Nuestros investigadores

Rafael Aldabe Arregui

Departamento

Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: Suárez Amarán, Lester; Usai, Carla; Di Scala, Marianna; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
ISSN 0168-8278  Vol. 67  Nº 4  2017  págs. 669 - 679
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Studying hepatitis delta virus (HDV) and developing new treatments is hampered by the limited availability of small animal models. Herein, a description of a robust mouse model of HDV infection that mimics several important characteristics of the human disease is presented. METHODS: HDV and hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication competent genomes were delivered to the mouse liver using adeno-associated viruses (AAV; AAV-HDV and AAV-HBV). Viral load, antigen expression and genomes were quantified at different time points after AAV injection. Furthermore, liver pathology, genome editing, and the activation of the innate immune response were evaluated. RESULTS: AAV-HDV infection initiated HDV replication in mouse hepatocytes. Genome editing was confirmed by the presence of small and large HDV antigens and sequencing. Viral replication was detected for 45days, even after the AAV-HDV vector had almost disappeared. In the presence of HBV, HDV infectious particles were detected in serum. Furthermore, as observed in patients, co-infection was associated with the reduction of HBV antigen expression and the onset of liver damage that included the alteration of genes involved in the development of liver pathologies. HDV replication induced a sustained type I interferon response, which was significantly reduced in immunodeficient mice and almost absent in mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS)-deficient mice. CONCLUSION: The animal model described here reproduces important characteristics of human HDV infection and provides a valuable tool for characterizing the viral infection and for developing new treatments. Furthermore, MAVS was identified as a main player in HDV detection and adaptive immunity was found to be involved in the amplification of the innate immune response. Lay summary: Co-infection with hepatitis B and D virus (HBV and HDV, respectively) often causes a more severe disease condition than HBV alone. Gaining more insight into HDV and developing new treatments is hampered by limited availability of adequate immune competent small animal models and new ones are needed. Here, a mouse model of HDV infection is described, which mimics several important characteristics of the human disease, such as the initiation and maintenance of replication in murine hepatocytes, genome editing and, in the presence of HBV, generation of infectious particles. Lastly, the involvement of an adaptive immunity and the intracellular signaling molecule MAVS in mounting a strong and lasting innate response was shown. Thus, our model serves as a useful tool for the investigation of HDV biology and new treatments.
Autores: Neri Valencia, Leyre; Lasa Ventura, Marta; Elosegui Artola, Alberto; et al.
Revista: ONCOTARGET
ISSN 1949-2553  Vol. 8  Nº 25  2017  págs.  40967-40981
The identification of new targets for systemic therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an urgent medical need. Recently, we showed that hNatB catalyzes the N-alpha-terminal acetylation of 15% of the human proteome and that this action is necessary for proper actin cytoskeleton structure and function. In tumors, cytoskeletal changes influence motility, invasion, survival, cell growth and tumor progression, making the cytoskeleton a very attractive antitumor target. Here, we show that hNatB subunits are upregulated in in over 59% HCC tumors compared to non-tumor tissue and that this upregulation is associated with microscopic vascular invasion. We found that hNatB silencing blocks proliferation and tumor formation in HCC cell lines in association with hampered DNA synthesis and impaired progression through the S and the G2/M phases. Growth inhibition is mediated by the degradation of two hNatB substrates, tropomyosin and CDK2, which occurs when these proteins lack N-alpha-terminal acetylation. In addition, hNatB inhibition disrupts the actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesions and tight/adherens junctions, abrogating two proliferative signaling pathways, Hippo/YAP and ERK1/2. Therefore, inhibition of NatB activity represents an interesting new approach to treating HCC by blocking cell proliferation and disrupting actin cytoskeleton function.
Autores: Gil Fariña, Irene; Di Scala, Marianna; Salido, E., ; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY
ISSN 0022-1767  Vol. 197  Nº 6  2016  págs. 2145 - 2156
The etiopathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) remains poorly understood. In this study, we sought to develop an animal model of human AIH to gain insight into the immunological mechanisms driving this condition. C57BL/6 mice were i.v. injected with adeno-associated viral vectors encodingmurine IL-12 or luciferase under the control of a liver-specific promoter. Organ histology, response to immunosuppressive therapy, and biochemical and immunological parameters, including Ag-specific humoral and cellular response, were analyzed. Mechanistic studies were carried out using genetically modified mice and depletion of lymphocyte subpopulations. Adeno-associated virus IL-12-treated mice developed histological, biochemical, and immunological changes resembling type 1 AIH, including marked and persistent liver mononuclear cell infiltration, hepatic fibrosis, hypergammaglobulinemia, antinuclear and anti-smooth muscle actin Abs, and disease remission with immunosuppressive drugs. Interestingly, transgenic IL-12 was short-lived, but endogenous IL-12 expression was induced, and both IL-12 and IFN-g remained elevated during the entire study period. IFN-g was identified as an essential mediator of liver damage, and CD4 and CD8 T cells but not NK, NKT, or B cells were essential executors of hepatic injury. Furthermore, both MHC class I and MHC class II expression was upregulated at the hepatocellular membrane, and induction of autoreactive liver-specific T cells was detected. Remarkably, although immunoregulatory mechanisms were activated, they only partially mitigated liver damage. Thus, low and transient expression of transgenic IL-12 in hepatocytes causes loss of tolerance to hepatocellular Ags, leading to chronic hepatitis resembling human AIH type 1. This model provides a practical tool to explore AIH pathogenesis and novel therapies.
Autores: Usai, Carla; Amaran, L. S. , ; Di Scala, Marianna; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
ISSN 0168-8278  Vol. 64  Nº 2, supl.  2016  págs. S385 - S386
Autores: Zabaleta Lasarte, Nerea; Moreno Luqui, Daniel; Kappel, C., ; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
ISSN 0168-8278  Vol. 64  Nº 2, supl.  2016  págs. S303
Background and Aims: Recombinant AAV transduction of postmitotic cells, such as hepatocytes, leads mainly to formation of episomal monomeric and concatameric circles or linear episomes, which assimilate into chromatin with a typical nucleosomal pattern. However in proliferating cells, nonintegrated viral genomes are instable and are lost soon upon proliferation of transduced cells. Integration of AAV vectors can occur in presence of a transcriptionally active or damaged genome. Therefore, the objective of this project was to analyze the integration of AAV vectors in presence or absence of genotoxic damage. Methods: To perform this study we have compare the integration profile of AAV genomes in the liver of mice after the administration into adult mice of an AAV vector expressing PBGD (the therapeutic vector for acute intermittent porphyria) or an AAV vector expressing Thymidine Kinase (TK) followed by Gancyclovir administration, which causes genotoxicity. Integration analysis was performed by the method called LAM-PCR. Results: Here we showed that when hepatocyte proliferation is induced by a genotoxic injury, AAV genomes are efficiently integrated. We found that while the percentage of AAV genome integration in the liver of AAV-PBGD treated mice is lower than 1% and 99% of the viral genomes remain episomal, in the case of the animals receiving AAV-TK in combination with Gancyclovir the situation is completely the opposite, with a percentage of integration higher than 99%. We analyzed the relative sequence count (which might act as marker for clonal outgrowth) of each exact mappable integration sites (IS) in relation to all sequences resembling concatemeric or proviral structures and we detected 13 IS with a high relative sequence count of >10%. The genes which is located nearby the IS with a high relative sequence count were determined by ingenuity pathway analyzing tools and found that they regulate different cellular functions. Conclusions: AAV genomes stay mainly forming episomal structures in absence of injury, but the 99% of these genomes integrate in the cellular DNA in presence of genotoxic damage. We are also able to determine the exact IS of the AAV genome.
Autores: Aldabe Arregui, Rafael; Suárez Amarán, Lester; Usai, Carla; et al.
Revista: PATHOGENS
ISSN 2076-0817  Vol. 4  Nº 1  2015  págs. 46 - 65
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a defective RNA virus that has an absolute requirement for a virus belonging to the hepadnaviridae family like hepatitis B virus (HBV) for its replication and formation of new virions. HDV infection is usually associated with a worsening of HBV-induced liver pathogenesis, which leads to more frequent cirrhosis, increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and fulminant hepatitis. Importantly, no selective therapies are available for HDV infection. The mainstay of treatment for HDV infection is pegylated interferon alpha; however, response rates to this therapy are poor. A better knowledge of HDV-host cell interaction will help with the identification of novel therapeutic targets, which are urgently needed. Animal models like hepadnavirus-infected chimpanzees or the eastern woodchuck have been of great value for the characterization of HDV chronic infection. Recently, more practical animal models in which to perform a deeper study of host virus interactions and to evaluate new therapeutic strategies have been developed. Therefore, the main focus of this review is to discuss the current knowledge about HDV host interactions obtained from cell culture and animal models.
Autores: Duret, C., ; Moreno Luqui, Daniel; Balasiddaiah, A., ; et al.
Revista: CELL TRANSPLANTATION
ISSN 0963-6897  Vol. 24  Nº 12  2015  págs. 2541 - 2555
Hepatocyte transplantation is a promising alternative therapy for the treatment of hepatic failure, hepatocellular deficiency, and genetic metabolic disorders. Hypothermic preservation of isolated human hepatocytes is potentially a simple and convenient strategy to provide on-demand hepatocytes in sufficient quantity and of the quality required for biotherapy. In this study, first we assessed how cold storage in three clinically safe preservative solutions (UW, HTS-FRS, and IGL-1) affects the viability and in vitro functionality of human hepatocytes. Then we evaluated whether such cold-preserved human hepatocytes could engraft and repopulate damaged livers in a mouse model of liver failure. Human hepatocytes showed comparable viabilities after cold preservation in the three solutions. The ability of fresh and cold-stored hepatocytes to attach to a collagen substratum and to synthesize and secrete albumin, coagulation factor VII, and urea in the medium after 3 days in culture was also equally preserved. Cold-stored hepatocytes were then transplanted in the spleen of immunodeficient mice previously infected with adenoviruses containing a thymidine kinase construct and treated with a single dose of ganciclovir to induce liver injury. Engraftment and liver repopulation were monitored over time by measuring the blood level of human albumin and by assessing the expression of specific human hepatic mRNAs and proteins in the recipient livers by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Our findings show that cold-stored human hepatocytes in IGL-1 and HTS-FRS preservative solutions can survive, engraft, and proliferate in a damaged mouse liver. These results demonstrate the usefulness of human hepatocyte hypothermic preservation for cell transplantation.
Autores: Larrea Leoz, María Esther; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Aldabe Arregui, Rafael; et al.
Revista: GUT
ISSN 0017-5749  Vol. 63  Nº 4  2014  págs. 665 - 673
Background IL-7 and IL-15 are produced by hepatocytes and are critical for the expansion and function of CD8 T cells. IL-15 needs to be presented by IL-15R¿ for efficient stimulation of CD8 T cells. Methods We analysed the hepatic levels of IL-7, IL-15, IL-15R¿ and interferon regulatory factors (IRF) in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) (78% genotype 1) and the role of IRF1 and IRF2 on IL-7 and IL-15R¿ expression in Huh7 cells with or without hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicon. Results Hepatic expression of both IL-7 and IL-15R¿, but not of IL-15, was reduced in CHC. These patients exhibited decreased hepatic IRF2 messenger RNA levels and diminished IRF2 staining in hepatocyte nuclei. We found that IRF2 controls basal expression of both IL-7 and IL-15R¿ in Huh7 cells. IRF2, but not IRF1, is downregulated in cells with HCV genotype 1b replicon and this was accompanied by decreased expression of IL-7 and IL-15R¿, a defect reversed by overexpressing IRF2. Treating Huh7 cells with IFN¿ plus oncostatin M increased IL-7 and IL-15R¿ mRNA more intensely than either cytokine alone. This effect was mediated by strong upregulation of IRF1 triggered by the combined treatment. Induction of IRF1, IL-7 and IL-15R¿ by IFN¿ plus oncostatin M was dampened in replicon cells but the combination was more effective than either cytokine alone. Conclusions HCV genotype 1 infection downregulates IRF2 in hepatocytes attenuating hepatocellular expression of IL-7 and IL-15R¿. Our data reveal a new mechanism by which HCV abrogates specific T-cell responses and point to a novel therapeutic approach to stimulate anti-HCV immunity.
Autores: Larrea Leoz, María Esther; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Aldabe Arregui, Rafael; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
ISSN 0168-8278  Vol. 60  Nº 3  2014  págs. 482 - 489
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Oncostatin M (OSM) is an inflammatory cytokine which interacts with a heterodimeric receptor formed by gp130 and either OSMRß or LIFR. Here we have analysed OSM and its receptors in livers with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and studied the factors that regulate this system. METHODS: OSM, OSM receptors and OSM-target molecules were studied by immunohistochemistry and/or qPCR analysis in livers from CHC patients and controls. We determined the production of OSM by CD40L-stimulated antigen presenting cells (APC) and its biological effects on HuH7 cells containing HCV replicon (HuH7 Core-3'). RESULTS: OSM was upregulated in livers with CHC and its production was mapped to CD11c+ cells. OSM levels correlated directly with inflammatory activity and CD40L expression. In vitro studies showed that OSM is released by APC upon interaction with activated CD4+ T cells in a CD40L-dependent manner. Culture of HuH7 Core-3' cells with supernatant from CD40L-stimulated APC repressed HCV replication and induced IL-7 and IL-15R¿. These effects were dampened by antibodies blocking OSM or gp130 and by silencing OSMRß. In CHC livers OSMRß and LIFR were significantly downregulated and their values correlated with those of OSM-induced molecules. Experiments in HuH7 cells showed that impaired STAT3 signaling and exposure to TGFß1, two findings in CHC, are factors involved in repressing OSMRß and LIFR, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: OSM is a cytokine possessing vigorous antiviral and immunostimulatory properties which is released by APC upon interaction with CD40L present on activated CD4+ T cells. In livers with CHC, OSM is overexpressed but its biological activity appears to be hampered because of downregulation of its receptor subunits.
Autores: Elosegui-Artola, A., ; Jorge-Peñas, A., ; Moreno-Arotzena, O., ; et al.
Revista: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 9  Nº 9  2014  págs. e107393
Actin stress fibers (SFs) detect and transmit forces to the extracellular matrix through focal adhesions (FAs), and molecules in this pathway determine cellular behavior. Here, we designed two different computational tools to quantify actin SFs and the distribution of actin cytoskeletal proteins within a normalized cellular morphology. Moreover, a systematic cell response comparison between the control cells and those with impaired actin cytoskeleton polymerization was performed to demonstrate the reliability of the tools. Indeed, a variety of proteins that were present within the string beginning at the focal adhesions (vinculin) up to the actin SFs contraction (non-muscle myosin II (NMMII)) were analyzed. Finally, the software used allows for the quantification of the SFs based on the relative positions of FAs. Therefore, it provides a better insight into the cell mechanics and broadens the knowledge of the nature of SFs.
Autores: Balasiddaiah, A., ; Moreno Luqui, Daniel; Guembe Echarri, Laura; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
ISSN 1138-7548  Vol. 69  Nº 4  2013  págs. 835 - 845
Hepatocyte transplantation is considered a promising therapy for patients with liver diseases. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are an unlimited source for the generation of functional hepatocytes. While several protocols that direct the differentiation of iPSCs into hepatocyte-like cells have already been reported, the liver engraftment potential of iPSC progeny obtained at each step of hepatic differentiation has not yet been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we present an efficient strategy to differentiate mouse iPSCs into hepatocyte-like cells and evaluate their liver engraftment potential at different time points of the protocol (5, 10, 15, and 20 days of differentiation). iPSCs were differentiated in the presence of cytokines, growth factors, and small molecules to finally generate hepatocyte-like cells. These iPSC-derived hepatocyte-like cells exhibited hepatocyte-associated functions, such as albumin secretion and urea synthesis. When we transplanted iPSC progeny into the spleen, we found that 15- and 20-day iPSC progeny engrafted into the livers and further acquired hepatocyte morphology. In contrast, 5- and 10-day iPSC progeny were also able to engraft but did not generate hepatocyte-like cells in vivo. Our data may aid in improving current protocols geared towards the use of iPSCs as a new source of liver-targeted cell therapies.
Autores: Moreno Luqui, Daniel; Balasiddaiah, A., ; Duret, C., ; et al.
Revista: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 8  Nº 9  2013  págs. e74948
It has been shown that the liver of immunodeficient mice can be efficiently repopulated with human hepatocytes when subjected to chronic hepatocellular damage. Mice with such chimeric livers represent useful reagents for medical and clinical studies. However all previously reported models of humanized livers are difficult to implement as they involve cross-breeding of immunodeficient mice with mice exhibiting genetic alterations causing sustained hepatic injury. In this paper we attempted to create chimeric livers by inducing persistent hepatocellular damage in immunodeficient Rag2(-/-) gamma c(-/-) mice using an adenovirus encoding herpes virus thymidine kinase (AdTk) and two consecutive doses of ganciclovir (GCV). We found that this treatment resulted in hepatocellular damage persisting for at least 10 weeks and enabled efficient engraftment and proliferation within the liver of either human or allogenic hepatocytes. Interestingly, while the nodules generated from the transplanted mouse hepatocytes were well vascularized, the human hepatocytes experienced progressive depolarization and exhibited reduced numbers of murine endothelial cells inside the nodules. In conclusion, AdTk/GCV-induced liver damage licenses the liver of immunodeficient mice for allogenic and xenogenic hepatocyte repopulation. This approach represents a simple alternative strategy for chimeric liver generation using immunodeficient mice without additional genetic manipulation of the germ line.
Autores: Van Damme, P., ; Lasa Ventura, Marta; Polevoda, B., ; et al.
Revista: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
ISSN 0027-8424  Vol. 109  Nº 31  2012  págs. 12449 - 12454
Protein N-terminal acetylation (Nt-acetylation) is an important mediator of protein function, stability, sorting, and localization. Although the responsible enzymes are thought to be fairly well characterized, the lack of identified in vivo substrates, the occurrence of Nt-acetylation substrates displaying yet uncharacterized N-terminal acetyltransferase (NAT) specificities, and emerging evidence of posttranslational Nt-acetylation, necessitate the use of genetic models and quantitative proteomics. NatB, which targets Met-Glu-, Met-Asp-, and Met-Asn-starting protein N termini, is presumed to Nt-acetylate 15% of all yeast and 18% of all human proteins. We here report on the evolutionary traits of NatB from yeast to human and demonstrate that ectopically expressed hNatB in a yNatB-Delta yeast strain partially complements the natB-Delta phenotypes and partially restores the yNatB Nt-acetylome. Overall, combining quantitative N-terminomics with yeast studies and knockdown of hNatB in human cell lines, led to the unambiguous identification of 180 human and 110 yeast NatB substrates. Interestingly, these substrates included Met-Gln- N-termini, which are thus now classified as in vivo NatB substrates. We also demonstrate the requirement of hNatB activity for maintaining the structure and function of actomyosin fibers and for proper cellular migration. In addition, expression of tropomyosin-1 restored the altered focal adhesions and cellular migration defects observed in hNatB-depleted HeLa cells, indicative for the conserved link between NatB, tropomyosin, and actin cable function from yeast to human.
Autores: Molina-Jimenez, F; Benedicto, I; Dao Thi, VL; et al.
Revista: VIROLOGY
ISSN 0042-6822  Vol. 1  Nº 425  2012  págs. 31 - 39
Hepatocytes are highly polarized cells where intercellular junctions, including tight junctions (TJs), determine the polarity. Recently, the TJ-associated proteins claudin-1 and occludin have been implicated in hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry and spread. Nevertheless, cell line-based experimental systems that exhibit hepatocyte-like polarity and permit robust infection and virion production are not currently available. Thus, we sought to determine whether cell line-based, Matrigel-embedded cultures could be used to study hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and virion production in a context of hepatocyte-like polarized cells. In contrast to standard bidimensional cultures, Matrigel-cultured Huh-7 cells adopted hepatocyte polarization features forming a continuous network of functional proto-bile canaliculi structures. These 3D cultures supported HCV infection by JFH-1 virus and produced infective viral particles which shifted towards lower densities with higher associated specific infectivity. In conclusion, our findings describe a novel use of Matrigel to study the entire HCV cycle in a more relevant context.
Autores: Van Damme, P; Lasa Ventura, Marta; Polevoda, B; et al.
Revista: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
ISSN 0027-8424  Vol. 109  Nº 31  2012  págs. 12449 - 12454
Protein N-terminal acetylation (Nt-acetylation) is an important mediator of protein function, stability, sorting, and localization. Although the responsible enzymes are thought to be fairly well characterized, the lack of identified in vivo substrates, the occurrence of Nt-acetylation substrates displaying yet uncharacterized N-terminal acetyltransferase (NAT) specificities, and emerging evidence of posttranslational Nt-acetylation, necessitate the use of genetic models and quantitative proteomics. NatB, which targets Met-Glu-, Met-Asp-, and Met-Asn-starting protein N termini, is presumed to Nt-acetylate 15% of all yeast and 18% of all human proteins. We here report on the evolutionary traits of NatB from yeast to human and demonstrate that ectopically expressed hNatB in a yNatB-Delta yeast strain partially complements the natB-Delta phenotypes and partially restores the yNatB Nt-acetylome. Overall, combining quantitative N-terminomics with yeast studies and knockdown of hNatB in human cell lines, led to the unambiguous identification of 180 human and 110 yeast NatB substrates. Interestingly, these substrates included Met-Gln- N-termini, which are thus now classified as in vivo NatB substrates. We also demonstrate the requirement of hNatB activity for maintaining the structure and function of actomyosin fibers and for proper cellular migration. In addition, expression of tropomyosin-1 restored the altered focal adhesions and cellular migration defects observed in hNatB-depleted HeLa cells, indicative for the conserved link between NatB, tropomyosin, and actin cable function from yeast to human.
Autores: Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Larrea Leoz, María Esther; Aldabe Arregui, Rafael; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY
ISSN 0168-8278  Vol. 54  Nº 3  2011  págs. 422 - 431
Autores: Moreno Luqui, Daniel; Neri Valencia, Leyre; Vicente Cajal, Eva; et al.
Libro:  Hepatocyte Transplantation: Methods and protocols
2017  págs. 179 - 192