T cell activation irrespective of the engaged epitope or its interference with CD137L binding. CD137 perturbation with all these agonist mAbs resulted in Ag and Ab internalization toward an endosomal vesicular compartment. Internalization was observed in activated T lymphocytes from humans and mice, not only in culture but also in Ab-injected living animals. These in vivo experiments were carried out upon systemic i.v. injections with anti-CD137 mAbs and showed CD137 internalization in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and in activated human T cells transferred to immunodeficient mice. Efficient CD137 internalization required K63 polyubiquitination and endocytosed CD137-containing vesicles recruited TNFR-associated factor (TRAF) 2 and were decorated with K63 polyubiquitins. CD137 stimulation activates NF-¿B through a K63-linked polyubiquitination-dependent route, and CD137-associated TRAF2 becomes K63 polyubiquitinated. Consistent with a role for TRAF2 in CD137 signaling, transgenic mice functionally deficient in TRAF2 showed delayed immunotherapeutic activity of anti-CD137 mAbs. As a whole, these findings advance our knowledge of the mechanisms of action of anti-CD137 immunostimulatory mAbs such as those currently undergoing clinical trials in cancer patients.
Autores: Garasa, S.; et al.
Revista: THE JOURNAL OF INVESTIGATIVE DERMATOLOGY
ISSN 1523-1747  Vol. 133  Nº 9  2013  págs. 2276 - 2285
Dendritic cell (DC) transmigration across the lymphatic endothelium is critical for the initiation and sustenance of immune responses. Under noninflammatory conditions, DC transit across the lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) has been shown to be integrin independent. In contrast, there is increasing evidence for the participation of integrins and their ligands in DC transit across lymphatic endothelium under inflammation. In this sense, we describe the formation of ICAM-1 (CD54)-enriched three-dimensional structures on LEC/DC contacts, as these DCs adhere to inflamed skin lymphatic vessels and transmigrate into them. In vitro imaging revealed that under inflammation ICAM-1 accumulated on microvilli projections surrounding 60% of adhered DCs. In contrast, these structures were scarcely formed in noninflammatory conditions. Furthermore, ICAM-1-enriched microvilli were important in promoting DC transendothelial migration and DC crawling over the LEC surface. Microvilli formation was dependent on the presence of beta-integrins on the DC side and on integrin conformational affinity to ligand. Finally, we observed that LEC microvilli structures appeared in close vicinity of CCL21 depots and that their assembly was partially inhibited by CCL21-neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, under inflammatory conditions, integrin ligands form three-dimensional membrane projections around DCs. These structures offer docking sites for DC transit from the tissue toward the lymphatic vessel lumen.
Autores: Rodríguez, I.; et al.
Revista: CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH
ISSN 1078-0432  Vol. 19  Nº 22  2013  págs. 6151 - 6162
Purpose: Immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies (ISmAb) that unleash antitumor immune responses are showing efficacy in cancer clinical trials. Anti-B7-H1 (PD-L1) monoclonal antibodies (mAb) block a critical inhibitory pathway in T cells, whereas anti-CD137 and OX40 mAbs provide T-cell costimulation. A combination of these ISmAbs (anti-CD137 + anti-OX40 + anti-B7-H1) was tested using a transgenic mouse model of multifocal and rapidly progressing hepatocellular carcinoma, in which c-myc drives transformation and cytosolic ovalbumin (OVA) is expressed in tumor cells as a model antigen. Experimental Design: Flow-cytometry and immunohistochemistry were used to quantify tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) elicited by treatment and assess their activation status and cytolytic potential. Tolerance induction and its prevention/reversal by treatment with the combination of ISmAbs were revealed by in vivo killing assays. Results: The triple combination of ISmAbs extended survival of mice bearing hepatocellular carcinomas in a CD8-dependent fashion and synergized with adoptive T-cell therapy using activated OVA-specific TCR-transgenic OT-1 and OT-2 lymphocytes. Mice undergoing therapy showed clear increases in tumor infiltration by activated and blastic CD8(+) and CD4(+) T lymphocytes containing perforin/granzyme B and expressing the ISmAb-targeted receptors on their surface. The triple combination of ISmAbs did not result in enhanced OVA-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity but other antigens expressed by cell lines derived from such hepatocellular carcinomas were recognized by endogenous TILs. Adoptively transferred OVA-specific OT-1 lymphocytes into tumor-bearing mice were rendered tolerant, unless given the triple mAb therapy. Conclusion: Extension of survival and dense T-cell infiltrates emphasize the translational potential of combinational immunotherapy strategies for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Autores: Alfaro, Carlos; et al.
Revista: International Journal of Cancer (Print)
ISSN 0020-7136  Vol. 28  Nº 1  2011  págs. 105 - 118
Autores: Hervás, María Sandra; Riezu-Boj, José Ignacio; González, I; et al.
Revista: European Journal of Immunology
ISSN 0014-2980  Vol. 40  Nº 12  2010  págs. 3389 - 3402

ACTIVIDAD DOCENTE